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- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photograph - or photo is an image created by light falling on a photosensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see. The process and practice of creating such images is called photography. The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς (phos), meaning "light", and γραφή (graphê), meaning "drawing, writing", together meaning "drawing with light".
- The Bastards Book of Photography by Dan Nguyen - An open-source guide to working with light
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photographic_film - a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_camera - or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory. Most cameras produced today are digital, and while there are still compact cameras on the market, the use of dedicated digital cameras is dwindling, as digital cameras are now incorporated into many devices ranging from mobile devices to vehicles. However, high-end, high-definition dedicated cameras are still commonly used by professionals.
- Electro-Optic Camera: The first DSLR - designed and constructed by Eastman Kodak Company under a U.S. Government contract in 1987 and 1988. Kodak's Microelectronics Technology Division (MTD) had announced the first megapixel CCD in 1986. In 1987, a government customer asked Kodak's Federal Systems Division (FSD) to build a prototype camera around the new CCD. It was a true skunk works project with a very small team. Ken Cupery was the project manager. I (Jim McGarvey) was the lead engineer. MTD engineer Bill Toohey designed the CCD analog circuitry, and technician Tom McCarthy assembled the whole system. 
- Magic Lantern - a free software add-on that runs from the SD/CF card and adds a host of new features to Canon EOS cameras that weren't included from the factory by Canon.
- Dronestagram - Share your best aerial pictures viewed from a drone
- WikiShootMe! - nearby wikipedia articles needing images
- AXIOM Beta - a professional digital cinema camera built around FOSS and open hardware licenses.
- darktable is an open source photography workflow application and RAW developer. A virtual lighttable and darkroom for photographers. It manages your digital negatives in a database, lets you view them through a zoomable lighttable and enables you to develop raw images and enhance them.
- LightZone is professional-level digital darkroom software for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux, that includes RAW processing and editing. Rather than using layers in the way that other photo editors do, LightZone lets the user build up a stack of tools which can be rearranged, readjusted, turned off and on, and removed from the stack. It's a completely non-destructive editor, where any of the tools can be re-adjusted or modified later — even in a different editing session. A tool stack can even be copied to a batch of photos at one time. LightZone always operates in a 16-bit linear color space with the wide gamut of ProPhoto RGB.
- gPhoto2 - a free, redistributable, ready to use set of digital camera software applications for Unix-like systems, written by a whole team of dedicated volunteers around the world. It supports more than 2100 cameras and runs on a large range of UNIX-like operating system, including Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS X, etc. gPhoto is provided by major Linux distributions like Debian GNU/Linux, Ubuntu, Gentoo, Fedora, openSUSE, Mandriva, etc.
- ART - a free, open-source, cross-platform raw image processing program. ART is a derivative of the popular RawTherapee, trading a bit of customization and control over various processing parameters for a simpler and (hopefully) easier to use interface, while still maintaining the power and quality of RawTherapee.
- https://github.com/hanatos/vkdt - an experimental complete rewrite of darktable, naturally at this point with a heavily reduced feature set.
- https://github.com/CarVac/filmulator-gui - a film emulator with all of the positives and none of the negatives.
- ExifTool by Phil Harvey - a platform-independent Perl library plus a command-line application for reading, writing and editing meta information in a wide variety of files. ExifTool supports many different metadata formats including EXIF, GPS, IPTC, XMP, JFIF, GeoTIFF, ICC Profile, Photoshop IRB, FlashPix, AFCP and ID3, as well as the maker notes of many digital cameras by Canon, Casio, DJI, FLIR, FujiFilm, GE, GoPro, HP, JVC/Victor, Kodak, Leaf, Minolta/Konica-Minolta, Motorola, Nikon, Nintendo, Olympus/Epson, Panasonic/Leica, Pentax/Asahi, Phase One, Reconyx, Ricoh, Samsung, Sanyo, Sigma/Foveon and Sony.
- https://github.com/aferrero2707/PhotoFlow - on-destructive photo retouching program with a complete workflow including RAW image development.
- https://github.com/rompe/exiflow - A set of tools (command line and GUI) to provide a complete digital photo workflow for Unixes. EXIF headers are used as the central information repository, so users may change their software at any time without loosing their data.
- ExifTool - a platform-independent Perl library plus a command-line application for reading, writing and editing meta information in a wide variety of files. ExifTool supports many different metadata formats including EXIF, GPS, IPTC, XMP, JFIF, GeoTIFF, ICC Profile, Photoshop IRB, FlashPix, AFCP and ID3, as well as the maker notes of many digital cameras by Canon, Casio, DJI, FLIR, FujiFilm, GE, GoPro, HP, JVC/Victor, Kodak, Leaf, Minolta/Konica-Minolta, Motorola, Nikon, Nintendo, Olympus/Epson, Panasonic/Leica, Pentax/Asahi, Phase One, Reconyx, Ricoh, Samsung, Sanyo, Sigma/Foveon and Sony.