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Things and Stuff Wiki - an organically evolving personal wiki knowledge base with a totally on-the-fly taxonomy containing topic outlines, descriptions and breadcrumbs, with links to sites, systems, software, manuals, organisations, people, articles, guides, slides, papers, books, comments, screencasts, webcasts, scratchpads and more. use the Table of Contents to navigate and the Small-ToC / Tiny-TOC header links on longer pages. probably not that mobile friendly atm. i am milk on freenode, give me a pm for feedback, or see About for login and further information. / et / em


to sort

still a big mess

See also a lot of Audio, Lighting#Visualisation


Theory / analysis

mixed up

  • - the study of the practices and possibilities of music. It is derived from observation of, and involves hypothetical speculation about how musicians and composers make music. The term also describes the academic study and analysis of fundamental elements of music such as pitch, rhythm, harmony, and form, and refers to descriptions, concepts, or beliefs related to music. Because of the ever-expanding conception of what constitutes music (see Definition of music), a more inclusive definition could be that music theory is the consideration of any sonic phenomena, including silence, as it relates to music.

  • - the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology is part of the humanities. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist.

Traditionally, historical musicology (commonly termed "music history") has been the most prominent sub-discipline of musicology. In the 2010s, historical musicology is one of several large musicology sub-disciplines. Historical musicology, ethnomusicology, and systematic musicology are approximately equal in size. Ethnomusicology is the study of music in its cultural context. Systematic musicology includes music acoustics, the science and technology of acoustical musical instruments, and the musical implications of physiology, psychology, sociology, philosophy and computing. Cognitive musicology is the set of phenomena surrounding the computational modeling of music. In some countries, music education is a prominent sub-field of musicology, while in others it is regarded as a distinct academic field, or one more closely affiliated with teacher education, educational research, and related fields. Like music education, music therapy is a specialized form of applied musicology which is sometimes considered more closely affiliated with health fields, and other times regarded as part of musicology proper.

YouTube channels:

  • - also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments, and which enables listeners to hear even different instruments from the same category as different (e.g. a viola and a violin).

The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include spectrum and envelope. Singers and instrumental musicians can change the timbre of the music they are singing/playing by using different singing or playing techniques. For example, a violinist can use different bowing styles or play on different parts of the string to obtain different timbres (e.g., playing sul tasto produces a light, airy timbre, whereas playing sul ponticello produces a harsh, even an aggressive tone). On electric guitar and electric piano, performers can change the timbre using effects units and graphic equalizers.

In simple terms, timbre is what makes a particular musical sound have a different sound from another, even when they have the same pitch and loudness. For instance, it is the difference in sound between a guitar and a piano playing the same note at the same volume. Both instruments can sound equally tuned in relation to each other as they play the same note, and while playing at the same amplitude level each instrument will still sound distinctively with its own unique tone color. Experienced musicians are able to distinguish between different instruments of the same type based on their varied timbres, even if those instruments are playing notes at the same pitch and loudness.

  • - the difference between two pitches. An interval may be described as horizontal, linear, or melodic if it refers to successively sounding tones, such as two adjacent pitches in a melody, and vertical or harmonic if it pertains to simultaneously sounding tones, such as in a chord.

In Western music, intervals are most commonly differences between notes of a diatonic scale. The smallest of these intervals is a semitone. Intervals smaller than a semitone are called microtones. They can be formed using the notes of various kinds of non-diatonic scales. Some of the very smallest ones are called commas, and describe small discrepancies, observed in some tuning systems, between enharmonically equivalent notes such as C♯ and D♭. Intervals can be arbitrarily small, and even imperceptible to the human ear.

In physical terms, an interval is the ratio between two sonic frequencies. For example, any two notes an octave apart have a frequency ratio of 2:1. This means that successive increments of pitch by the same interval result in an exponential increase of frequency, even though the human ear perceives this as a linear increase in pitch. For this reason, intervals are often measured in cents, a unit derived from the logarithm of the frequency ratio.

  • - a logarithmic unit of measure used for musical intervals. Twelve-tone equal temperament divides the octave into 12 semitones of 100 cents each. Typically, cents are used to express small intervals, or to compare the sizes of comparable intervals in different tuning systems, and in fact the interval of one cent is too small to be heard between successive notes.

