Security

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General

See also Cryptography


to do; clear up mess



  • The cypherpunk revolution - How the tech vanguard turned public-key cryptography into one of the most potent political ideas of the 21st century. [1]




  • EZCrypt - We provide you with the power to encrypt the data BEFORE it gets stored on our site. All encryption/decryption is done on the client end using AES-CBC 128bit with a hash key generated on each paste. The server will only store the encrypted data without the hash key, so only you have the power to decrypt it.
  • Gitian is a secure source-control oriented software distribution method. This means you can download trusted binaries that are verified by multiple builders.




Resources

  • id0-rsa - Below are some problems related to computer security (specifically poorly implemented security). Do Them. You are free to use any language and environment you like to complete them. The problems require familiarity with programming, but not necessarily with applied cryptography or computer security in general. An understanding of how some of the algorithms and tools in the problems work will be of use, so as a starting point you can find some resources to help you begin here. If this topic is new to you, you may want to start with the Tutorial Problems.
  • OverTheWire: Wargames - The wargames offered by the OverTheWire community can help you to learn and practice security concepts in the form of fun-filled games.
  • Codebashing - Game-like AppSec Training for Enterprise Developers


  • Darknet - a group of like-minded individuals founded around 1999 sharing knowledge in password cracking, cracking, cryptography, programming (C++, VB, Delphi, C, Pascal, Assembly, Python, PERL, Bash and so on), network security, Linux, Windows, UNIX and more.
  • SANS Internet Storm Center - created in 2001 following the successful detection, analysis, and widespread warning of the Li0n worm. Today, the ISC provides a free analysis and warning service to thousands of Internet users and organizations, and is actively working with Internet Service Providers to fight back against the most malicious attackers.


  • ForensicsWiki - a Creative Commons-licensed wiki devoted to information about digital forensics (also known as computer forensics).



  • SANS Information Security Policy Templates - a consensus research project of the SANS community. The ultimate goal of the project is to offer everything you need for rapid development and implementation of information security policies. You'll find a great set of resources posted here already, including policy templates for twenty-seven important security requirements.

News

Articles

RNG

Passwords

Articles

Software

Keepass

Use KeePassXC.



  • KeePassX - an application for people with extremly high demands on secure personal data management. It has a light interface, is cross platform and published under the terms of the GNU General Public License. KeePassX saves many different information e.g. user names, passwords, urls, attachments and comments in one single database. For a better management user-defined titles and icons can be specified for each single entry. Furthermore the entries are sorted in groups, which are customizable as well. The integrated search function allows to search in a single group or the complete database.

KeePassX offers a little utility for secure password generation. The password generator is very customizable, fast and easy to use. Especially someone who generates passwords frequently will appreciate this feature. Qt

The complete database is always encrypted either with AES (alias Rijndael) or Twofish encryption algorithm using a 256 bit key. Therefore the saved information can be considered as quite safe. KeePassX uses a database format that is compatible with KeePass Password Safe. This makes the use of that application even more favourable. Originally KeePassX was called KeePass/L for Linux since it was a port of Windows password manager Keepass Password Safe. After KeePass/L became a cross platform application the name was not appropriate anymore and therefore, on 22 March 2006 it has been changed.


  • KeePassXC - a community fork of KeePassX, the cross-platform port of KeePass for Windows. Every feature works cross-platform and was thoroughly tested on multiple systems to provide users with the same look and feel on every supported operating system. This includes the beloved Auto-Type feature. KeePassX is an amazing password manager, but hasn't seen much active development for quite a while. Many good pull requests were never merged and the original project is missing some features which users can expect from a modern password manager. Hence, we decided to fork KeePassX to continue its development and provide you with everything you love about KeePassX plus many new features and bugfixes. [10]


Other



  • Enpass - password manager for iOS, Android, Windows, Linux, Mac



  • Pass: The Standard Unix Password Manager - each password lives inside of a gpg encrypted file whose filename is the title of the website or resource that requires the password. These encrypted files may be organized into meaningful folder hierarchies, copied from computer to computer, and, in general, manipulated using standard command line file management utilities.

pass makes managing these individual password files extremely easy. All passwords live in ~/.password-store, and pass provides some nice commands for adding, editing, generating, and retrieving passwords. It is a very short and simple shell script. It's capable of temporarily putting passwords on your clipboard and tracking password changes using git.

