Networking

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Things and Stuff Wiki - an organically evolving knowledge base personal wiki with a totally on-the-fly taxonomy containing topic outlines, descriptions and breadcrumbs, with links to sites, systems, software, manuals, organisations, people, articles, guides, slides, papers, books, comments, screencasts, webcasts, scratchpads and more. use the Table of Contents for navigation on longer pages. see About for further information. / et / em

still a mess.

to totally rejig

Contents

General






  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel_(communications) - or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second. Communicating data from one location to another requires some form of pathway or medium. These pathways, called communication channels, use two types of media: cable (twisted-pair wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable) and broadcast (microwave, satellite, radio, and infrared).




  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connection-oriented_communication - a network communication mode in telecommunications and computer networking, where a communication session or a semi-permanent connection is established before any useful data can be transferred, and where a stream of data is delivered in the same order as it was sent. The alternative to connection-oriented transmission is connectionless communication, for example the datagram mode communication used by the IP and UDP protocols, where data may be delivered out of order, since different packets are routed independently, and may be delivered over different paths.


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connectionless_communication - often referred to as CL-mode communication, is a data transmission method used in packet switching networks in which each data unit is individually addressed and routed based on information carried in each unit, rather than in the setup information of a prearranged, fixed data channel as in connection-oriented communication. Under connectionless communication between two network end points, a message can be sent from one end point to another without prior arrangement. The device at one end of the communication transmits data addressed to the other, without first ensuring that the recipient is available and ready to receive the data. Some protocols allow for error correction by requested retransmission. Internet Protocol (IP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are connectionless protocols.


Topology














to sort




Internet


Backbone





Hardware



  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forwarding_information_base - also known as a forwarding table or MAC table, is most commonly used in network bridging, routing, and similar functions to find the proper interface to which the input interface should forward a packet. It is a dynamic table that maps MAC addresses to ports. It is the essential mechanism that separates network switches from network hubs. Content-addressable memory (CAM) is typically used to efficiently implement the FIB, thus it is sometimes called a CAM table.

Cisco

Home router

  • LEDE project is founded as a spin-off of the OpenWrt project and shares many of the same goals. We are building an embedded Linux distribution that makes it easy for developers, system administrators or other Linux enthusiasts to build and customize software for embedded devices, especially wireless routers. The name LEDE stands for Linux Embedded Development Environment. [5]

Quagga

  • Quagga is a routing software suite, providing implementations of OSPFv2, OSPFv3, RIP v1 and v2, RIPng and BGP-4 for Unix platforms, particularly FreeBSD, Linux, Solaris and NetBSD. Quagga is a fork of GNU Zebra.

Other


Software

See Comms, Security#Firewalls etc.

Linux

iputils

net-tools

route
  show (and temp. set) network routes avaliable. in /sbin, in root $PATH only
route -n
  show network routes available, just ip


iproute2

ip a
  # list network devices and their status

ip link set [interface] up
  # start a network interface

ip route add default via 192.168.0.1 dev eth0
  • http://linux.die.net/man/8/ss - used to dump socket statistics. It allows showing information similar to netstat. It can display more TCP and state informations than other tools.
  • https://loicpefferkorn.net/2016/03/linux-network-metrics-why-you-should-use-nstat-instead-of-netstat/ - netstat maintains a static table of metrics entries, while nstat parses the whole /proc files. Since netstat is obsolete, new entries are not taken into account. netstat appears more user-friendly by describing some metrics with plain English, while nstat displays raw information. This can be considered as an advantage to roughly identify the purpose of the metric, but also a drawback if you are interested in the RFC name of the variable, going through netstat source code is hence a mandatory step. Parsing nstat output is also easier, even almost done thanks to the JSON output format option.

systemd.network


Netctl

From Arch Linux devs, profile based


Connman

Generally for embedded systems.


Other

to resort

sudo lsof -i
  ports open

sudo netstat -plnt

ss -tnlp

sudo nmap -sT -O localhost
nc 127.0.0.1 123 < /dev/null; echo $?
  test local port, 1 for closed 0 for open


  advanced traceroute + ping





Configuration

Goes a little something like;

domain members.linode.com
search members.linode.com
nameserver 98.76.54.32
nameserver 76.54.32.10
options rotate

ipchains

Netfilter/iptables

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netfilter - a framework provided by the Linux kernel that allows various networking-related operations to be implemented in the form of customized handlers. Netfilter offers various functions and operations for packet filtering, network address translation, and port translation, which provide the functionality required for directing packets through a network, as well as for providing ability to prohibit packets from reaching sensitive locations within a computer network. Netfilter represents a set of hooks inside the Linux kernel, allowing specific kernel modules to register callback functions with the kernel's networking stack. Those functions, usually applied to the traffic in form of filtering and modification rules, are called for every packet that traverses the respective hook within the networking stack.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/iptables - a user-space application program that allows a system administrator to configure the tables provided by the Linux kernel firewall (implemented as different Netfilter modules) and the chains and rules it stores. Different kernel modules and programs are currently used for different protocols; iptables applies to IPv4, ip6tables to IPv6, arptables to ARP, and ebtables to Ethernet frames.

nftables

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/nftables - a subsystem of the Linux kernel providing filtering and classification of network packets/datagrams/frames. It has been available since Linux kernel 3.13 released on 19 January, 2014. nftables is supposed to replace netfilter. Both subsystems have been co-authored by Patrick McHardy. Among the advantages of nftables over netfilter is less code duplication and more throughput. nftables is configured via the user-space utility nft while netfilter is configured via the utilities iptables, ip6tables, arptables and ebtables frameworks. nftables utilizes the building blocks of the Netfilter infrastructure, such as the existing hooks into the networking stack, connection tracking system, userspace queueing component, and logging subsystem.