Alexander J. Ellis based the measure on the acoustic logarithms decimal semitone system developed by Gaspard de Prony in the 1830s, at Robert Holford Macdowell Bosanquet's suggestion. Ellis made extensive measurements of musical instruments from around the world, using cents extensively to report and compare the scales employed, and further described and employed the system in his 1875 edition of Hermann von Helmholtz's On the Sensations of Tone. It has become the standard method of representing and comparing musical pitches and intervals.

  • - a ratio of the frequencies of the pitches in a musical interval. For example, a just perfect fifth (for example C to G) is 3:2 , 1.5, and may be approximated by an equal tempered perfect fifth which is 27/12 (about 1.498). If the A above middle C is 440 Hz, the perfect fifth above it would be E, at (440*1.5=) 660 Hz, while the equal tempered E5 is 659.255 Hz.

  • - the first scale degree of a diatonic scale and the tonal center or final resolution tone that is commonly used in the final cadence in tonal (musical key-based) Classical music, popular music and traditional music. The triad formed on the tonic note, the tonic chord, is thus the most significant chord in these styles of music. More generally, the tonic is the pitch upon which all other pitches of a piece are hierarchically referenced. Scales are named after their tonics, thus the tonic of the scale of C is the note C. Simple folk music and traditional songs may begin and end on the tonic note.

  • - refers to the position of a particular note on a scale relative to the tonic, the the first and main note of the scale from which each octave is assumed to begin. The term is useful for indicating the size of intervals and chords, and whether they are major or minor.

Scale degrees can be applied to any musical scale; however, the concept is most commonly applied to scales in which a tonic is specified by definition, such as the 7-tone diatonic scales (e.g. the C-major scale C–D–E–F–G–A–B, in which C is the tonic). It is possible to assign a scale degree to the 12-tone chromatic scale, but this of no effect as all note have the same importance in that scale, as is its intended purpose. The expression scale step is sometimes used synonymously with scale degree, but it may alternatively refer to the distance between between two successive scale degrees (see Steps and skips). The terms whole step and half step are commonly used as interval names. The number of scale degrees and the distance between them together define the scale they are in.

  • - a sequence of incomposite intervals (ditones, minor thirds, whole tones, semitones of various sizes, or quarter tones) making up a complete octave (Barbera 1984, 231–32). The concept was also important in Medieval and Renaissance music theory.

  • - the fifth scale degree of the diatonic scale, called "dominant" because it is next in importance to the tonic, and a dominant chord is any chord built upon that pitch, using the notes of the same diatonic scale. The dominant is sung as so in solfege. The dominant function (diatonic function) has the role of creating instability that requires the tonic for resolution.

  • - any eight-note musical scale. The scale most often meant by this term is one in which the notes ascend in alternating intervals of a whole step and a half step, creating a symmetric scale.

  • - a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below another. On a modern piano or other equal-tempered instrument, all the semitones have the same size (100 cents). In other words, the notes of an equal-tempered chromatic scale are equally spaced. An equal-tempered chromatic scale is a nondiatonic scale having no tonic because of the symmetry of its equally spaced notes.

  • - a system of musical tuning in which the frequency ratios of all intervals are based on the ratio 3:2. This ratio, also known as the "pure" perfect fifth, is chosen because it is one of the most consonant and easiest to tune by ear and because of importance attributed to the integer 3. As Novalis put it, "The musical proportions seem to me to be particularly correct natural proportions." Alternatively, it can be described as the tuning of the syntonic temperament in which the generator is the ratio 3:2 (i.e., the untempered perfect fifth), which is 702 cents wide

kind of blue, miles davis

  • - or chord factor is a member or component of a chord. These are named root, third, fifth, sixth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, thirteenth, and so on, for their generic interval above the root. In harmony, the consonance and dissonance of a chord factor and a nonchord tone are distinguished, respectively.