You can edit the password store using ordinary unix shell commands alongside the pass command. There are no funky file formats or new paradigms to learn. There is bash completion so that you can simply hit tab to fill in names and commands, as well as completion for zsh and fish available in the completion folder. The very active community has produced many impressive clients and GUIs for other platforms as well as extensions for pass itself.

Services

Hardware

Multi-factor



Cracking

Windows

  • Ophcrack - a free Windows password cracker based on rainbow tables. It is a very efficient implementation of rainbow tables done by the inventors of the method. It comes with a Graphical User Interface and runs on multiple platforms.

Proxy

Server

See also Distros, *nix#Permissions

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardening_(computing) - the process of securing a system by reducing its surface of vulnerability, which is larger when a system performs more functions; in principle a single-function system is more secure than a multipurpose one. Reducing available ways of attack typically includes changing default passwords, the removal of unnecessary software, unnecessary usernames or logins, and the disabling or removal of unnecessary services.

There are various methods of hardening Unix and Linux systems. This may involve, among other measures, applying a patch to the kernel such as Exec Shield or PaX; closing open network ports; and setting up intrusion-detection systems, firewalls and intrusion-prevention systems. There are also hardening scripts and tools like Lynis, Bastille Linux, JASS for Solaris systems and Apache/PHP Hardener that can, for example, deactivate unneeded features in configuration files or perform various other protective measures.

Hardening activities include:

  • Keeping security patches updated
  • Installing firewall
  • Closing certain ports
  • Not allowing file sharing among programs
  • Installing virus and spyware protection
  • Using containers or virtual machines
  • Creating strong passwords
  • Keeping a backup
  • Disabling cookies
  • Using encryption when possible


  • Linux Audit - The Linux security blog about Auditing, Hardening, and Compliance


cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail
  • haveged - an attempt to provide an easy-to-use, unpredictable random number generator based upon an adaptation of the HAVEGE algorithm. Haveged was created to remedy low-entropy conditions in the Linux random device that can occur under some workloads, especially on headless servers. Current development of haveged is directed towards improving overall reliablity and adaptability while minimizing the barriers to using haveged for other tasks.

Linux Security Modules

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_Security_Modules - a framework that allows the Linux kernel to support a variety of computer security models while avoiding favoritism toward any single security implementation. The framework is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License and is standard part of the Linux kernel since Linux 2.6. AppArmor, SELinux, Smack, TOMOYO Linux and Yama are the currently accepted modules in the official kernel.

grsecurity

==== TOMOYO Linux ====ai

AppArmor

SELinux

Sandboxing

See also Virtualisation

  • User-Mode Linux - a safe, secure way of running Linux versions and Linux processes. Run buggy software, experiment with new Linux kernels or distributions, and poke around in the internals of Linux, all without risking your main Linux setup.

User-Mode Linux gives you a virtual machine that may have more hardware and software virtual resources than your actual, physical computer. Disk storage for the virtual machine is entirely contained inside a single file on your physical machine. You can assign your virtual machine only the hardware access you want it to have. With properly limited access, nothing you do on the virtual machine can change or damage your real computer, or its software.


Firejail

  • Firejail - a SUID program that reduces the risk of security breaches by restricting the running environment of untrusted applications using Linux namespaces and seccomp-bpf. It allows a process and all its descendants to have their own private view of the globally shared kernel resources, such as the network stack, process table, mount table. Written in C with virtually no dependencies, the software runs on any Linux computer with a 3.x kernel version or newer. The sandbox is lightweight, the overhead is low. There are no complicated configuration files to edit, no socket connections open, no daemons running in the background. All security features are implemented directly in Linux kernel and available on any Linux computer. The program is released under GPL v2 license. Firejail can sandbox any type of processes: servers, graphical applications, and even user login sessions. The software includes security profiles for a large number of Linux programs: Mozilla Firefox, Chromium, VLC, Transmission etc. To start the sandbox, prefix your command with “firejail”.

bubblewrap

  • https://github.com/projectatomic/bubblewrap - Many container runtime tools like systemd-nspawn, docker, etc. focus on providing infrastructure for system administrators and orchestration tools (e.g. Kubernetes) to run containers. These tools are not suitable to give to unprivileged users, because it is trivial to turn such access into to a fully privileged root shell on the host. Bubblewrap could be viewed as setuid implementation of a subset of user namespaces. Emphasis on subset - specifically relevant superset CVEs, bubblewrap does not allow control over iptables. The original bubblewrap code existed before user namespaces - it inherits code from xdg-app helper which in turn distantly derives from linux-user-chroot.