  • NCD - scripting language for network configuration and much more


  • Horde is linux-based networking middleware that allows an application to stripe data from multiple streams across a set of dissimilar wireless network channels. Horde's approach aims to decrease the programming costs associated with building complex mobile systems that use network striping.

Services

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/inetd - (internet service daemon) is a super-server daemon on many Unix systems that provides Internet services. For each configured service, it listens for requests from connecting clients. Requests are served by spawning a process which runs the appropriate executable, but simple services such as echo are served by inetd itself. External executables, which are run on request, can be single- or multi-threaded. First appearing in 4.3BSD, it is generally located at /usr/sbin/inetd. Often called a super-server, inetd listens on designated ports used by Internet services such as FTP, POP3, and telnet. When a TCP packet or UDP packet arrives with a particular destination port number, inetd launches the appropriate server program to handle the connection. For services that are not expected to run with high loads, this method uses memory more efficiently, since the specific servers run only when needed. Furthermore, no network code is required in the service-specific programs, as inetd hooks the sockets directly to stdin, stdout and stderr of the spawned process. For protocols that have frequent traffic, such as HTTP and POP3, a dedicated server that intercepts the traffic directly may be preferable.


  • http://linux.die.net/man/8/tcpd - whenever a request for service arrives, the inetd daemon is tricked into running the tcpd program instead of the desired server. tcpd logs the request and does some additional checks. When all is well, tcpd runs the appropriate server program and goes away.


In systemd, three target units take the role of $network:

network.target has very little meaning during start-up. It only indicates that the network management stack is up after it has been reached. Whether any network interfaces are already configured when it is reached is undefined. It's primary purpose is for ordering things properly at shutdown: since the shutdown ordering of units in systemd is the reverse of the startup ordering, any unit that is ordered After=network.target can be sure that it is stopped before the network is shut down if the system is powered off. This allows services to cleanly terminate connections before going down, instead of abruptly losing connectivity for ongoing connections, leaving them in an undefined state. Note that network.target is a passive unit: you cannot start it directly and it is not pulled in by any services that want to make use of the network. Instead, it is pulled in by the network management service itself. Services using the network should hence simply place an After=network.target dependency in their unit files, and avoid any Wants=network.target or even Requires=network.target.

network-online.target is a target that actively waits until the nework is "up", where the definition of "up" is defined by the network management software. Usually it indicates a configured, routable IP address of some kind. It's primary purpose is to actively delay activation of services until the network is set up. It is an active target, meaning that is may be pulled in by the services requiring the network to be up, but is not pulled in by the network management service itself. By default all remote mounts defined in /etc/fstab pull this service in, in order to make sure the network is up before it is attempted to connect to a network share. Note that normally, if no service requires it, and if not remote mount point is configured this target is not pulled into the boot, thus avoiding any delays during boot should the network not be available. It is strongly recommended not to pull in this target too liberally: for example network server software should generally not pull this in (since server software generally is happy to accept local connections even before any routable network interface is up), it's primary purpose is network client software that cannot operate without network.

network-pre.target is a target that may be used to order services before any network interface is configured. It's primary purpose is for usage with firewall services that want to establish a firewall before any network interface is up. It's a passive unit: you cannot start it directly and it is not pulled in by the the network management service, but by the service that wants to run before it. Network management services hence should set After=network-pre.target, but avoid any Wants=network-pre.target or even Requires=network-pre.target. Services that want to be run before the network is configured should place Before=network-pre.target and also set Wants=network-pre.target to pull it in. This way, unless there's actually a service that needs to be ordered before the network is up the target is not pulled in, hence avoiding any unnecessary synchronization point.

netcat

  • netcat is a versatile tool that is able to read and write data across TCP and UDP network . Combined with other tools and redirection it can be used in number of ways in your scripts. You will be surprised to see what you can accomplish with Linux netcat command.
nc -l 8888
  listen on port 8888

nc server1 8888
  connect to port 8888

Ncat

  • Ncat is a feature-packed networking utility which reads and writes data across networks from the command line. Ncat was written for the Nmap Project as a much-improved reimplementation of the venerable Netcat. It uses both TCP and UDP for communication and is designed to be a reliable back-end tool to instantly provide network connectivity to other applications and users. Ncat will not only work with IPv4 and IPv6 but provides the user with a virtually limitless number of potential uses.


to sort

  • Surfraw provides a fast unix command line interface to a variety of popular WWW search engines and other artifacts of power. It reclaims google, altavista, babelfish, dejanews, freshmeat, research index, slashdot and many others from the false-prophet, pox-infested heathen lands of html-forms, placing these wonders where they belong, deep in unix heartland, as god loving extensions to the shell.
  • Guidedog - an advanced routing/network configuration utility for KDE 3 and 4 running on Linux 2.4 & 2.6 based machines. Using Guidedog you can easily activate packet routing/forwarding and also more advanced networking such as IP masquerade and Port Forwarding.