  • - efers to the musical theories of German theorist Hugo Riemann (1849–1919). His theoretical writings cover many topics, including musical logic, notation, harmony, melody, phraseology, the history of music theory, etc. More particularly, the term Riemannian theory often refers to his theory of harmony, characterized mainly by its dualism and by a concept of harmonic functions.
  • - a loose collection of ideas present in the writings of music theorists such as David Lewin, Brian Hyer, Richard Cohn, and Henry Klumpenhouwer. What binds these ideas is a central commitment to relating harmonies directly to each other, without necessary reference to a tonic. Initially, those harmonies were major and minor triads; subsequently, neo-Riemannian theory was extended to standard dissonant sonorities as well. Harmonic proximity is characteristically gauged by efficiency of voice leading. Thus, C major and E minor triads are close by virtue of requiring only a single semitonal shift to move from one to the other. Motion between proximate harmonies is described by simple transformations. For example, motion between a C major and E minor triad, in either direction, is executed by an "L" transformation.

  • Maqam World - a non-commercial, educational web site dedicated to helping musicians understand the maqam or modal system used in classical Arabic music. Maqam World attempts to simplify the subject for the Arabic music beginner, while trying hard to remain correct and not exclude any essential information. As this is a very rich subject, this web site is a work in progress which relies on the contribution of musicians and the feedback of its reader community.

  • Harmony Explained: Progress Towards A Scientific Theory of Music - The Major Scale, The Standard Chord Dictionary, and The Difference of Feeling Between The Major and Minor Triads Explained from the First Principles of Physics and Computation; The Theory of Helmholtz Shown To Be Incomplete and The Theory of Terhardt and Some Others Considered



Toned Ear


  • EarToner - ear training software to help you learn to identify various musical sounds such as intervals, chords, scales and whether two notes are in tune with each other. It is designed to be easy to use and quick to setup. I originally wrote a rough version for myself just for identifying intervals. When I mentioned it to other musical friends they were very interested in using it also. I thought I would just formalize it a little more and release it for free on the internet to whoever wants to use it.

LenMus Phonascus

  • LenMus Phonascus - a free open source program (GPL v3) for learning music. It allows you to focus on specific skills and exercises, on both theory and aural training. The different activities can be customized to meet your needs.


  • Nootka - an application to learn classical score notation. It helps to understand the rules of reading and writing scores and helps with developing skills of playing and singing notes. The application is free and open source. It works under Windows, Linux, MacOs and Android.



See also Audio#Formats

  • - the marks and symbols, used since about the 13th century in the musical notation of musical scores, styles, and instruments to describe pitch, rhythm, tempo and, to some degree, its articulation (a composition in its fundamentals).

  • semibreve, 4/4
  • minim, 2/4
  • crotchet, 1/4
  • semi-quaver, 1/8
  • etc.

  • Mutopia Project - offers sheet music editions of classical music for free download. These are based on editions in the public domain or under Creative Commons licenses. 2099 pieces of music – free to download, modify, print, copy, distribute, perform, and record – in PDF, MIDI, and editable LilyPond file formats.
  • SMuFL - Standard Music Font Layout is a Steinberg specification that provides a standard way of mapping the thousands of musical symbols required by conventional music notation into the Private Use Area in Unicode’s Basic Multilingual Plane for a single (format-independent) font.

  • GNBU Solfege - an ear training program written in Python intended to help musicians improve their skills and knowledge. It is free software and part of the GNU Project.
  • Jalmus - a free, open source music education software helping the musicians, especially pianists, to improve their sight-reading. You can train to read music with both exercises on notes or rhythms.

  • Impro-Visor - short for “Improvisation Advisor”, is a music notation program designed to help jazz musicians compose and hear solos similar to ones that might be improvised. The objective is to improve understanding of solo construction and tune chord changes. There are other, secondary, things it can do, such as improvise on its own. It has also been used for transcription. Because rhythm-section (e.g. piano, bass, drums) accompaniment is automatically generated from chords, Impro-Visor can be used as a play-along device. Now having a wider array of accompaniment styles, its use is not limited to jazz.

  • Nootka - an application to learn classical score notation. It helps to understand the rules of reading and writing scores and helps with developing skills of playing and singing notes. Simply: users looks at piece of a score, plays it, Nootka is listening to it, checks and shows was it played well. All in real time.

  • - a system of attributing a distinct syllable to each note in a musical scale. Various forms of solmization are in use and have been used throughout the world, but solfège is the most common convention in Europe and North America.

