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See also HTML/CSS


ugh. to sort.

  • - Extending and consolidating hosts files from several well-curated sources like,,,, and potentially others. You can optionally invoke extensions to block additional sites by category.

  • RIP HTTP - HTTP is fading away, and for good reasons. But ocassionally a website that runs on HTTP can be useful, such as in captive portals. This site serves as a permanent memorial to HTTP and pledges never to switch to HTTPS. But be careful, it could have had ads or malware injected and likely was spied on, by ISPs, governments, hotspots, and other malicious actors. And it also suffers a ranking punishment.



<scheme name> : <hierarchical part> [ ? <query> ] [ # <fragment> ]






  • YOURLS stands for Your Own URL Shortener. It is a small set of PHP scripts that will allow you to run your own URL shortening service (a la TinyURL or bitly).

  • ShadyURL - Don't just shorten your URL, make it suspicious and frightening.


  • - Create Temporary Links that expire after n visits or on a date


User and group

See also *nix#Users


Python 3

python -m http.server 5674

PHP <5.4

php -S localhost:8000


ruby -run -e httpd -- --port=8080 .

  • h5ai - makes browsing directories on HTTP web servers more pleasant. Directory listings get styled in a modern way and browsing through the directories is enhanced by different views, a breadcrumb and a tree overview.


  • nginx [engine x] is a free, open-source, high-performance HTTP server and reverse proxy, as well as an IMAP/POP3 proxy server. Igor Sysoev started development of Nginx in 2002, with the first public release in 2004. Nginx now hosts nearly 12.18% (22.2M) of active sites across all domains. Nginx is known for its high performance, stability, rich feature set, simple configuration, and low resource consumption.



Nginx uses a file’s mime type declaration to decide whether or not to apply compression to that file, and so we must first ensure that the four types of web font files have mime types configured.


application/      eot;
application/x-font-ttf             ttf;
font/opentype                      ott;
font/x-woff                        woff;


application/octet-stream          eot;
application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.text-template  ott;


Listening on specific IP will override a wildcard IP catch-all.

Site setup

Default site folder location can vary.

  # debian

  # arch linux

Create 'Server Block' (vhost) config file in


and symlink to them in


Enable logging in vhost conf;

error_log /var/log/nginx-vhostnamehere.log error;


  • Nginx modules must be selected during compile, run-time selection of modules is not currently supported.
gzip_types text/plain text/css application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss
text/javascript application/json image/svg+xml application/ application/x-font-ttf
  • HttpLimitConnModule - This module makes it possible to limit the number of concurrent connections for a defined key such as, for example, an ip address.
location / { 
   auth_basic            "Restricted";
   auth_basic_user_file  /etc/nginx/conf.d/htpasswd;
printf "John:$(openssl passwd -crypt V3Ry)\n" >> .htpasswd # this example uses crypt encryption
printf "Mary:$(openssl passwd -apr1 SEcRe7)\n" >> .htpasswd # this example uses apr1 (Apache MD5) encryption
printf "Jane:$(openssl passwd -1 V3RySEcRe7)\n" >> .htpasswd # this example uses MD5 encryption
(PWD="SEcRe7PwD";SALT="$(openssl rand -base64 3)";SHA1=$(printf "$PWD$SALT" | openssl dgst -binary -sha1 | \ sed 's#$#'"$SALT"'#' | base64);printf "Jim:{SSHA}$SHA1\n" >> .htpasswd) # this example uses SSHA encryptio
  1. Create .key and .csr
    1. openssl req -new -newkey rsa:4096 -nodes -keyout server.key -out server.csr
    2. Or using StartSSL control panel wizard, with additional key decrypt step after
  2. Provide .csr to certificate authority, certificate authority returns .crt
  3. .crt is concatenated with intermediate cert. .key can also be added; nginx will not send it
    1. cat ssl.crt ca.pem > /etc/nginx/conf/ssl-unified.crt
  4. Nginx config points to .crt and .key

Make sure wildcard SSL is in http stanza and that any specific server is listening on 443.

server {
   listen   80;
   listen   [::]:80;
   listen   443 default ssl;


   ssl_certificate        /path/to/my/cert;
   ssl_certificate_key  /path/to/my/key;

   if ($ssl_protocol = "") {
      rewrite ^   https://$server_name$request_uri? permanent;
Directory listing
autoindex on;



Forks / patches


  • The 5G Blacklist helps reduce the number of malicious URL requests that hit your website. It’s one of many ways to improve the security of your site and protect against evil exploits, bad requests, and other nefarious garbage.




