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See also Radio, Streaming, Playback, Lighting, VoIP

  • - an early device for displaying moving images and is considered an important predecessor of the movie projector. It was conceived by photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879 (and built for him by January 1880 to project his famous chronophotographic pictures in motion and thus prove that these were authentic). Muybridge used the projector in his public lectures from 1880 to 1895. The projector used 16" glass disks onto which Muybridge had an unidentified artist paint the sequences as silhouettes. This technique eliminated the backgrounds and enabled the creation of fanciful combinations and additional imaginary elements. Only one disk used photographic images, of a horse skeleton posed in different positions. A later series of 12" discs, made in 1892–1894, used outlines drawn by Erwin F. Faber that were printed onto the discs photographically, then colored by hand. These colored discs were probably never used in Muybridge's lectures. All images of the known 71 disks, including those of the photographic disk, were rendered in elongated form to compensate the distortion of the projection. The projector was related to other projecting phenakistiscopes and used some slotted metal shutter discs that were interchangeable for different picture disks or different effects on the screen. The machine was hand-cranked. The device appears to have been one of the primary inspirations for Thomas Edison and William Kennedy Dickson's Kinetoscope, the first commercial film exhibition system. Images from all of the known seventy-one surviving zoopraxiscope discs have been reproduced in the book Eadweard Muybridge: The Kingston Museum Bequest (The Projection Box, 2004).


  • - an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device. The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video, by creating the illusion of movement by conveying a strip of perforated film bearing sequential images over a light source with a high-speed shutter. A process using roll film was first described in a patent application submitted in France and the U.S. by French inventor Louis Le Prince. The concept was also used by U.S. inventor Thomas Edison in 1889, and subsequently developed by his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson between 1889 and 1892. Dickson and his team at the Edison lab also devised the Kinetograph, an innovative motion picture camera with rapid intermittent, or stop-and-go, film movement, to photograph movies for in-house experiments and, eventually, commercial Kinetoscope presentations.A prototype for the Kinetoscope was shown to a convention of the National Federation of Women's Clubs on May 20, 1891. The first public demonstration of the Kinetoscope was held at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893. Instrumental to the birth of American movie culture, the Kinetoscope also had a major impact in Europe; its influence abroad was magnified by Edison's decision not to seek international patents on the device, facilitating numerous imitations of and improvements on the technology. In 1895, Edison introduced the Kinetophone, which joined the Kinetoscope with a cylinder phonograph. Film projection, which Edison initially disdained as financially nonviable, soon superseded the Kinetoscope's individual exhibition model. Many of the projection systems developed by Edison's firm in later years would use the Kinetoscope name.


  • - 2″ quad, or just quad, for short) is the first practical and commercially successful analog recording videotape format. It was developed and released for the broadcast television industry in 1956 by Ampex, an American company based in Redwood City, California. The first videotape recorder using this format was built and created in the same year. This format revolutionized broadcast television operations and television production, since the only recording medium available to the TV industry before then was film used for kinescopes, which was much more costly to utilize and took time to develop at a film laboratory. In addition, kinescope images were usually of obviously inferior quality to the live television broadcast images they recorded, whereas quadruplex videotape preserved almost all the image detail of a live broadcast.

Since most United States West Coast network broadcast delays done by the television networks at the time were done with film kinescopes that needed time for developing, the networks wanted a more practical, cost-effective, and quicker way to time-shift television programming for later airing on the West Coast. Broadcasters also sought a recording medium that was not as costly or time-consuming to edit and develop as film. Faced with these challenges, broadcasters sought to adapt magnetic tape recording technology (already in use for recording audio) for use with television as well.


  • - the container format in DVD-Video media. VOB can contain digital video, digital audio, subtitles, DVD menus and navigation contents multiplexed together into a stream form. Files in VOB format may be encrypted.


UHD / 4K




  • - is one channel analog video transmission (without audio) that carries standard definition video typically at 480i or 576i resolution. Video information is encoded on one channel, unlike the higher-quality S-video (two channels) and the even higher-quality component video (three or more channels). Composite video is usually in standard formats such as NTSC, PAL, and SECAM and is often designated by the initials CVBS, for color, video, blanking and sync, or simply as video.


  • - also known as separate video and Y/C, a signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i. By separating the black-and-white and coloring signals, it achieves better image quality than composite video, but has lower color resolution than component video.


  • - a video signal that has been split into two or more component channels. In popular use, it refers to a type of component analog video (CAV) information that is transmitted or stored as three separate signals. When used without any other qualifications the term component video usually refers to analog YPBPR component video with sync on luma.


  • - (from Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs – Radio and Television Receiver Manufacturers' Association) is a French-originated standard and associated 21-pin connector for connecting audio-visual (AV) equipment. In Europe, SCART used to be the most common method of connecting AV equipment, and was a standard connector for such devices; it was far less common elsewhere. As it was designed to carry analog standard-definition content, SCART has become obsolete with the introduction of new digital standards such as HDMI and DisplayPort. HDMI-CEC is derived from SCART's[citation needed] However, SCART Connection can also support HD signals like 480p, 720p, 1080i, 1080p, if the SCART connection of a device is designed to support YPbPr connection, but this configuration is rare. The same for multichannel audio, but even this configuration remains rare, as it is not standardized.


  • - a type of analog video connector found on Japanese consumer electronics, typically HDTV, DVD, Blu-ray, D-VHS and HD DVD devices. It was developed by the EIAJ (Electronic Industry Association of Japan) in its standard, RC-5237, for use in digital satellite broadcast tuners. In appearance it is a small flat trapezic connector, the same connector as the AAUI connector used by Apple Computer for some time to connect to ethernet. Some items sold outside Japan use the connector as well. Notable examples are Canon's XH-A1 DVC high-definition camcorder and Panasonic's AG-HVX200 DVCPro HD camcorder.


  • - Equipment requiring video with stereo audio input/output sometimes uses 3.5 mm TRRS connectors. Two incompatible variants exist, of 15 millimetres (0.59 in) and 17 mm (0.67 in) length, and using the wrong variant may either simply not work, or could cause physical damage.