Firewalls

Firewalld

  • Firewalld - provides a dynamically managed firewall with support for network/firewall zones that define the trust level of network connections or interfaces. It has support for IPv4, IPv6 firewall settings, ethernet bridges and IP sets. There is a separation of runtime and permanent configuration options. It also provides an interface for services or applications to add firewall rules directly. With the firewalld D-Bus interface it is simple for services, applications and also users to adapt firewall settings. The interface is complete and is used for the firewall configuration tools firewall-cmd, firewallctl, firewall-config and firewall-applet.


Uncomplicated Firewall


  • Gufw - a firewall powered by UFW (Uncomplicated Firewall). For an overview of firewalls, please see Firewall.

Shorewall

  • Shorewall - a gateway/firewall configuration tool for GNU/Linux. iptables made easy.


pfSense

  • pfSense - a free, open source customized distribution of FreeBSD specifically tailored for use as a firewall and router that is entirely managed via web interface. In addition to being a powerful, flexible firewalling and routing platform, it includes a long list of related features and a package system allowing further expandability without adding bloat and potential security vulnerabilities to the base distribution. The pfSense project was started in September 2004 by Chris Buechler and Scott Ullrich, with a growing development team. Chris is a long time contributor to the m0n0wall project. m0n0wall is a great embedded firewall, but one of the great things about its design is also a limitation to expandability.

OPNsense

  • OPNsense - an open source, easy-to-use and easy-to-build FreeBSD based firewall and routing platform. OPNsense includes most of the features available in expensive commercial firewalls, and more in many cases. It brings the rich feature set of commercial offerings with the benefits of open and verifiable sources. OPNsense started as a fork of pfSense® and m0n0wall in 2014, with its first official release in January 2015. The project has evolved very quickly while still retaining familiar aspects of both m0n0wall and pfSense. A strong focus on security and code quality drives the development of the project.


Zeroshell

  • Zeroshell - a small open-source Linux distribution for servers and embedded systems which aims to provide network services. Its administration relies on a web-based graphical interface; no shell is needed to administer and configure it. Zeroshell is available as Live CD and CompactFlash images, and VMware virtual machines.

Smoothwall Express

  • Smoothwall Express - a Free firewall that includes its own security-hardened GNU/Linux operating system and an easy-to-use web interface. Supports LAN, DMZ, and Wireless networks, plus Extrnal. External connectivity via: Static Ethernet, DHCP Ethernet, PPPoE, PPPoA using various USB and PCI DSL modems. Portforwards, DMZ pin-holes. Outbound filtering. Timed access. Simple to use Quality-of-Service (QoS). Traffic stats, including per interface and per IP totals for weeks and months. IDS via automatically updated Snort rules. UPnP support. List of bad IP addresses to block. Web proxy for accelerated browsing. POP3 email proxy with Anti-Virus. IM proxy with realtime log viewing. Responsive web interface using AJAX techniques to provide realtime information. Realtime traffic graphs.

IPFire

  • IPFire - the professional and hardened Linux firewall distribution that is secure, easy to operate and coming with great functionality so that it is ready for enterprises, authorities, and anybody else. IPFire was designed with both modularity and a high-level of flexibility in mind. You can easily deploy many variations of it, such as a firewall, a proxy server or a VPN gateway. IPFire employs a Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) firewall, which is built on top of netfilter (the Linux packet filtering framework). With IPFire 2.15, the graphical user interface has been completely rewritten and massively extended with new functionality. It is now possible to manage groups of hosts or services. That makes it simpler to create many similar rules for a great number of hosts, networks or services.

IPCop Firewall

  • IPCop Firewall is a Linux firewall distribution. It is geared towards home and SOHO users. The IPCop web-interface is very user-friendly and makes usage easy.


Endian Firewall Community

  • Endian Firewall Community - EFW, a "turn-key" linux security distribution that makes your system a full featured security appliance with Unified Threat Management (UTM) functionalities. The software has been designed for the best usability: very easy to install, use and manage and still greatly flexible. The feature suite includes stateful packet inspection firewall, application-level proxies for various protocols (HTTP, FTP, POP3, SMTP) with antivirus support, virus and spam-filtering for email traffic (POP and SMTP), content filtering of Web traffic and a "hassle free" VPN solution (based on both OpenVPN and IPsec).

