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See also Apple#Package management

  • - a collection of software tools that automates the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner.

A package manager deals with packages, distributions of software and data in archive files. Packages contain metadata, such as the software's name, description of its purpose, version number, vendor, checksum, and a list of dependencies necessary for the software to run properly. Upon installation, metadata is stored in a local package database. Package managers typically maintain a database of software dependencies and version information to prevent software mismatches and missing prerequisites. They work closely with software repositories, binary repository managers, and app stores.

Package managers are designed to eliminate the need for manual installs and updates. This can be particularly useful for large enterprises whose operating systems are based on Linux and other Unix-like systems, typically consisting of hundreds or even tens of thousands of distinct software packages.

  • pkg-config - a helper tool used when compiling applications and libraries. It helps you insert the correct compiler options on the command line so an application can use gcc -o test test.c `pkg-config --libs --cflags glib-2.0` for instance, rather than hard-coding values on where to find glib (or other libraries). It is language-agnostic, so it can be used for defining the location of documentation tools, for instance. The program is free software and licensed under the GPL version 2 or any later version (at your option). pkg-config works on multiple platforms: Linux and other UNIX-like operating systems, Mac OS X and Windows. It does not require anything but a reasonably well working C compiler and a C library, but can use an installed glib if that is present. (A copy of recent glib2 is shipped together with pkg-config versions since 0.27, and this is sufficient for pkg-config to compile and work properly.)

  • checkinstall - Installs a compiled program from the program's source directory using "make install" or any other command supplied on checkinstall's command line. checkinstall will create a Slackware, RPM or Debian compatible package and install it using your distribution's standard package administration utilities.

  • - Linux Software Catalog and Packages Search. RPM, DEB, TGZ, TXZ packages from well-known repositories of the Archlinux, Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, Scientific Linux, Debian, Ubuntu, openSUSE, Mandriva, Mageia and Slackware distributions; packages search by name, filename, summary, description, requires, provides, files and directories; pPowerful packages browser (summary, description, files, requires, provides, changelog, etc.)

to sort



pacman -Sh
  # -h flag for help on any Major flag

pacman -Syu
  # update repo lists and upgrade system

pacman -Ss packagename
  # search repos for packagename

pacman -S packagename
  # install packagename

pacman -Qo [file]
  # check what package owns a file

pacman -Qi
  # info on all installed programmes

pacman -Qi packagename
  # info in packagename

pacman -Ql packagename
  # list all files owned by packagename
pacman -Qqtd
  # check whether there are any orphaned packages

pacman -R packagename
  # remove package

pacman -Rsn packagename
  # remove package and it's deps (unless they are required by another program) and its related config files packages

pacman -Rc packagename
  # remove package and deps ('cascade')

pacaur -Rsn `pacaur -Qqtd`
  # remove all orphaned packages

for i in `pacman -Qdt | awk '{print $1}'`; do pacman -R $i ;  done
   # scriplet for if you don't know about -q

pacman -Rdd qt
  # remove qt, ignoring the fact that other programs depend on it
pacman -Syuuu
  # when qt4 replaced qt, but qt had deps.

AUR helpers

pacaur -Syuk
  # update db, install new packages, check aur packages

  • yaourt - very good search feature, coloured and paged results w/ number selection. you can pass a flag to makepkg, -c, to remove the build files, but there's no way to automatically remove source git repos(?)
yaourt packagename
  # search with interactive install

yaourt --noconfirm
  # no edit package build and no confirm prompt to install

yaourt -Syu --noconfirm
  # update all

yaourt -Syu --aur --noconfirm
  # update including AUR packages
yaourt -Syua --noconfirm --devel
  # update including AUR packages and check -git packages for newer latest commits to build


  • cacheclean - Cleans up pacman packages. Users selects how many old versions to keep.
cacheclean {-p} {-v} <# of copies to keep>
# of copies to keep - (required) how many generations of each package.
-p - (optional) preview what would be deleted.
-v - (optional) show deleted packages.

  • gist: - finds unused package on your Arch Linux box


  # template

 makepkg -g >> PKGBUILD && makepkg

"ERROR: PKGBUILD contains CRLF characters and cannot be sourced." Solution:

sed -i 's/^M//' PKGBUILD

[ctrl+v][ctrl+m] for the ^M symbol.

pacman -Qdt
  list all orphans
pacman -Rsn $(pacman -Qdtq)
  remove them all



  • - Jailed User NEST is a lightweight Arch Linux based distribution that allows to have an isolated GNU/Linux environment inside any generic host GNU/Linux OS and without the need to have root privileges for installing packages.


including ubuntu, linux mint and others

dpkg --get-selections > installed-software
  create list of installed software

dpkg --set-selections < installed-software
  reinstall from list
dpkg --list
  to check


apt-get install package
apt-cache search 'web server'
apt-find show python
 show files installed by package



Red Hat


7z also extracts rpm to cpio, and cpio to files.


  • Yum is an automatic updater and package installer/remover for rpm systems. It automatically computes dependencies and figures out what things should occur to install packages. It makes it easier to maintain groups of machines without having to manually update each one using rpm. Yum has a plugin interface for adding simple features. Yum can also be used from other python programs via its module inteface.


Gentoo Portage



  • Nix - a powerful package manager for Linux and other Unix systems that makes package management reliable and reproducible. It provides atomic upgrades and rollbacks, side-by-side installation of multiple versions of a package, multi-user package management and easy setup of build environments.

Ports Collection


  • - a software deployment and package management system originally designed and built by Canonical for the Ubuntu phone operating system. The packages, called 'snaps' and the tool for using them 'snapd', work across a range of Linux distributions and allow therefore distro-agnostic upstream software deployment. The system is designed to work for phone, cloud, internet of things and desktop computing. The snap format is a single compressed filesystem that is mounted dynamically by the host operating system, together with declarative metadata that is interpreted by the snap system to set up an appropriately shaped secure sandbox or container for that application. File format extension is .snap



  • Linuxbrew - a fork of Homebrew, the Mac OS package manager, for Linux. It can be installed in your home directory and does not require root access. The same package manager can be used on both your Linux server and your Mac laptop. Installing a modern version of glibc and gcc in your home directory on an old distribution of Linux takes five minutes.


  • PackageKit is a system designed to make installing and updating software on your computer easier. The primary design goal is to unify all the software graphical tools used in different distributions, and use some of the latest technology like PolicyKit. The actual nuts-and-bolts distro tool (dnf, apt, etc) is used by PackageKit using compiled and scripted helpers. PackageKit isn't meant to replace these tools, instead providing a common set of abstractions that can be used by standard GUI and text mode package managers. PackageKit itself is a system activated daemon called packagekitd. Being system activated means that it's only being run when the user is using a text mode or graphical tool, and quits when it's no longer being used. This means we don't delay the boot sequence or session startup and don't consume memory when not being used.



  • Zero Install - 0install, is a decentralised cross-platform software installation system available under the LGPL. It allows software developers to publish programs directly from their own web-sites, while supporting features familiar from centralised distribution repositories such as shared libraries, automatic updates and digital signatures. It is intended to complement, rather than replace, the operating system's package management. 0install packages never interfere with those provided by the distribution.


  • - a packaging tool built around the distributed, content addressed filesystem IPFS. It aims to be flexible, powerful and simple. gx is Alpha Quality. It's not perfect yet, but it's proven dependable enough for managing dependencies in go-ipfs and ready for pioneering developers early users to try out and explore. [6]