  • - SDI, a family of digital video interfaces first standardized by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) in 1989. For example, ITU-R BT.656 and SMPTE 259M define digital video interfaces used for broadcast-grade video. A related standard, known as high-definition serial digital interface (HD-SDI), is standardized in SMPTE 292M; this provides a nominal data rate of 1.485 Gbit/s.


  • - DVI - a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a video display controller, to a display device, such as a computer monitor. It was developed with the intention of creating an industry standard for the transfer of digital video content. The interface is designed to transmit uncompressed digital video and can be configured to support multiple modes such as DVI-A (analog only), DVI-D (digital only) or DVI-I (digital and analog). Featuring support for analog connections, the DVI specification is compatible with the VGA interface. This compatibility, along with other advantages, led to its widespread acceptance over competing digital display standards Plug and Display (P&D) and Digital Flat Panel (DFP). Although DVI is predominantly associated with computers, it is sometimes used in other consumer electronics such as television sets and DVD players.


  • - High-Definition Multimedia Interface is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device. HDMI is a digital replacement for analog video standards.

HDMI implements the EIA/CEA-861 standards, which define video formats and waveforms, transport of compressed, uncompressed, and LPCM audio, auxiliary data, and implementations of the VESA EDID. CEA-861 signals carried by HDMI are electrically compatible with the CEA-861 signals used by the digital visual interface (DVI). No signal conversion is necessary, nor is there a loss of video quality when a DVI-to-HDMI adapter is used. The CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) capability allows HDMI devices to control each other when necessary and allows the user to operate multiple devices with one handheld remote control device.

Several versions of HDMI have been developed and deployed since initial release of the technology but all use the same cable and connector. Other than improved audio and video capacity, performance, resolution and color spaces, newer versions have optional advanced features such as 3D, Ethernet data connection, and CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) extensions. Production of consumer HDMI products started in late 2003. In Europe either DVI-HDCP or HDMI is included in the HD ready in-store labeling specification for TV sets for HDTV, formulated by EICTA with SES Astra in 2005. HDMI began to appear on consumer HDTVs in 2004 and camcorders and digital still cameras in 2006. As of January 6, 2015 (twelve years after the release of the first HDMI specification), over 4 billion HDMI devices have been sold.


  • - a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, and it can also carry audio, USB, and other forms of data. DisplayPort was designed to replace VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link. The interface is backward compatible with legacy interfaces, such as HDMI and DVI, through the use of either active or passive adapters.

USB-C / Thunderbolt


  • - a joint ANSI/Society of Cable and Telecommunications Engineers standard that describes the inline insertion of cue tones in mpeg-ts streams. The full standard name is "Digital Program Insertion Cueing Message for Cable."SCTE-35 is used in the US to signal a local ad insertion opportunity in the transport stream, and in Europe to insert local TV programs (e.g. local news transmissions).Currently, SCTE-35 is erratically implemented. Different providers have different "interpretations" of the specification.


Resolution and aspet ratio

Most common display resolutions in the first half of 2012
Acronym Aspect ratio Width (px) Height (px) % of Steam users % of web users
VGA 4:3 640 480 0.02 n/a
SVGA 4:3 800 600 0.17 1.03
WSVGA 17:10 1024 600 0.31 2.25
XGA 4:3 1024 768 5.53 18.69
XGA+ 4:3 1152 864 0.87 1.55
WXGA 16:9 1280 720 1.51 1.54
WXGA 5:3 1280 768 n/a 1.54
WXGA 16:10 1280 800 4.25 12.97
SXGA– (UVGA) 4:3 1280 960 0.72 0.72
SXGA 5:4 1280 1024 10.66 7.49
HD ~16:9 1360 768 2.36 2.28
HD ~16:9 1366 768 17.19 19.14
SXGA+ 4:3 1400 1050 0.18 n/a
WXGA+ 16:10 1440 900 7.60 6.61
HD+ 16:9 1600 900 6.82 3.82
UXGA 4:3 1600 1200 0.53 n/a
WSXGA+ 16:10 1680 1050 10.26 3.66
FHD 16:9 1920 1080 25.04 5.09
WUXGA 16:10 1920 1200 3.65 1.11
QWXGA 16:9 2048 1152 0.13 n/a
WQHD 16:9 2560 1440 0.72 0.36
WQXGA 16:10 2560 1600 0.19 n/a
3:4 768 1024 n/a 1.93
16:9 1093 614 n/a 0.63
~16:9 1311 737 n/a 0.35
Other 1.29 7.25
  • 480i (NTSC standard uses an analog system of 486i split into two interlaced fields of 243 lines)
  • 576i (PAL, 720 × 576 split into two interlaced fields of 288 lines)

Enhanced-definition television (EDTV):

  • 480p (720 × 480 progressive scan)
  • 576p (720 × 576 progressive scan)

High-definition television (HDTV):

  • 720p (1280 × 720 progressive scan) - 0.9 megapixels
  • (1920 × 1080 split into two interlaced fields of 540 lines)
  • 1080p (1920 × 1080 progressive scan) - Full HD / FHD

Ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV)

  • 2160p/4K (3840 × 2160 progressive scan)
  • 4320p/8K (7680 × 4320 progressive scan)



  • - a technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display without consuming extra bandwidth. The interlaced signal contains two fields of a video frame captured at two different times. This enhances motion perception to the viewer, and reduces flicker by taking advantage of the phi phenomenon. This effectively doubles the time resolution (also called temporal resolution) as compared to non-interlaced footage (for frame rates equal to field rates). Interlaced signals require a display that is natively capable of showing the individual fields in a sequential order. CRT displays and ALiS plasma displays are made for displaying interlaced signals. Interlaced scan refers to one of two common methods for "painting" a video image on an electronic display screen (the other being progressive scan) by scanning or displaying each line or row of pixels. This technique uses two fields to create a frame. One field contains all odd-numbered lines in the image; the other contains all even-numbered lines.

