Music

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still a big mess

See also a lot of Audio

General

to sort


Psychology

Theory

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_theory - the study of the practices and possibilities of music. It is derived from observation of, and involves hypothetical speculation about how musicians and composers make music. The term also describes the academic study and analysis of fundamental elements of music such as pitch, rhythm, harmony, and form, and refers to descriptions, concepts, or beliefs related to music. Because of the ever-expanding conception of what constitutes music (see Definition of music), a more inclusive definition could be that music theory is the consideration of any sonic phenomena, including silence, as it relates to music.





  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbre - also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments, and which enables listeners to hear even different instruments from the same category as different (e.g. a viola and a violin).

The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include spectrum and envelope. Singers and instrumental musicians can change the timbre of the music they are singing/playing by using different singing or playing techniques. For example, a violinist can use different bowing styles or play on different parts of the string to obtain different timbres (e.g., playing sul tasto produces a light, airy timbre, whereas playing sul ponticello produces a harsh, even an aggressive tone). On electric guitar and electric piano, performers can change the timbre using effects units and graphic equalizers.

In simple terms, timbre is what makes a particular musical sound have a different sound from another, even when they have the same pitch and loudness. For instance, it is the difference in sound between a guitar and a piano playing the same note at the same volume. Both instruments can sound equally tuned in relation to each other as they play the same note, and while playing at the same amplitude level each instrument will still sound distinctively with its own unique tone color. Experienced musicians are able to distinguish between different instruments of the same type based on their varied timbres, even if those instruments are playing notes at the same pitch and loudness.




  • Harmony Explained: Progress Towards A Scientific Theory of Music - The Major Scale, The Standard Chord Dictionary, and The Difference of Feeling Between The Major and Minor Triads Explained from the First Principles of Physics and Computation; The Theory of Helmholtz Shown To Be Incomplete and The Theory of Terhardt and Some Others Considered







  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interval_(music) - the difference between two pitches. An interval may be described as horizontal, linear, or melodic if it refers to successively sounding tones, such as two adjacent pitches in a melody, and vertical or harmonic if it pertains to simultaneously sounding tones, such as in a chord.

In Western music, intervals are most commonly differences between notes of a diatonic scale. The smallest of these intervals is a semitone. Intervals smaller than a semitone are called microtones. They can be formed using the notes of various kinds of non-diatonic scales. Some of the very smallest ones are called commas, and describe small discrepancies, observed in some tuning systems, between enharmonically equivalent notes such as C♯ and D♭. Intervals can be arbitrarily small, and even imperceptible to the human ear.

In physical terms, an interval is the ratio between two sonic frequencies. For example, any two notes an octave apart have a frequency ratio of 2:1. This means that successive increments of pitch by the same interval result in an exponential increase of frequency, even though the human ear perceives this as a linear increase in pitch. For this reason, intervals are often measured in cents, a unit derived from the logarithm of the frequency ratio.


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cent_(music) - a logarithmic unit of measure used for musical intervals. Twelve-tone equal temperament divides the octave into 12 semitones of 100 cents each. Typically, cents are used to express small intervals, or to compare the sizes of comparable intervals in different tuning systems, and in fact the interval of one cent is too small to be heard between successive notes.

Alexander J. Ellis based the measure on the acoustic logarithms decimal semitone system developed by Gaspard de Prony in the 1830s, at Robert Holford Macdowell Bosanquet's suggestion. Ellis made extensive measurements of musical instruments from around the world, using cents extensively to report and compare the scales employed, and further described and employed the system in his 1875 edition of Hermann von Helmholtz's On the Sensations of Tone. It has become the standard method of representing and comparing musical pitches and intervals.



  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degree_(music) - refers to the position of a particular note on a scale relative to the tonic, the the first and main note of the scale from which each octave is assumed to begin. The term is useful for indicating the size of intervals and chords, and whether they are major or minor.

Scale degrees can be applied to any musical scale; however, the concept is most commonly applied to scales in which a tonic is specified by definition, such as the 7-tone diatonic scales (e.g. the C-major scale C–D–E–F–G–A–B, in which C is the tonic). It is possible to assign a scale degree to the 12-tone chromatic scale, but this of no effect as all note have the same importance in that scale, as is its intended purpose. The expression scale step is sometimes used synonymously with scale degree, but it may alternatively refer to the distance between between two successive scale degrees (see Steps and skips). The terms whole step and half step are commonly used as interval names. The number of scale degrees and the distance between them together define the scale they are in.




  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octave_species - a sequence of incomposite intervals (ditones, minor thirds, whole tones, semitones of various sizes, or quarter tones) making up a complete octave (Barbera 1984, 231–32). The concept was also important in Medieval and Renaissance music theory.