Untangle NG Firewall

  • Untangle NG Firewall - takes the complexity out of network security—saving you time, money and frustration. Get everything you need in a single, modular platform that fits the evolving needs of your organization without the headaches of multiple point solutions. Enjoy the flexibility to deploy Untangle’s award-winning NG Firewall software on third party hardware, as a virtual machine, or as a turnkey appliance.

Leopard Flower personal firewall

  • https://github.com/themighty1/lpfw - Leopard Flower personal firewall for Linux gives the user control over which applications are allowed to use the network. It comes with a GUI.

FireHOL

  • FireHOL - a language (and a program to run it) which builds secure, stateful firewalls from easy to understand, human-readable configurations. The configurations stay readable even for very complex setups. FireQOS is a program which sets up traffic shaping from an easy-to-understand and flexible configuration file. Both programs abstract away the differences between IPv4 and IPv6. so you can concentrate on the rules you want. You can apply rules for IPv4 or IPv6, or both, as you need.

Firewall Builder

  • Firewall Builder - makes it easy to configure your firewalls. Our application is trusted by thousands of users to help them manage their production firewalls. With features like shared objects, drag-and-drop GUI, and search-and-replace, tasks that used to be time-consuming and frustrating are now simple and straightforward. Firewall Builder supports a wide range of firewall platforms, including Cisco ASA & PIX, Linux iptables, BSD pf and many more. The easy-to-use GUI, multiple platform support, and make-it-easy features let you forget about typing commands and instead focus on what traffic your firewall policies should allow or deny.

csf / lfd

csf -r
  # restart CSF

csf -d 192.18.1.100
  # quick deny an ip

csf -d 192.18.1.0/24
  # deny access from an ip range

csf -dr xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
  # remove from the deny list

csf -a xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
  # quick allow / whitelist an ip (bypass auto blocking)

csf -ar xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
  # remove ip from whitelist


OpenSnitch

  • OpenSnitch - a GNU/Linux port of the Little Snitch application firewall.

PeerGuardian

  • PeerGuardian - a privacy oriented firewall application. It blocks connections to and from hosts specified in huge blocklists (thousands or millions of IP ranges). Its origin seeds in targeting aggressive IPs while you use P2P.PeerGuardian Linux:Actively developed. However the team is very small and with few spare time. Contributors are welcome!


TinyWall

  • TinyWall - free software to harden and control the advanced firewall built into modern Windows systems.

Port knocking

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_knocking - a method of externally opening ports on a firewall by generating a connection attempt on a set of prespecified closed ports. Once a correct sequence of connection attempts is received, the firewall rules are dynamically modified to allow the host which sent the connection attempts to connect over specific port(s). A variant called single packet authorization exists, where only a single "knock" is needed, consisting of an encrypted packet. The primary purpose of port knocking is to prevent an attacker from scanning a system for potentially exploitable services by doing a port scan, because unless the attacker sends the correct knock sequence, the protected ports will appear closed.


Auditing

LSAT

  • LSAT - a post install security auditor for Linux/Unix. It checks many system configurations and local network settings on the system for common security/config errors and for packages that are not needed. It (for now) works under Linux (x86: Gentoo, RedHat, Debian, Mandrake; Sparc: SunOS (2.x), Redhat sparc, Mandrake Sparc; Apple OS X)

Lynis

  • Lynis - a battle-tested security tool for systems running Linux, macOS, or Unix-based operating system. It performs an extensive health scan of your systems to support system hardening and compliance testing. The project is open source software with the GPL license and available since 2007.

Intrusion detection / integrity verification

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intrusion_detection_system - a device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations. Any malicious activity or violation is typically reported either to an administrator or collected centrally using a security information and event management (SIEM) system. A SIEM system combines outputs from multiple sources, and uses alarm filtering techniques to distinguish malicious activity from false alarms.

While there are several types of IDS, ranging in scope from single computers to large networks,[1]. the most common classifications are network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) and host-based intrusion detection systems (HIDS). A system that monitors important operating system files is an example of a HIDS, while a system that analyzes incoming network traffic is an example of a NIDS. It is also possible to classify IDS by detection approach: the most well-known variants are signature-based detection (recognizing bad patterns, such as malware) and anomaly-based detection (detecting deviations from a model of "good" traffic, which often relies on machine learning). Some IDS have the ability to respond to detected intrusions. Systems with response capabilities are typically referred to as an intrusion prevention system.