Container format





to rework


  • - a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and ISO/IEC 13818 MPEG-2 at the ISO Store. It describes a combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression methods, which permit storage and transmission of movies using currently available storage media and transmission bandwidth. While MPEG-2 is not as efficient as newer standards such as H.264 and H.265/HEVC, backwards compatibility with existing hardware and software means it is still widely used, for example in over-the-air digital television broadcasting and in the DVD-Video standard.


  • H.264/MPEG-4 AVC is a block-oriented motion-compensation-based codec standard developed by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC JTC1 Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). The project partnership effort is known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). The ITU-T H.264 standard and the ISO/IEC MPEG-4 AVC standard (formally, ISO/IEC 14496-10 – MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding) are jointly maintained so that they have identical technical content. H.264 is perhaps best known as being one of the codec standards for Blu-ray Discs; all Blu-ray Disc players must be able to decode H.264. It is also widely used by streaming internet sources, such as videos from Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, and also various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial (ATSC, ISDB-T, DVB-T or DVB-T2), cable (DVB-C) and satellite (DVB-S and DVB-S2).


  • x265 - The goal of x265 is to become the best open source H.265/HEVC encoder,with the highest compression efficiency at the highest performance,while also allowing commercial use via a dual GPL and commercial license. In a nutshell, we would like to reproduce x264's successful development model for HEVC. [2]


  • - an open and royalty free video compression format owned by Google and created by On2 Technologies as a successor to VP7. In May 2010, after the purchase of On2 Technologies, Google provided an irrevocable patent promise on its patents for implementing the VP8 format, and released a specification of the format under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. That same year, Google also released libvpx, the reference implementation of VP8, under the revised BSD license.


  • - an open and royalty-free[1] video coding format developed by Google. VP9 is a successor to VP8 and competes mainly with MPEG's High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC/H.265). At first, VP9 was mainly used on Google's video platform YouTube. The emergence of the Alliance for Open Media, and its support for the ongoing development of the successor AV1, led to growing interest in the format.


  • Alliance for Open Media - founded by leading Internet companies focused on developing next-generation media formats, codecs and technologies.  Alliance members bring their collective technology and expertise to meet growing Internet demand for top-quality video, audio, imagery and streaming across devices of all kinds and for users worldwide. The initial project – AOMedia Video – pursues a new, royalty-free video codec specification and open source implementation based on the contributions of Alliance members and the broader developer community, along with binding specifications for media format, content encryption and adaptive streaming. Founding members are Amazon, Apple, ARM, Cisco, Facebook, Google, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Mozilla, Netflix and NVIDIA.
  • - an open, royalty-free video coding format designed for video transmissions over the Internet. It is being developed by the Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia), a consortium of firms from the semiconductor industry, video on demand providers, and web browser developers, founded in 2015. AV1 is the primary contender for standardization by the video standard working group NetVC of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The group has put together a list of criteria to be met by the new video standard. It is meant to succeed its predecessor VP9 and compete with HEVC/H.265 from the Moving Picture Experts Group. AV1 can be used together with the audio format Opus in a future version of the WebM container format for HTML5 web video and WebRTC.

  • - an AV1-compliant encoder library core. The SVT-AV1 development is a work-in-progress targeting performance levels applicable to both VOD and Live encoding / transcoding video applications.



  • Daala is the code-name for a new video compression technology. The effort is a collaboration between Mozilla Foundation, Xiph.Org Foundation and other contributors. The goal of the project is to provide a free to implement, use and distribute digital media format and reference implementation with technical performance superior to h.265.



  • Hap, a new video codec designed for digital video artists and VJs with the goal of achieving higher-performance video playback in OpenGL-based applications such as VDMX.



Encoding / transcoding


  • A complete, cross-platform solution to record, convert and stream audio and video.
ffmpeg -i input.mp4 output.avi

ffmpeg -i in.opus -ss 00:00:30.0 -t 00:03:00 -c copy out.opus

ffmpeg -loop 1 -r 2 -i image.jpg -i audio.mp3 -c:v libx264 -preset medium -tune stillimage -crf 18 -c:a copy -shortest -pix_fmt yuv420p output.mkv

  • QWinFF is a GUI for FFmpeg, a powerful command-line media converter. FFmpeg can read audio and video files in various formats and convert them into other formats. QWinFF provides an intuitive graphical interface and a rich set of presets to help you use ffmpeg easily without having to type a single command. Advanced users can also adjust conversion parameters like bitrate and sample rate in detail.


  • mpgtx - a command line MPEG audio/video/system file toolbox, that slices and joins audio and video files, including MPEG1, MPEG2 and MP3. mpgtx was designed with the good old Unix philosophy in mind : do few but do it well and provide end user an austary yet powerfull command line interface. At least this was the goal. Reality is different, and it's available for you to try. mpgtx is released under the GPL license.


  • avconv - a very fast video and audio converter that can also grab from a live audio/video source. It can also convert between arbitrary sample rates and resize video on the fly with a high quality polyphase filter.avconv reads from an arbitrary number of input "files" (which can be regular files, pipes, network streams, grabbing devices, etc.), specified by the -i option, and writes to an arbitrary number of output "files", which are specified by a plain output filename. Anything found on the command line which cannot be interpreted as an option is considered to be an output filename.


  • HandBrake - a tool for converting video from nearly any format to a selection of modern, widely supported codecs.Reasons you’ll love HandBrake: Convert video from nearly any format, Free and Open Source, Multi-Platform (Windows, Mac and Linux)

Mobile Media Converter

  • Mobile Media Converter - a free audio and video converter for converting between popular desktop audio and video formats like MP3, Windows Media Audio (wma), Ogg Vorbis Audio (ogg), Wave Audio (wav), MPEG video, AVI, Windows Media Video (wmv), Flash Video (flv), QuickTime Video (mov) and commonly used mobile devices/phones formats like AMR and 3GA audio (amr) and 3GP video. iPod/iPhone and PSP compatible MP4 video are supported. Moreover, you can remove and add new formats or devices through the internet.