  • - a music notation designed to facilitate congregational and community singing. The notation, introduced in 1801, became a popular teaching device in American singing schools. Shapes were added to the note heads in written music to help singers find pitches within major and minor scales without the use of more complex information found in key signatures on the staff.

  • Hummingbird - A fresh take on music notation — easier to learn, faster to read, and simpler for even the trickiest music.

  • - Free Sheet Music, Riffs, Lessons and Tools for musicians who play.


  • - (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry" (Liddell and Scott 1996)) generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions" (Anon. 1971, 2537). This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to millions of years.

In the performance arts rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale; of musical sounds and silences, of the steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry. Rhythm may also refer to visual presentation, as "timed movement through space" (Jirousek 1995,[page needed]) and a common language of pattern unites rhythm with geometry. In recent years, rhythm and meter have become an important area of research among music scholars. Recent work in these areas includes books by Maury Yeston (1976), Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff (Lerdahl and Jackendoff 1983), Jonathan Kramer, Christopher Hasty (1997), Godfried Toussaint (2005), William Rothstein (1989), and Joel Lester (Lester 1986).

In Thinking and Destiny, Harold W. Percival defined rhythm as the character and meaning of thought expressed through the measure or movement in sound or form, or by written signs or words (Percival 1946, 1006).

  • - of music is its rhythmic structure, the patterns of accents heard in regularly recurring measures of stressed and unstressed beats (arsis and thesis) at the frequency of the music's pulse.

A variety of systems exist throughout the world for organising and playing metrical music, such as the Indian system of tala and similar systems in Arabian and African music.

Western music inherited the concept of metre from poetry (Scholes 1977; Latham 2002b) where it denotes: the number of lines in a verse; the number of syllables in each line; and the arrangement of those syllables as long or short, accented or unaccented (Scholes 1977; Latham 2002b). The first coherent system of rhythmic notation in modern Western music was based on rhythmic modes derived from the basic types of metrical unit in the quantitative meter of classical ancient Greek and Latin poetry (Hoppin 1978, 221).

Later music for dances such as the pavane and galliard consisted of musical phrases to accompany a fixed sequence of basic steps with a defined tempo and time signature. The English word "measure", originally an exact or just amount of time, came to denote either a poetic rhythm, a bar of music, or else an entire melodic verse or dance (Merriam-Webster 2015) involving sequences of notes, words, or movements that may last four, eight or sixteen bars.

  • - terms used to distinguish two types of both rhythm and meter. A divisive (or, more commonly, multiplicative) rhythm is a rhythm in which a larger period of time is divided into smaller rhythmic units or, conversely, some integer unit is regularly multiplied into larger, equal units; this can be contrasted with additive rhythm, in which larger periods of time are constructed by concatenating (joining end to end) a series of units into larger units of unequal length, such as a 5/8 meter produced by the regular alternation of 2/8 and 3/8 (London 2001, §I.8). When applied to meters, the terms "perfect" and "imperfect" are sometimes used as the equivalents of "divisive" and "additive", respectively (Read 1969, 150).

  • - a rhythmic pattern, or repeated rhythm establishing the meter and groove through the pulse and subdivision, played on drum kits and other percussion instruments. As such a "beat" consists of multiple drum strokes occurring over multiple musical beats while the term "drum beat" may also refer to a single drum stroke which may occupy more or less time than the current pulse. Many drum beats define or are characteristic of specific music genres.
  • - a rhythmic pattern, often a key pattern (also known as a guide pattern, phrasing referent, timeline, or asymmetrical timeline), struck on an Idiophone, in most cases, a metal bell, such as an agogô, gankoqui, or cowbell, or a hollowed piece of wood, or wooden claves. In contemporary music, bell patterns are also played on the metal shell of the timbales, and drum kit cymbals.
  • - a rhythmic pattern used as a tool for temporal organization in Afro-Cuban music. It is present in a variety of genres such as Abakuá music, rumba, conga, son, mambo, salsa, songo, timba and Afro-Cuban jazz. The five-stroke clave pattern represents the structural core of many Afro-Cuban rhythms.

