See also Networking#Virtual
- http://wiki.p2pfoundation.net/Cipherspace - or cypherspace is the encrypted (and often pseudonymous or fully anonymous) equivalent to cyberspace. Examples of cipherspaces include Freenet, I2P, Tor, and some anonymous mail-forwarding services. According to its advocates, it should be impossible to know the actual identity of anyone in cipherspace. Therefore, it would be impossible to impose any censorship and to enforce any law. Because of that, they assert that concepts like copyright would be unenforceable inside cipherspace. Some doubt the possibility of complete anonymity, citing that real networks, even virtual private networks, need access to external resources, which tend to be trackable. Critics of the cipherspace argue that such a "digital zone" cannot be legally validated and would need to become illegal, as anonymity is both antisocial and protective for any kind of illegal acts
Darknet / deepweb
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darknet - or darknet is an overlay network within the Internet that can only be accessed with specific software, configurations, or authorization, and often uses a unique customized communication protocol. Two typical darknet types are social networks (usually used for file hosting with a peer-to-peer connection), and anonymity proxy networks such as Tor via an anonymized series of connections.
The term "darknet" was popularized by major news outlets to associate with Tor Onion services, when the infamous drug bazaar Silk Road used it, despite the terminology being unofficial. Technology such as Tor, I2P, and Freenet are intended to defend digital rights by providing security, anonymity, or censorship resistance and are used for both illegal and legitimate reasons. Anonymous communication between whistle-blowers, activists, journalists and news organisations is also facilitated by darknets through use of applications such as SecureDrop.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_web - invisible web, or hidden web are parts of the World Wide Web whose contents are not indexed by standard web search-engine programs. This is in contrast to the "surface web", which is accessible to anyone using the Internet. Computer scientist Michael K. Bergman is credited with inventing the term in 2001 as a search-indexing term.
Surface web and Deep web explained with iceberg chart. Deep web sites can be accessed by a direct URL or IP address, but may require entering a password or other security information to access actual content. Uses of deep web sites include web mail, online banking, cloud storage, restricted-access social-media pages and profiles, and web forums that require registration for viewing content. It also includes paywalled services such as video on demand and some online magazines and newspapers.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dread_(forum) - a Reddit-like dark web discussion forum featuring news and discussions around darknet markets. The site's administrators go by the alias of Paris and HugBunter.
- https://torproject.org/ - "The Onion Router" - Developed by the US Navy and EFF, widely used.
sudo systemctl start tor google-chrome-stable --proxy-server="socks://localhost:9050" -incognito chromium --proxy-server="socks://localhost:9050" -incognito
- https://www.torproject.org/projects/torbrowser.html.en - Easy to use, for USB sticks.
- https://www.torproject.org/projects/vidalia - gui
- dark.fail - Which darknet sites are online?
- https://kbhpodhnfxl3clb4.onion.to/ - torsearch
- http://i2p2.de/ - "Invisible Internet Protocol" - Uses 'garlic' routing.
- http://syndie.i2p2.de - Software for blogging on a I2P network
- The Phantom protocol - a system for decentralized anonymization of generic network traffic. It has been designed with the following main goals in mind: Completely decentralized. Maximum resistance against all kinds of DoS attacks. Theoretically secure anonymization. Theoretically secure end-to-end transport encryption. Completely (virtually) isolated from the "normal" Internet. Maximum protection against identification of protocol usage through traffic analysis. Capable of handling larger data volumes, with acceptable throughput. Generic and well-abstracted design, compatible with all new and existing network enabled software.
- Bitmask - an open source application to provide easy and secure encrypted communication. You can choose among several different service providers or start your own. Currently, Bitmask supports encrypted internet (VPN) and encrypted email. 
- Samizdat - a platform for the self-hosted, peer-to-peer, cryptographically-secured internet of the future. We provide ways for people to communicate with one another without corporate intermediaries -- without even the DNS or the PKIX systems. Our software must be understood both in terms of what it does for users, and how it is done. We provide decentralized internet services for use by autonomous communities. These are ordinary internet services like email, chat, voice-over-IP, DNS, wiki, blog, and so on. We package them up in an easy-to-use form, so that anyone can run them. More importantly, we do this using standard, interoperable protocols, creating a framework for future development and integration. Our implementation serves as a prototype for the next generation of the internet: one based on cryptographic trust. The potential waiting to be unlocked by cryptographic techniques is immense. My goal in the article that follows is to explain the possibilities. 
telehash / Rival
- telehash - A lightweight interoperable protocol with strong encryption to enable mesh networking across multiple transports and platforms. An embeddable private network stack for mobile, web, and devices. Each endpoint generates its own unique public-key based address (a hashname) to send and receive small encrypted packets of JSON (with optional binary payloads) to other trusted endpoints. An endpoint may also provide routing assistance to others for bridging across different transports and to help negotiate direct peer-to-peer links.
- Rival Messenger - Secure Decentralized Communication Built on Telehash. Providing the most secure solution for instant messaging, VoIP, and more, between friends. Mac.