  • Transmageddon - a video transcoder for Linux and Unix systems built using GStreamer. It supports almost any format as its input and can generate a very large host of output files. The goal of the application was to help people to create the files they need to be able to play on their mobile devices and for people not hugely experienced with multimedia to generate a multimedia file without having to resort to command line tools with ungainly syntaxes.For information about latest releases check the NEWS file. To see what translations are available for Transmageddon check out the Transmageddon translation report from the GNOME translation project.


  • transcode - a text-console utility for video stream processing, running on a platform that supports shared libraries and threads. Decoding and encoding is done by loading modules that are responsible for feeding transcode with raw video/audio streams (import modules) and encoding the frames (export modules). It supports elementary video and audio frame transformations, including de-interlacing or fast resizing of video frames and loading of external filters.


  • videotrans - a set of scripts that allow its user to reformat existing movies into the VOB format that is used on DVDs.Furthermore, videotrans supplies programs which allow its user to create a complete DVD, including selection menus which allow the viewer to choose which movie he/she wants to see, if more than one movie fits onto a DVD.




  • Encoding, Fast and Slow: Low-Latency Video Processing Using Thousands of Tiny Threads - First, we designed a framework to run general-purpose parallel computations on a commercial “cloud function” service. The system starts up thousands of threads in seconds and manages inter-thread communication. Second, we implemented a video encoder intended for fine-grained parallelism, using a functional-programming style that allows computation to be split into thousands of tiny tasks without harming compression efficiency. Our design reflects a key insight: the work of video encoding can be divided into fast and slow parts, with the “slow” work done in parallel, and only “fast” work done serially.




  • mjpeg programs are a set of tools that can do recording of videos and playback, simple cut-and-paste editing and the MPEG compression of audio and video under Linux.



ffmpeg -f x11grab -video_size 1920x1080 -i $DISPLAY -f alsa -i default -c:v ffvhuff -c:a flac test.mkv

ffmpeg -f x11grab -s 1920x1080 -r 25 -i $DISPLAY   -f alsa -i default   -c:v libx264 -b:v 200k -s 1280x720 test.mp4
  # implicitely encode to a shareable size use
ffmpeg -f x11grab -r 25 -s 1024x768 -i :0.0 /tmp/output.mpg
avconv -f alsa -i pulse -f x11grab -r 30 -s 1280x800 -i :0.0 -vcodec libx264 -acodec libmp3lame myscreencast.avi

  • - A simple desktop recorder for Linux systems. Built using Python, GTK+ 3 and ffmpeg. It supports recording audio and video on almost all Linux interfaces. Also, Green Recorder is the first desktop program to support Wayland display server on GNOME session.

  • gifski - converts video frames to GIF animations using pngquant's fancy features for efficient cross-frame palettes and temporal dithering. It produces animated GIFs that use thousands of colors per frame.

  • LICEcap - can capture an area of your desktop and save it directly to .GIF (for viewing in web browsers, etc) or .LCF (see below). LICEcap is an intuitive but flexible application (for Windows and now OSX) by Cockos Incorporated, that is designed to be lightweight and function with high performance.


  • PulseVideo - Allows multiplexing access to webcams such that more than one application can read video from a single piece of hardware at a time.
  • - an open frameworks ( project for using multiple USB web cams (e.g. PS3 Eye) simultaneously for displaying live video material. Its controllable by MIDI and OSC! We wrote it as a Live VJ extension for the robotics media art installation project "Glitchrobot" by SonicRobots. #Description The goal is set up an VJ setup which is based on webcam material. So far we used 9-10 Web cams, but the amount can probably extended. The webcam content is displayed on one screen, in different tilings and with FX. Tiling and FX can be controlled by Midi and OSC. [5]

Motion detection

  • Constatus - monitors cameras. If it sees anything moving, it can start recording and stops recording when the motion stops.It can monitor "video4linux" devices (e.g. webcams etc connected directly to a Linux system), MJPEG, RTSP and JPEG cameras.While Constatus monitors the camera, you can use the built-in webserver (and VNC server) to view the video stream concurrently.It can also record all video and/or timelapse videos.


  • AviSynth - a powerful tool for video post-production. It provides ways of editing and processing videos. AviSynth works as a frameserver, providing instant editing without the need for temporary files. AviSynth itself does not provide a graphical user interface (GUI), but instead relies on a script system that allows advanced non-linear editing. While this may at first seem tedious and unintuitive, it is remarkably powerful and is a very good way to manage projects in a precise, consistent, and reproducible manner. Because text-based scripts are human readable, projects are inherently self-documenting. The scripting language is simple yet powerful, and complex filters can be created from basic operations to develop a sophisticated palette of useful and unique effects.

  • VapourSynth - an application for video manipulation. Or a plugin. Or a library. It’s hard to tell because it has a core library written in C++ and a Python module to allow video scripts to be created. It came to be when I started thinking about alternative designs for Avisynth and most of it was written over a 3 month period. The software has been heavily inspired by Avisynth and aims to be a 21st century rewrite, taking advantage of the advancements computers have made since the late 90s. The main features compared to Avisynth are: Multithreaded – Frame level multithreading, Generalized Colorspaces – New Colorspaces can be specified at runtime, Per Frame Properties – Additional metadata can be attached to frames, Python Based – The scripting part is implemented as a Python module so you don’t have have to learn a special language, Support for video with format changes – Some video just can’t stick to one format or frame size VapourSynth can handle any kind of change


  • Video Production Stack Exchange - a question and answer site for engineers, producers, editors, and enthusiasts spanning the fields of video, and media creation.



Editing / compositing


  • QtlMovie - a simple specialized graphical front-end to FFmpeg and other free media tools. Why another front-end to FFmpeg? Because most of these general-purpose front-ends are complex. QtlMovie has been designed with simplicity in mind for just a few specific common operations. QtlMovie performs a few repetitive specialized tasks which proved to be difficult or boring with other tools. In short, I developed QtlMovie primarily for my own usage to automate tasks which took me too long and I now share it.