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-based_intrusion_detection_system - an intrusion detection system that is capable of monitoring and analyzing the internals of a computing system as well as the network packets on its network interfaces, similar to the way a network-based intrusion detection system (NIDS) operates.[1] This was the first type of intrusion detection software to have been designed, with the original target system being the mainframe computer where outside interaction was infrequent.


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anomaly-based_intrusion_detection_system - an intrusion detection system for detecting both network and computer intrusions and misuse by monitoring system activity and classifying it as either normal or anomalous. The classification is based on heuristics or rules, rather than patterns or signatures, and attempts to detect any type of misuse that falls out of normal system operation. This is as opposed to signature-based systems, which can only detect attacks for which a signature has previously been created.


  • Intrusion Detection - This section will deal with how to get early warning, how to be alerted after the fact, and how to clean up from intrusion attempts.


Fail2ban

  • fail2ban - scans log files (e.g. /var/log/apache/error_log) and bans IPs that show the malicious signs -- too many password failures, seeking for exploits, etc. Generally Fail2Ban is then used to update firewall rules to reject the IP addresses for a specified amount of time, although any arbitrary other action (e.g. sending an email) could also be configured. Out of the box Fail2Ban comes with filters for various services (apache, courier, ssh, etc).Fail2Ban is able to reduce the rate of incorrect authentications attempts however it cannot eliminate the risk that weak authentication presents. Configure services to use only two factor or public/private authentication mechanisms if you really want to protect services.


Snort

Samhain

  • samhain - host-based intrusion detection system (HIDS) provides file integrity checking and log file monitoring/analysis, as well as rootkit detection, port monitoring, detection of rogue SUID executables, and hidden processes. Samhain been designed to monitor multiple hosts with potentially different operating systems, providing centralized logging and maintenance, although it can also be used as standalone application on a single host. Samhain is an open-source multiplatform application for POSIX systems (Unix, Linux, Cygwin/Windows).

Nikto2

  • Nikto2 - an Open Source (GPL) web server scanner which performs comprehensive tests against web servers for multiple items, including over 6700 potentially dangerous files/programs, checks for outdated versions of over 1250 servers, and version specific problems on over 270 servers. It also checks for server configuration items such as the presence of multiple index files, HTTP server options, and will attempt to identify installed web servers and software. Scan items and plugins are frequently updated and can be automatically updated.

Tiger

  • Tiger - a security tool that can be use both as a security audit and intrusion detection system. It supports multiple UNIX platforms and it is free and provided under a GPL license. Unlike other tools, Tiger needs only of POSIX tools and is written entirely in shell language. Tiger has some interesting features that merit its resurrection, including a modular design that is easy to expand, and its double edge, it can be used as an audit tool and a host intrusion detection system tool. Free Software intrusion detection is currently going many ways, from network IDS (with Snort), to the kernel (LIDS, or SNARE for Linux and Systrace for OpenBSD, for example), not mentioning file integrity checkers (many of these: aide, integrit samhain, tripwire...) and logcheckers. But few of them focus on the host-side of intrusion detection fully. Tiger complements this tools and also provides a framework in which all of them can work together. Tiger it is not a logchecker, nor it focused in integrity analysis. It does "the other stuff", it checks the system configuration and status. Read the manpage for a full description of checks implemented in Tiger. A good example of what Tiger can do is, for example, check_findeleted, a module that can determine which network servers running in a system are using deleted files (because libraries were patched during an upgrade but the server's services not restarted).

Tripwire

Rootkit Hunter

chkrootkit

  • chkrootkit - locally checks for signs of a rootkit

AIDE

  • AIDE - Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment, a file and directory integrity checker. It creates a database from the regular expression rules that it finds from the config file(s). Once this database is initialized it can be used to verify the integrity of the files. It has several message digest algorithms (see below) that are used to check the integrity of the file. All of the usual file attributes can also be checked for inconsistencies. It can read databases from older or newer versions. See the manual pages within the distribution for further info.

Shells

Limited


Honeypots

Vulnerabilities

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulnerability_(computing) - a weakness which allows an attacker to reduce a system's information assurance. Vulnerability is the intersection of three elements: a system susceptibility or flaw, attacker access to the flaw, and attacker capability to exploit the flaw. To exploit a vulnerability, an attacker must have at least one applicable tool or technique that can connect to a system weakness. In this frame, vulnerability is also known as the attack surface.