  • fserv - an HTTP server that can serve static files, act as a forward and reverse HTTP proxy server, stream media content (SHOUTcast). It has a very high speed on all supported platforms due to its asynchronous I/O event architecture. It can easily process thousands of requests in parallel. The functionality of fserv can be extended by adding new modules. When configured as a proxy server, it caches responses from upstream servers on a local filesystem, dramatically speeding up the response time when the same request is received again. fserv can act as an Internet radio trasmitter or it can re-transmit other Internet radio stations. In the latter case it also can record songs into MP3 files on a local machine, which makes it a useful music-grabber.

  • ServerMe.H - An embeddable single-file C++ web server

  • webfs - a simple http server for mostly static content. You can use it to serve the content of a ftp server via http for example. It is also nice to export some files the quick way by starting a http server in a few seconds, without editing some config file first.



  • cors - "This post aims to demystify CORS and show its lighter side–as a specification that didn’t set out to hamper the aspirations of web developers everywhere, but instead to loose us from the grip of the same-origin policy. We’ll go through each of the headers necessary to properly satisfy CORS constraints, and also discuss a couple places where CORS is now relevant but which may surprise you." [13]



  • Privoxy is a non-caching web proxy with advanced filtering capabilities for enhancing privacy, modifying web page data and HTTP headers, controlling access, and removing ads and other obnoxious Internet junk. Privoxy has a flexible configuration and can be customized to suit individual needs and tastes. It has application for both stand-alone systems and multi-user networks.


  • Glype is a web-based proxy script written in PHP which focuses on features, functionality, and ease of use. Webmasters use Glype to quickly and easily set up their own proxy sites. Glype helps users to defeat Internet censorship and be anonymous while web browsing.












  • httping - like 'ping' but for http-requests. Give it an url, and it'll show you how long it takes to connect, send a request and retrieve the reply (only the headers). Be aware that the transmission across the network also takes time! So it measures the latency of the webserver + network.It supports, of course, IPv6.

  • RED - a robot that checks HTTP resources to see how they'll behave, pointing out common problems and suggesting improvements. Although it is not a HTTP conformance tester, it can find a number of HTTP-related issues.

  • Browser SOA Debugger - Depending on the view of things this is just an enhanced HTTP output formatter for tcpdump streams, or the ultimate debugger for complex HTTP oriented SOA architectures which visualizes the full HTTP interactions in a readable, reproducible way so that you can see what is actually going on in your backend.

  • Hyper - an experimental middleware architecture for HTTP servers written in PureScript. Its main focus is correctness and type-safety, using type-level information to enforce correct composition and abstraction for web servers. The Hyper project is also a breeding ground for higher-level web server constructs, which tend to fall under the “framework” category.


  • Postman - a powerful HTTP client to help test web services easily and efficiently. Postman let's you craft simple as well as complex HTTP requests quickly. It also saves requests for future use so that you never have to repeat your keystrokes ever again. Postman is designed to save you and your team tons of time. Check out more features below or just install from the Chrome Web Store to get started. [18]






See also Server#Performance



Cookie free domain for static content so cooke isn't sent with request. Root domain cookies apply to all subdomain cookies, though using www. (ugh!) works. Use another domain A record to point to the site.(?)




Load balancing


  • CoralCDN is a decentralized, self-organizing, peer-to-peer web-content distribution network. CoralCDN leverages the aggregate bandwidth of volunteers running the software to absorb and dissipate most of the traffic for web sites using the system.