  • Avidemux is a free video editor designed for simple cutting, filtering and encoding tasks. It supports many file types, including AVI, DVD compatible MPEG files, MP4 and ASF, using a variety of codecs. Tasks can be automated using projects, job queue and powerful scripting capabilities.



  • Pitivi Video Editor - Built upon the GStreamer multimedia framework, Pitivi aims to be an intuitive and flexible video editor that integrates well with GNOME and can appeal to newbies and professionals alike.


  • Shotcut - a free, open source, cross-platform video editor.



  • Kdenlive - an intuitive and powerful multi-track video editor, including most recent video technologies, released as a free software (GPL). Using Kdenlive is investing in a community driven project, which aims to establish relationships between people in order to built the best video tools.


  • Flowblade - a multitrack non-linear video editor for Linux released under GPL 3 license. Flowblade provides powerful tools to mix and filter video and audio for a fast, precise and robust editing experience. Flowblade employs a film-style insert editing model as workflow. In insert editing clips are generally placed tightly after other clips when they are inserted on the timeline. Edits are fine tuned by trimming in and out points of clips or by cutting and deleting parts of clips.

VideoLAN Movie Creator

  • VideoLAN Movie Creator - a non-linear editing software for video creation based on libVLC and running on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X! It is free software distributed under the terms of the GPLv2. Alpha.


  • Cinelerra - a Free Linux-based Audio, Images, and Special Effects system created by Adam Williams and was originally uploaded in the fall of 2002 with numerous improvements since that time. If you are new to Cinelerra and would like to see examples of Cinelerra, you can view it here on YouTube and Vimeo. Cinelerra has had many downloads and there are thousands of users of Cinelerra worldwide. Cinelerra has been exhibited at NAB, IBC, Interbee, SIGGRAPH, Linux World, and has been demonstrated and used at most major motion picture studios. Cinelerra has many components and if you are new, take your time, as the whole system is complex and powerful and it takes time to fully comprehend how powerful the program can be when configured correctly. It is our goal here to make it the most powerful and accessible media production system in the world. Cinelerra managers and directors have worked professionally in artistic expression, filmmaking, technology development, software and hardware design consulting and production services and systems development for well over a decade. Adam Williams and Mike Collins have been working together developing and promoting Linux editing systems, starting together in 2000, with Broadcast 2000 and later with Cinelerra starting in 2001. The entire team has been devoted to open systems and advanced Linux production technologies. Collectively, our current and past clients and former employers include most of the Hollywood motion picture and post-production studios, as well as government services contractors, and computer software and hardware technology manufacturers and systems integration companies.



  • LiVES - a Video Editing System. It is designed to be simple to use, yet powerful. It is small in size, yet it has many advanced features. LiVES mixes realtime video performance and non-linear editing in one professional quality application. It will let you start editing and making video right away, without having to worry about formats, frame sizes, or framerates. It is a very flexible tool which is used by both professional VJ's and video editors - mix and switch clips from the keyboard, use dozens of realtime effects, trim and edit your clips in the clip editor, and bring them together using the multitrack timeline. You can even record your performance in real time, and then edit it further or render it straight away.

For the more technically minded, the application is frame and sample accurate, and it can be controlled remotely or scripted for use as a video server. And it supports all of the latest free standards. LiVES is good enough to be used as a VJ tool for professional performances, and as a video editor is capable of creating dazzling clips in a huge variety of formats. For a full list of the features of LiVES, look at the features page.



to sort

  • ButtleOFX is a simple, user-friendly and open source compositing software. It is based on TuttleOFX, an open source, modular and sustainable image processing architecture.
  • - designed to share OpenFX plugins between plugins creators (industrials, developpers, researchers, students, ...) and graphic artists. Following the TuttleOFX initiative, the ambition is to promote a standard way to create image processing algorithms usable across softwares.
  • KALISCOPE is a set of tools and plugins to create a professional pipeline for cinema works. It can also be used to create a telecinema that convert silver films into numeric movies. The goal is to produce reliable sophisticated tools to help artists in their analog/numeric film projects by respecting the quality of their precious images.
  • ffDiaporama] is an application for creating video sequences consisting of titles, fixed or animated, images or photos, fixed or animated, movie clip, music. These sequences are assembled into a slide show by means of transitions to produce complete videos
  • Advene (Annotate Digital Video, Exchange on the NEt) is an ongoing project in the LIRIS laboratory (UMR 5205 CNRS) at University Claude Bernard Lyon 1. It aims at providing a model and a format to share annotations about digital video documents (movies, courses, conferences...), as well as tools to edit and visualize the hypervideos generated from both the annotations and the audiovisual documents. Teachers, moviegoers, etc. can use them to exchange multimedia comments and analyses about video documents. The project also aims at studying the way that communities of users (teachers, moviegoers, students...) will use these self-publishing tools to share their audiovisual "readings", and to envision new editing and viewing interfaces for interactive comment and analysis of audiovisual content. For more details, see Advene: active reading through hypervideo or other articles in our publication list.


  • blind - a suckless collection of command line video editing utilities. blind uses a raw video format with a simple container. A file begins with an plain-text line, containing the number of frames, the width, the height, and the pixel format, all separated by a single regular blank space, without and leading or tailing white space. After this line, which ends with an LF, there is a NUL-byte followed by the 4 characters “uivf” (unportable, interim video format). This head is followed by the video frame-by-frame with row-major frames. Pixels are independently encoded, and are encoded unscaled CIE XYZ with non-premultiplied alpha and without any transfer-function, with values stored in native doubles or optionally in native floats. These two configurations are the only options, but the container format is designed so this can be changed arbitrarily in the future.


  • dvbcut is a Qt application that allows you to select certain parts of an MPEG transport stream (as received via Digital Video Broadcasting, DVB) and save these parts into a single MPEG output file. It follows a "keyhole surgery" approach where the input video and audio data is mostly kept unchanged, and only very few frames at the beginning and/or end of the selected range are re-encoded in order to obtain a valid MPEG file.