Rooting


Scanning

OpenVAS

  • OpenVAS - OpenVAS - Open Vulnerability Assessment System - a framework of several services and tools offering a comprehensive and powerful vulnerability scanning and vulnerability management solution. The framework is part of Greenbone Networks' commercial vulnerability management solution from which developments are contributed to the Open Source community since 2009.

Nessus

  • Nessus Professional™ Vulnerability Scanner - deployed by millions of users worldwide to identify vulnerabilities, policy-violating configurations and malware that attackers use to penetrate your or your customer's network.


HackerTarget.com

  • HackerTarget.com - Simplify the security assessment process with hosted vulnerability scanners


Shodan

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shodan_(website) - a search engine that lets the user find specific types of computers (webcams, routers, servers, etc.) connected to the internet using a variety of filters. Some have also described it as a search engine of service banners, which are metadata that the server sends back to the client. This can be information about the server software, what options the service supports, a welcome message or anything else that the client can find out before interacting with the server.

Cookies

Virus


Web



OWASP

  • https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Main_Page Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is a 501(c)(3) worldwide not-for-profit charitable organization focused on improving the security of software. Our mission is to make software security visible, so that individuals and organizations worldwide can make informed decisions about true software security risks.

Fingerprinting

Testing

See Network, Development#Testing


Metasploit


Web

  • w3af is a Web Application Attack and Audit Framework. The project's goal is to create a framework to find and exploit web application vulnerabilities that is easy to use and extend.

DB

  • sqlmap is an open source penetration testing tool that automates the process of detecting and exploiting SQL injection flaws and taking over of database servers. It comes with a powerful detection engine, many niche features for the ultimate penetration tester and a broad range of switches lasting from database fingerprinting, over data fetching from the database, to accessing the underlying file system and executing commands on the operating system via out-of-band connections.

Burp

Inception

  • Inception is a FireWire physical memory manipulation and hacking tool exploiting IEEE 1394 SBP-2 DMA. The tool can unlock (any password accepted) and escalate privileges to Administrator/root on almost any powered on machine you have physical access to. The tool can attack over FireWire, Thunderbolt, ExpressCard, PC Card and any other PCI/PCIe interfaces.

DetecTor.io

radare2

Capstone

Bettercap

Wi-fi

Disk cleanup


Hardware

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security_token - sometimes a hardware token, authentication token, USB token, cryptographic token, software token, virtual token, or key fob) may be a physical device that an authorized user of computer services is given to ease authentication. The term may also refer to software tokens.

Security tokens are used to prove one's identity electronically (as in the case of a customer trying to access their bank account). The token is used in addition to or in place of a password to prove that the customer is who they claim to be. The token acts like an electronic key to access something.

Some may store cryptographic keys, such as a digital signature, or biometric data, such as fingerprint minutiae. Some designs feature tamper resistant packaging, while others may include small keypads to allow entry of a PIN or a simple button to start a generating routine with some display capability to show a generated key number. Special designs include a USB connector, RFID functions or Bluetooth wireless interface to enable transfer of a generated key number sequence to a client system.



  • https://www.nitrokey.com/
    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrokey - an open source USB key to enable secure encryption and signing of data. The secret keys are always stored inside the Nitrokey which protects against malware (such as computer viruses) and attackers. A user-chosen PIN and a tamper-proof smart card protect the Nitrokey in case of loss and theft. The hardware and software of Nitrokey are available as open source, free software and open hardware which enables independent parties to verify the security of the device. Nitrokey is supported on Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X.


  • RSA Key Extraction via Low-Bandwidth Acoustic Cryptanalysis - Many computers emit a high-pitched noise during operation, due to vibration in some of their electronic components. Here, we describe a new acoustic cryptanalysis key extraction attack, applicable to GnuPG's current implementation of RSA. The attack can extract full 4096-bit RSA decryption keys from laptop computers (of various models), within an hour, using the sound generated by the computer during the decryption of some chosen ciphertexts. We experimentally demonstrate that such attacks can be carried out, using either a plain mobile phone placed next to the computer, or a more sensitive microphone placed 4 meters away. Beyond acoustics, we demonstrate that a similar low-bandwidth attack can be performed by measuring the electric potential of a computer chassis. A suitably-equipped attacker need merely touch the target computer with his bare hand, or get the required leakage information from the ground wires at the remote end of VGA, USB or Ethernet cables.


Legal

UX

Other