  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonic_(music) - the first scale degree of a diatonic scale and the tonal center or final resolution tone that is commonly used in the final cadence in tonal (musical key-based) Classical music, popular music and traditional music. The triad formed on the tonic note, the tonic chord, is thus the most significant chord in these styles of music. More generally, the tonic is the pitch upon which all other pitches of a piece are hierarchically referenced. Scales are named after their tonics, thus the tonic of the scale of C is the note C. Simple folk music and traditional songs may begin and end on the tonic note.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominant_(music) - the fifth scale degree of the diatonic scale, called "dominant" because it is next in importance to the tonic, and a dominant chord is any chord built upon that pitch, using the notes of the same diatonic scale. The dominant is sung as so in solfege. The dominant function (diatonic function) has the role of creating instability that requires the tonic for resolution.














kind of blue, miles davis












firefox;




Training

Notation

See also Audio#Formats


  • semibreve, 4/4
  • minim, 2/4
  • crotchet, 1/4
  • semi-quaver, 1/8
  • etc.


  • SMuFL - Standard Music Font Layout. Steinberg.
  • Impro-Visor (short for “Improvisation Advisor”) is a music notation program designed to help jazz musicians compose and hear solos similar to ones that might be improvised. The objective is to improve understanding of solo construction and tune chord changes. There are other, secondary, things it can do, such as improvise on its own. It has also been used for transcription. Because rhythm-section (e.g. piano, bass, drums) accompaniment is automatically generated from chords, Impro-Visor can be used as a play-along device. Now having a wider array of accompaniment styles, its use is not limited to jazz.


Rhythm

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhythm - (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry" (Liddell and Scott 1996)) generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions" (Anon. 1971, 2537). This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to millions of years.

In the performance arts rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale; of musical sounds and silences, of the steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry. Rhythm may also refer to visual presentation, as "timed movement through space" (Jirousek 1995,[page needed]) and a common language of pattern unites rhythm with geometry. In recent years, rhythm and meter have become an important area of research among music scholars. Recent work in these areas includes books by Maury Yeston (1976), Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff (Lerdahl and Jackendoff 1983), Jonathan Kramer, Christopher Hasty (1997), Godfried Toussaint (2005), William Rothstein (1989), and Joel Lester (Lester 1986).

In Thinking and Destiny, Harold W. Percival defined rhythm as the character and meaning of thought expressed through the measure or movement in sound or form, or by written signs or words (Percival 1946, 1006).


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meter_(music) - of music is its rhythmic structure, the patterns of accents heard in regularly recurring measures of stressed and unstressed beats (arsis and thesis) at the frequency of the music's pulse.

A variety of systems exist throughout the world for organising and playing metrical music, such as the Indian system of tala and similar systems in Arabian and African music.

Western music inherited the concept of metre from poetry (Scholes 1977; Latham 2002b) where it denotes: the number of lines in a verse; the number of syllables in each line; and the arrangement of those syllables as long or short, accented or unaccented (Scholes 1977; Latham 2002b). The first coherent system of rhythmic notation in modern Western music was based on rhythmic modes derived from the basic types of metrical unit in the quantitative meter of classical ancient Greek and Latin poetry (Hoppin 1978, 221).

Later music for dances such as the pavane and galliard consisted of musical phrases to accompany a fixed sequence of basic steps with a defined tempo and time signature. The English word "measure", originally an exact or just amount of time, came to denote either a poetic rhythm, a bar of music, or else an entire melodic verse or dance (Merriam-Webster 2015) involving sequences of notes, words, or movements that may last four, eight or sixteen bars.


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Additive_rhythm_and_divisive_rhythm - terms used to distinguish two types of both rhythm and meter. A divisive (or, more commonly, multiplicative) rhythm is a rhythm in which a larger period of time is divided into smaller rhythmic units or, conversely, some integer unit is regularly multiplied into larger, equal units; this can be contrasted with additive rhythm, in which larger periods of time are constructed by concatenating (joining end to end) a series of units into larger units of unequal length, such as a 5/8 meter produced by the regular alternation of 2/8 and 3/8 (London 2001, §I.8). When applied to meters, the terms "perfect" and "imperfect" are sometimes used as the equivalents of "divisive" and "additive", respectively (Read 1969, 150).


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_beat - a rhythmic pattern, or repeated rhythm establishing the meter and groove through the pulse and subdivision, played on drum kits and other percussion instruments. As such a "beat" consists of multiple drum strokes occurring over multiple musical beats while the term "drum beat" may also refer to a single drum stroke which may occupy more or less time than the current pulse. Many drum beats define or are characteristic of specific music genres.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_pattern - a rhythmic pattern, often a key pattern (also known as a guide pattern, phrasing referent, timeline, or asymmetrical timeline), struck on an Idiophone, in most cases, a metal bell, such as an agogô, gankoqui, or cowbell, or a hollowed piece of wood, or wooden claves. In contemporary music, bell patterns are also played on the metal shell of the timbales, and drum kit cymbals.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clave_(rhythm) - a rhythmic pattern used as a tool for temporal organization in Afro-Cuban music. It is present in a variety of genres such as Abakuá music, rumba, conga, son, mambo, salsa, songo, timba and Afro-Cuban jazz. The five-stroke clave pattern represents the structural core of many Afro-Cuban rhythms.