The clave pattern originated in sub-Saharan African music traditions, where it serves essentially the same function as it does in Cuba. In ethnomusicology, clave is also known as a key pattern, guide pattern, phrasing referent, timeline, or asymmetrical timeline. The clave pattern is also found in the African diaspora musics of Haitian Vodou drumming, Afro-Brazilian music, African American music which is known as Hambone and also found in Louisiana Voodoo drumming as well as Afro-Uruguayan music (candombe). The clave or known in the United States as hambone pattern is used in North American popular music as a rhythmic motif or simply a form of rhythmic decoration.



  • - or cross-rhythm is a specific form of polyrhythm. The term cross rhythm was introduced in 1934 by the musicologist Arthur Morris Jones (1889–1980). The technique of cross-rhythm is a simultaneous use of contrasting rhythmic patterns within the same scheme of accents or meter … By the very nature of the desired resultant rhythm, the main beat scheme cannot be separated from the secondary beat scheme. It is the interplay of the two elements that produces the cross-rhythmic texture.




See also Drumming#Other


  • Canta is a software that helps you develop your vocal talents. It will give you singing lessons while you have fun singing your favorite songs.


Pick instrument with suitable note and octave range and/or texture and learn it. At some point.







  • Music21 - a set of tools for helping scholars and other active listeners answer questions about music quickly and simply. If you’ve ever asked yourself a question like, “I wonder how often Bach does that” or “I wish I knew which band was the first to use these chords in this order,” or “I’ll bet we’d know more about Renaissance counterpoint (or Indian ragas or post-tonal pitch structures or the form of minuets) if I could write a program to automatically write more of them,” then music21 can help you with your work.






to sort


to mix; idm, technoid, less so general glitch, brokenbeat, some minimal, future garage, footwork, complextro, breakcore, etc.

why technoid tag isn't mainly idm/industrial;

Electronic and experimental






Italo disco





Rave, etc.

great book: all crews [rise up]

rare groove, synth -> breakbeat hardcore - > jungle > dnb etc.




later developments;

jungletek -

Drum and bass

Broken beat

Compost 100, Fabriclive 12



Hard dance

  • hard techno/trance, hardstyle. nu-nrg,



4th wave, poser noise


technoid - idm

industrial techno

industrial hardcore




Goa trance

goa parties. here's an actual video from one with laurent djing with goa gil wandering around; (video at bottom)

or mixes like;




as you go way back, things get much more eclectic and separated

83 was just new wave, synthpop, italo disco

and 76 is "Pop-rock, Psychedelic rock, Blues-rock, Disco, Electronic"!











Director Musices

  • Director Musices - a rule system for music performance. The point of this system is to take a musical score and make it sound like a real person is playing. This is accomplished by applying a set of relatively simple rules. Director Musices for Java, glued together with Clojure and armed bear Common Lisp.


  • Overtone Music Network - a free multifunctional portal and platform for overtone music and for all who enjoy this kind of overtone music. It is for all who are interested in the magic of harmonic, diphonic and overtone music.



  • IMSLP - stands for the International Music Score Library Project and was started in 2006. The logo on the main page is a capital letter A. It was taken from the beginning of the very first printed book of music, the Harmonice Musices Odhecaton. It was published in Venice in 1501 by Ottaviano Petrucci, the library's namesake.


See also Audio#Visualisation

  • Music21 is a set of tools for helping scholars and other active listeners answer questions about music quickly and simply. If you’ve ever asked yourself a question like, “I wonder how often Bach does that” or “I wish I knew which band was the first to use these chords in this order,” or “I’ll bet we’d know more about Renaissance counterpoint (or Indian ragas or post-tonal pitch structures or the form of minuets) if I could write a program to automatically write more of them,” then music21 can help you with your work.



  • BlitzLoop is an open source karaoke system inspired by Japanese karaoke machines. It uses a custom song format and supports multiple lyrics display styles, background videos, real-time audio stretching and pitch shifting, and also handles microphone echo. It is written in Python and Cython and uses OpenGL graphics on the host box, while the UI is remotely accessed through a web browser (e.g. running on a tablet).



to sort

what the heck is goin on? fire two blasts. woah. what the heck is goin on? americans could be killed, by a shotgun, by a drone, by a flame thrower, in your home, by the nsa, calm down, absurd, americans could be killed, by a left wing website