  • - Conway's Game of Life is generalized to a continuous domain. OpenGL and GLSL shaders are used for real-time 2D and 3D graphics. Time stepping is done via a real to complex FFT based convolution operation. There are also two deliberately simple test implementations in FreeBasic and Matlab. A 2D version on a sphere shows that it is really not dependent on the underlying grid.


  • Xjadeo - a software video player that displays a video-clip in sync with an external time source (MTC, LTC, JACK-transport). Xjadeo is useful in soundtrack composition, video monitoring or any task that requires to synchronizing movie frames with external events.




  • freemix - a limitless, open to creativity project, in beta stage. The aim is to develop a tool that any videoartist can adapt to it's style, taking advantage of it being free (as in speach) to modification or extension. Later reverting these back to the project. Feel free to drop ideas, comments or even cool code.


  • Snowmix - Video mixer for mixing live and recorded video and audio feeds


  • Nageru - a live video mixer. It takes in inputs from one or more video cards (any DeckLink PCI card via Blackmagic's drivers, and Intensity Shuttle USB3 and UltraStudio SDI USB3 cards via bmusb), mixes them together based on the operator's desire and a theme written in Lua, and outputs a high-quality H.264 stream over TCP suitable for further transcoding and/or distribution. Nageru is free software, licensed under the GNU General Public License, version 3 or later. Nageru aims to produce high-quality output, both in terms of audio and video, while still running on modest hardware. The reference system for two 720p60 inputs is a ThinkPad X240, ie. an ultraportable dual-core with a not-very-fast GPU. Nageru's performance scales almost linearly with the available GPU power; e.g., if you have a GPU that's twice as fast as mine (which is not hard to find at all these days; desktop GPUs are frequently more like 10x), going to 1080p60 will only cost you about 10% more CPU power.



  • FLxER is a audio video mixing software based on Adobe Flash™ tecnology born in 2000. FLxER is free. FLxER application is about 80kb and is available for Windows, MAC, Linux, PocketPC, iPhone, iPad and all the other platform with Flash Player, there is also a fully functionality web version that can be used from every computer connected to internet.
  • FreeJ is a video mixer: an instrument for realtime video manipulation used in the fields of dance theater, veejaying, medical visualization and TV. Its development started in 2001 and continued actively for many years.

  • Videopong is a community dedicated to expanding and connecting the world of VJs and video art. It is a hub to share not only video clips, but everything behind the visuals: source code, interactive patches, executables, and more.

  • Open Sound Control (OSC) is a protocol for communication among computers, sound synthesizers, and other multimedia devices that is optimized for modern networking technology. Bringing the benefits of modern networking technology to the world of electronic musical instruments, OSC's advantages include interoperability, accuracy, flexibility, and enhanced organization and documentation.


  • v4l2loopback - a kernel module to create V4L2 loopback devices. this module allows you to create "virtual video devices". normal (v4l2) applications will read these devices as if they were ordinary video devices, but the video will not be read from e.g. a capture card but instead it is generated by another application. this allows you for instance to apply apply some nifty video effects on your Skype video... it also allows some more serious things (e.g. I've been using it to add streaming capabilities to an application by the means of hooking GStreamer into the loopback devices).
  • Qeve - a vj software for Gnu/linux. It was born as a prototype for the performance of Qè and after the economic support received by the catalan association Telenoika it has been published as a public vj linux program. The project has evolved and remain just a couples of blogs reviews for historical reason.
  • GemQ - a vj software developed primary for GNU/Linux Operative System and working on all platforms (with little effort). GemQ is based on Pure Data framework, a real-time programming language for multimedia. GemQ is the new version of Qeve, the first version of this project developed with the economic help of catalan association Telenoika and Hangar centre de Arts. GemQ uses Gem Video Library, a porting of opengl library for Pure Data, many externals built-in in the pd-extended version and objects written through python bridge (pyext). The aim of this project is to have an easy to use program for make visuals and video editing in real-time primary on linux platform.
  • PantaliQa is the evolution of GemQ, that it was a vjing program developed in puredata language. PantaliQa is more mature, the code is cleaner and some how it rappresents all the things I have been learning in the last year in programming. The aim of the project is to develop a live video editor tool for real time perfomance with a focus on educational environments.
  • Veejay - a visual instrument and realtime video sampler. With veejay, you can play the video like you would play a piano. While playing, you can record the resulting video directly to disk (video sampling), all effects are realtime and optimized for use on modern processors, Veejay likes the sound of your video's as much as their images: sound is kept in sync ( pitched when needed - trickplay) and delivered to JACK for possible further processing. You can cluster to allow a number of machines to work together over the network (uncompressed streaming, veejay chaining) And much more... The engine is historically based upon mjpegtools's lavplay and processes all video in YUV planar It performs at its best, currently with MJPEG AVI (through ffmpeg) or one of veejay's internal formats. Veejay is built upon a servent architecture.
  • LPMT - a little projection-mapping tool for use in our office, it is developed in C++ using OpenFrameworks. It’s based on simple quad warping paradigm, and, though rather simple, can be used to achieve complex and professional projection-mapping sets.
  • - video art software for VJs. It supports beat detection, animated GIFs, YouTube video, OpenGL shader effects. It is designed for live performance and runs on Linux and MacOS.
  • vDome is an application designed to calibrate multiple projectors on a hemispherical dome surface and display a domemaster formatted video, image, or interactive application. vDome is generally used in two ways: 1) as a media player and 2) as a background process that listens to software/hardware input streams.
  • VFX - a software system for manipulating, triggering and mixing digital video clips and loops. There are two main parts to it: the Performer for playing, mixing and manipulating video in real time (not unlike VJamm or Arkaos) and the Compositor for rendering video effects for later use.
Le Biniou




Pure Data

See also Audio#Pure Data

  • Pure Data (aka Pd) is an open source visual programming language. Pd enables musicians, visual artists, performers, researchers, and developers to create software graphically, without writing lines of code. Pd is used to process and generate sound, video, 2D/3D graphics, and interface sensors, input devices, and MIDI. Pd can easily work over local and remote networks to integrate wearable technology, motor systems, lighting rigs, and other equipment. Pd is suitable for learning basic multimedia processing and visual programming methods as well as for realizing complex systems for large-scale projects.