  • etc.
  • GTmetrix uses Google Page Speed and Yahoo! YSlow to grade your site's performance and provides actionable recommendations to fix these issues.
  • Blitz does cloud based load and performance testing ising Sinatra, Rails and node.js.
    • Free: Sprint all you want, Rush all you want, 250 concurrent users, 1 minute rushes
  • Engulf is a scalable, distributed HTTP benchmarker, designed to let you spin up and coordinate a cluster of workers with nothing more than a single JAR. Engulf's backend is written in clojure, the frontend in javascript.


Combined Log Format

LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-agent}i\"" combined

old skool;



error_log  /var/log/nginx/;
access_log  /var/log/nginx/;


  • GoAccess is an open source real-time web log analyzer and interactive viewer that runs in a terminal in *nix systems. It provides fast and valuable HTTP statistics for system administrators that require a visual server report on the fly.


Control panels




  • Piwik is downloadable, Free/Libre (GPLv3 licensed) real time web analytics software. It provides you with detailed reports on your website visitors; the search engines and keywords they used, the language they speak, your popular pages, and much more.








Quick screipts for uploading;


"Linux users can mount WebDAV shares using the davfs2 and the fusedav file system modules which mount them as Coda or FUSE filesystems. KDE has native WebDAV support as part of kio_http. This enables Dolphin, Konqueror, and every other KDE application to interact directly with WebDAV servers. Nautilus also has WebDAV support built in. Many Linux distributions also include the cadaver command-line client interface, which provides an FTP-like command set. The Apache HTTP Server provides WebDAV modules based on both davfs and Apache Subversion (svn)."

File system



  • fusedav is a Linux userspace file system driver for mounting WebDAV shares. It makes use of FUSE as userspace file system API and neon as WebDAV API.


  • neon is an HTTP and WebDAV client library, with a C interface
  • jsDAV allows you to easily add WebDAV support to a NodeJS application.

  • DAV-pocket Lab is a small project team developping WebDAV Server on Google App Engine.

  • mod_dav is an Apache module to provide DAV capabilities (RFC 2518) for your Apache web server.
  • cadaver is a command-line WebDAV client for Unix. It supports file upload, download, on-screen display, namespace operations (move/copy), collection creation and deletion, and locking operations.



  • Wget - a free software package for retrieving files using HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and FTPS the most widely-used Internet protocols. It is a non-interactive commandline tool, so it may easily be called from scripts, cron jobs, terminals without X-Windows support, etc.
wget -O

wget -m

wget -mk

wget -mk -w 20
  # with delay of 20 seconds between requests

wget -E -H -k -K -p -nd
  to mirror a single page
  --no-directories - httpd access permission issues. to try next time; -nH

wget -r -np -l 1 -Azip
  # download all links to .zip files on a given web page [24]


  • curl is a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). The command is designed to work without user interaction.
curl -o /path/to/local/file.js
curl http://site.{one,two,three}.com
curl[1-100].txt[001-100].txt (with leading zeros)[a-z].txt
 sequences of alphanumeric series by using []
  Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next to each other:
  multiple urls + specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number or letter:
  • saldl is a lightweight well-featured CLI downloader optimized for speed and early preview. based on libcurl.


  • mulk - Multi-connection command line tool for downloading Internet sites with image filtering and Metalink support. Similar to wget and cURL, but it manages up to 50 simultaneous and parallel links. Main features are: HTML code parsing, recursive fetching, Metalink retrieving, segmented download and image filtering by width and height. It is based on libcurl, liburiparser, libtidy, libmetalink and libcrypto.

  • aria2 is a lightweight multi-protocol & multi-source command-line download utility. It supports HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, BitTorrent and Metalink. aria2 can be manipulated via built-in JSON-RPC and XML-RPC interfaces.

  • HTTrack allows you to download a World Wide Web site from the Internet to a local directory, building recursively all directories, getting HTML, images, and other files from the server to your computer. HTTrack arranges the original site's relative link-structure. Simply open a page of the "mirrored" website in your browser, and you can browse the site from link to link, as if you were viewing it online. HTTrack can also update an existing mirrored site, and resume interrupted downloads.
httrack "" -O ExampleMirrorDirectory \
"-*" \
"+*" \


See also Data#Scraping