The clave pattern originated in sub-Saharan African music traditions, where it serves essentially the same function as it does in Cuba. In ethnomusicology, clave is also known as a key pattern, guide pattern, phrasing referent, timeline, or asymmetrical timeline. The clave pattern is also found in the African diaspora musics of Haitian Vodou drumming, Afro-Brazilian music, African American music which is known as Hambone and also found in Louisiana Voodoo drumming as well as Afro-Uruguayan music (candombe). The clave or known in the United States as hambone pattern is used in North American popular music as a rhythmic motif or simply a form of rhythmic decoration.






Euclidean

Polyrhythm

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-rhythm - or cross-rhythm is a specific form of polyrhythm. The term cross rhythm was introduced in 1934 by the musicologist Arthur Morris Jones (1889–1980). The technique of cross-rhythm is a simultaneous use of contrasting rhythmic patterns within the same scheme of accents or meter … By the very nature of the desired resultant rhythm, the main beat scheme cannot be separated from the secondary beat scheme. It is the interplay of the two elements that produces the cross-rhythmic texture.

Structure




Historical

Labels

Performance

  • Director Musices - a rule system for music performance. The point of this system is to take a musical score and make it sound like a real person is playing. This is accomplished by applying a set of relatively simple rules. Director Musices for Java, glued together with Clojure and armed bear Common Lisp.


  • Overtone Music Network is a free multifunctional portal and platform for overtone music and for all who enjoy this kind of overtone music. It is for all who are interested in the magic of harmonic, diphonic and overtone music.

Instruments

See also Drumming#Other

Singing

  • Canta is a software that helps you develop your vocal talents. It will give you singing lessons while you have fun singing your favorite songs.


Wind

Pick instrument with suitable note and octave range and/or texture and learn it. At some point.



Harmonica

String

Guitar

other

Electronic


Styles

  • Music21 - a set of tools for helping scholars and other active listeners answer questions about music quickly and simply. If you’ve ever asked yourself a question like, “I wonder how often Bach does that” or “I wish I knew which band was the first to use these chords in this order,” or “I’ll bet we’d know more about Renaissance counterpoint (or Indian ragas or post-tonal pitch structures or the form of minuets) if I could write a program to automatically write more of them,” then music21 can help you with your work.

Folk


Microtonal


Classical


Electronic



Mappings

to sort

Electronic

to mix; idm, technoid, less so general glitch, brokenbeat, some minimal, future garage, footwork, complextro, breakcore, etc.

why last.fm technoid tag isn't mainly idm/industrial;

Electronic and experimental





Noir

Minimal

Rock


Metal

Musak

Italo disco

Coldwave

Electro

House

Techno

Rave, etc.

great book: all crews [rise up]

rare groove, synth -> breakbeat hardcore - > jungle > dnb etc.

Hardcore


Breakbeat

Jungle

later developments;

jungletek - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dp5sN0-7wpQ

Drum and bass





Broken beat

Compost 100, Fabriclive 12

Garage

darker;



Hard dance

  • hard techno/trance, hardstyle. nu-nrg,

Industrial

records


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-industrial_music


4th wave, poser noise



similar/


technoid - idm


industrial techno

industrial hardcore

Noise

Ambient

Acid

Goa trance

goa parties. here's an actual video from one with laurent djing with goa gil wandering around;

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0FzuhqxWA0 (video at bottom)

or mixes like;

92:

86/91:

90:

as you go way back, things get much more eclectic and separated

83 was just new wave, synthpop, italo disco

and 76 is "Pop-rock, Psychedelic rock, Blues-rock, Disco, Electronic"!

Psytrance

Grime

Chiptune

Nerdcore


Dubstep


misc

Recommendations

Collaborative

Business

Free

Software

See also Audio#Visualisation

  • Music21 is a set of tools for helping scholars and other active listeners answer questions about music quickly and simply. If you’ve ever asked yourself a question like, “I wonder how often Bach does that” or “I wish I knew which band was the first to use these chords in this order,” or “I’ll bet we’d know more about Renaissance counterpoint (or Indian ragas or post-tonal pitch structures or the form of minuets) if I could write a program to automatically write more of them,” then music21 can help you with your work.


Lyrics

Karaoke

  • BlitzLoop is an open source karaoke system inspired by Japanese karaoke machines. It uses a custom song format and supports multiple lyrics display styles, background videos, real-time audio stretching and pitch shifting, and also handles microphone echo. It is written in Python and Cython and uses OpenGL graphics on the host box, while the UI is remotely accessed through a web browser (e.g. running on a tablet).

Services



MiR

to sort

what the heck is goin on? fire two blasts. woah. what the heck is goin on? americans could be killed, by a shotgun, by a drone, by a flame thrower, in your home, by the nsa, calm down, absurd, americans could be killed, by a left wing website