  • OpenColorIO - a complete color management solution geared towards motion picture production with an emphasis on visual effects and computer animation. OCIO provides a straightforward and consistent user experience across all supporting applications while allowing for sophisticated back-end configuration options suitable for high-end production usage. OCIO is compatible with the Academy Color Encoding Specification (ACES) and is LUT-format agnostic, supporting many popular formats.OpenColorIO is released as version 1.0 and has been in development since 2003. OCIO represents the culmination of years of production experience earned on such films as SpiderMan 2 (2004), Surf’s Up (2007), Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs (2009), Alice in Wonderland (2010), and many more. OpenColorIO is natively supported in commercial applications like Katana, Mari, Nuke, Silhouette FX, and others.



  • OpenTimelineIO - an API and interchange format for editorial cut information. You can think of it as a modern Edit Decision List (EDL) that also includes an API for reading, writing, and manipulating editorial data. It also includes a plugin system for translating to/from existing editorial formats as well as a plugin system for linking to proprietary media storage schemas.OTIO supports clips, timing, tracks, transitions, markers, metadata, etc. but not embedded video or audio. Video and audio media are referenced externally. We encourage 3rd party vendors, animation studios and visual effects studios to work together as a community to provide adaptors for each video editing tool and pipeline.


  • Open Effects Association (OFX), a non-profit organization, develops and promotes open standards across the visual effects community. The Association’s initial focus is to improve the OpenFX image processing plug-in standard. This goal of this standard is to reduce development effort and support needed for plug-ins across different compositing and editing host platforms. The founding members come from Assimilate, Autodesk, Digieffects, FilmLight, The Foundry, Genarts and RE:Vision FX. These are companies which have helped artists create ground-breaking VFX shots on nearly every blockbuster movie.

  • OpenFX - an open standard for visual effects plug-ins. It allows plug-ins written to the standard to work on any application that supports the standard. This avoids the current per application fragmentation of plug-in development and support, which causes much heartache to everyone, plug-in developers, application developers and end users alike


  • Frei0r - a minimalistic plugin API for video effects. The main emphasis is on simplicity for an API that will round up the most common video effects into simple filters, sources and mixers that can be controlled by parameters.


  • - Hasciicam makes it possible to have live ascii video on the web. It captures video from a tv card and renders it into ascii, formatting the output into an html page with a refresh tag or in a live ascii window or in a simple text file as well, giving the possiblity to anybody that has a bttv card. a linux box and a cheap modem line to show a live asciivideo feed that can be browsable without any need for plugin, java etc.


  • AviGlitch - A Ruby library to destroy your AVI files.



  • - an OpenSource program that creates slow-motion videos from your footage. But it does not simply make your videos play at 0.01× speed. You can smoothly slow down and speed up your footage, optionally with motion blur. How does slow motion work? slowmoVideo tries to find out where pixels move in the video (this information is called Optical Flow), and then uses this information to calculate the additional frames between the ones recorded by your camera.



  • Futatabi - multi-camera instant replay system with slow motion. It supports efficient real-time interpolation using optical flow, making for full-framerate output without having to use special high-framerate cameras. (Of course, interpolation can only take you so far, and the results will depend on the type of content.) Futatabi is currently in alpha. It is distributed and built together with Nageru.


  • - plugin for AviSynth 2.6 is a collection of functions for estimation and compensation of objects motion in video clips. Motion compensation may be used for strong temporal denoising, advanced framerate conversions, image restoration and other tasks.


  • SVP - 60 fps / 120 fps HFR motion interpolation for Windows, macOS in mpv, VLC, Plex - $


  • motioninterpolation.vpy - Realtime motion interpolating playback in mpv. SVP now has a free (but proprietary) version of their software, which includes a GPU port of the MVTools functions, making this much less resource intense.


Synfig Studio

  • Synfig Studio - a free and open-source 2D animation software, designed as powerful industrial-strength solution for creating film-quality animation using a vector and bitmap artwork. It eliminates the need to create animation frame-by frame, allowing you to produce 2D animation of a higher quality with fewer people and resources. Synfig Studio is available for Windows, Linux and MacOS X.


  • OpenToonz - based on the software "Toonz", which was developed by Digital Video S.p.A. in Italy, customized by Studio Ghibli, and has been used for creating its works for many years. Dwango launches this OpenToonz project, in cooperation with Digital Video and Studio Ghibli.


  • Animata - an open source real-time animation software, designed to create animations, interactive background projections for concerts, theatre and dance performances.

Linux Stopmotion

  • Linux Stopmotion - a Free Open Source application to create stop-motion animations. It helps you capture and edit the frames of your animation and export them as a single file.


  • Papagayo - a lip-syncing program designed to line up phonemes (mouth shapes) with the actual recorded sound of actors speaking.

teenage engineering videolab

to sort

VFX / 3D

  • Gaffer is a general purpose node-based application designed for use in the visual effects industry. It provides basic tools for procedural scene generation, shader authoring, rendering, and image compositing.

  • appleseed is a modern, open source, physically-based rendering engine for VFX and animation.

  • PixelStruct is an opensource tool for visualizing 3D scenes reconstructed from photographs. It uses the opensource structure-from-motion system Bundler, which is based on the same research as Microsoft Live Labs Photosynth.

  • Electric Sheep - a collaborative abstract artwork founded by Scott Draves. It's run by thousands of people all over the world, and can be installed on almost anything. When these computers "sleep", the Electric Sheep comes on and the computers communicate with each other by the internet to share the work of creating morphing abstract animations known as "sheep". Anyone watching one of these computers may vote for their favorite animations using the keyboard. The more popular sheep live longer and reproduce according to a genetic algorithm with mutation and cross-over. Hence the flock evolves to please its global audience. The Electric Sheep are a free and open source service. The Gold Sheep are an HD premium version.

  • vid.stab - Transcode video stabilization plugin. Imagine you captured a nice video with your camcorder, compact camera or even cell phone while skiing, cycling or whatever sports and the video is basically just jiggled. Modern cameras come along with hardware stabilisation, however this does not work if you have really strong vibrations - rather the contrary sometimes this mechanisms start to oscillate. Vid.Stab is your friend in this matter. It is integrated in transcode, ffmpeg (check also static builds) and kdenlive. It is designed to stabilize even strongly jiggled clips.


  • OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision Library) is an open source computer vision and machine learning software library. OpenCV was built to provide a common infrastructure for computer vision applications and to accelerate the use of machine perception in the commercial products. Being a BSD-licensed product, OpenCV makes it easy for businesses to utilize and modify the code.

  • - quick code to create a rolling shutter effect... I've been wanting to do this for a long time and finally took the 300cc's of "cowboy the fuck up" necissary to get opencv installed.


Machine learning

  • - a portmanteau of "deep learning" and "fake", is an artificial intelligence-based human image synthesis technique. It is used to combine and superimpose existing images and videos onto source images or videos.



See Streaming, Sharing#Streaming


  • QMagneto is an EPG (Electronic Program Guide) which displays current and future TV programs. It can also program the recording of broadcasts by calling an external program like VLC or mencoder. It is possible to record programs from a BOX (French Neufbox or Freebox) or a DVB-T device.




  • UV4L - UV4L was originally conceived as a modular collection of Video4Linux2-compliant, cross-platform, user space drivers for real or virtual video input and output devices (with absolutely no external difference from kernel drivers). While still preserving the original intentions, UV4L has evolved over the years and now optionally includes a generic purpose Streaming Server plug-in, especially made for IoT devices, that can serve custom web applications that can make use of a number of standard and modern built-in services for Real-Time Communications such as encrypted, bidirectional data channels, audio and video streaming or conferencing over the web. UV4L also provides a RESTful API for the developers who want to implement their own custom applications.

w_scan -ft -c [country_code] > ~/channels.conf





  • - an electronic device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card, SSD or other local or networked mass storage device. The term includes set-top boxes with direct to disk recording, portable media players and TV gateways with recording capability, and digital camcorders. Personal computers are often connected to video capture devices and used as DVRs; in such cases the application software used to record video is an integral part of the DVR. Many DVRs are classified as consumer electronic devices; such devices may alternatively be referred to as personal video recorders (PVRs), particularly in Canada.





  • Sonarr - a PVR for Usenet and BitTorrent users. It can monitor multiple RSS feeds for new episodes of your favorite shows and will grab, sort and rename them. It can also be configured to automatically upgrade the quality of files already downloaded when a better quality format becomes available.



  • - a type of software used to create and edit subtitles to be superimposed over, and synchronized with, video. Such editors usually provide video preview, easy entering/editing of text, start, and end times, and control over text formatting and positioning. Subtitle editors are available as standalone applications, as components of many video editing software suites, and as web applications.

  • - An open source text-based subtitle editor that supports basic and advanced editing operations, aiming to become an improved version of Subtitle Workshop for every platform supported by Plasma Frameworks.


to sort


  • - subdl - command-line tool to download subtitles from Official support for subdl seems to have been dropped. This site is intended for the future use of subdl with community driven support.


  • movie thumbnailer (mtn) -- saves thumbnails (screenshots) of movie or video files to jpeg files. It uses FFmpeg's libavcodec as its engine, so it supports all popular codecs, e.g. divx h264 mpeg1 mpeg2 mp4 vc1 wmv xvid, and formats, e.g. .3gp .avi .dat .mkv .wmv. mtn is open source software. It should run on all operating systems which have gcc, FFmpeg, and GD, for example, Linux and Windows.

Projection / mapping

  • Painting With Light - a complete video mapping tool that enables artists of any technical ability to paint with static and moving images through any video projector onto 3D physical objects. It is an ongoing project for digital artist Alex May who uses it for his own installations and performances, and wants to democratise video mapping and put the medium in the hands of artists. Windows/Mac. Linux build unavailable currently.

  • - refers to immersive dome-based video projection environments. The dome, horizontal or tilted, is filled with real-time (interactive) or pre-rendered (linear) computer animations, live capture images, or composited environments.

  • - an application designed to calibrate multiple projectors on a hemispherical dome surface and display a domemaster formatted video, image, or interactive application. vDome also supports the play back of HD video files. vDome is generally used in two ways: 1) as a media player and 2) as a background process that listens to hardware/software input streams such as cameras, capture cards, and inter-application protocols such as Syphon, Spout, and Video4Linux.

Video wall

Demos and intros

Machine elarning







  • UbuWeb is a completely independent resource dedicated to all strains of the avant-garde, ethnopoetics, and outsider arts.

  • AVLD is a V4L kernel driver created to simulate a physical recording video device like a webcam or a video capture card. The following non-exhaustive list provides some uses that can be done of AVLD: Send a video via a video conferencing software like Skype, Gmail or Adobe Flash, Capture your screen in realtime with a specific software and share it via a video conferencing software like Skype, Gmail or Adobe Flash, Use it with an image processing (or other) software which has been designed to use a video device as input, In order to use it, you just have to send the video stream on it by using, for instance, mplayer or ffmpeg. That's all you have to do !!

  • Fugio - an open visual programming system designed for rapid development of digital art and other projects. It is designed to enable anyone who wants to work creatively with technology to learn and experiment without needing to get bogged down in how ideas need to be implemented in programming. Fugio has been designed and coded by artist Alex May who uses it for his installations.

  • AVTK - a user-interface toolkit. The letters are short for the OpenAV ToolKit. It is focused on custom widgets, and making it really easy to code slick user-interfaces. Totally anti-aliased, and it redraws fast.