  • Upside-Down-Ternet - My neighbours are stealing my wireless internet access. I could encrypt it or alternately I could have fun.



  • Scapy is a powerful interactive packet manipulation program. It is able to forge or decode packets of a wide number of protocols, send them on the wire, capture them, match requests and replies, and much more. It can easily handle most classical tasks like scanning, tracerouting, probing, unit tests, attacks or network discovery (it can replace hping, 85% of nmap, arpspoof, arp-sk, arping, tcpdump, tethereal, p0f, etc.). It also performs very well at a lot of other specific tasks that most other tools can't handle, like sending invalid frames, injecting your own 802.11 frames, combining technics (VLAN hopping+ARP cache poisoning, VOIP decoding on WEP encrypted channel, ...), etc.



  • socat is a relay for bidirectional data transfer between two independent data channels. Each of these data channels may be a file, pipe, device (serial line etc. or a pseudo terminal), a socket (UNIX, IP4, IP6 - raw, UDP, TCP), an SSL socket, proxy CONNECT connection, a file descriptor (stdin etc.), the GNU line editor (readline), a program, or a combination of two of these. These modes include generation of "listening" sockets, named pipes, and pseudo terminals.
socat -d -d TCP-L:22,reuseaddr,fork SYSTEM:"nc \$SOCAT_PEERADDR 22" # Confuse people SSHing to your host with a redirect back to theirs.
  • ncp - a fast file copy tool for LANs
  • bcp (Broadcast Copy) Any easy way to copy files between terminals or computers on a local network.
  • UDPcast is a file transfer tool that can send data simultaneously to many destinations on a LAN. This can for instance be used to install entire classrooms of PC's at once. The advantage of UDPcast over using other methods (nfs, ftp, whatever) is that UDPcast uses UDP's multicast abilities: it won't take longer to install 15 machines than it would to install just 2.
  • Tsunami UDP Protocol: A fast user-space file transfer protocol that uses TCP control and UDP data for transfer over very high speed long distance networks (≥ 1 Gbps and even 10 GE), designed to provide more throughput than possible with TCP over the same networks.



Monitoring


  • Netperf is a benchmark that can be used to measure the performance of many different types of networking. It provides tests for both unidirecitonal throughput, and end-to-end latency. The environments currently measureable by netperf include: TCP and UDP via BSD Sockets for both IPv4 and IPv6, DLPI, Unix Domain Sockets, SCTP for both IPv4 and IPv6


  • NetHogs is a small 'net top' tool. Instead of breaking the traffic down per protocol or per subnet, like most tools do, it groups bandwidth by process. NetHogs does not rely on a special kernel module to be loaded. If there's suddenly a lot of network traffic, you can fire up NetHogs and immediately see which PID is causing this. This makes it easy to indentify programs that have gone wild and are suddenly taking up your bandwidth.
  • nload is a console application which monitors network traffic and bandwidth usage in real time. It visualizes the in- and outgoing traffic using two graphs and provides additional info like total amount of transfered data and min/max network usage.
  • bwm-ng (Bandwidth Monitor NG) is a small and simple console-based live network and disk io bandwidth monitor for Linux, BSD, Solaris, Mac OS X and others.
  • tcptrack is a packet sniffer, which passively watches for connections on a specified network interface, tracks their states, and lists them in a manner similar to the Unix 'top' command. It displays source and destination addresses and ports, connection state, idle time, and bandwidth usage.
  • Ostinato is an open-source, cross-platform network packet crafter/traffic generator and analyzer with a friendly GUI. Craft and send packets of several streams with different protocols at different rates. For the full feature list see below. Ostinato aims to be "Wireshark in Reverse" and become complementary to Wireshark.
  • EtherApe is a graphical network monitor for Unix modeled after etherman. Featuring link layer, IP and TCP modes, it displays network activity graphically. Hosts and links change in size with traffic. Color coded protocols display.
  • hping is a command-line oriented TCP/IP packet assembler/analyzer. The interface is inspired to the ping(8) unix command, but hping isn't only able to send ICMP echo requests. It supports TCP, UDP, ICMP and RAW-IP protocols, has a traceroute mode, the ability to send files between a covered channel, and many other features.
  • ngrep strives to provide most of GNU grep's common features, applying them to the network layer. ngrep is a pcap-aware tool that will allow you to specify extended regular or hexadecimal expressions to match against data payloads of packets. It currently recognizes IPv4/6, TCP, UDP, ICMPv4/6, IGMP and Raw across Ethernet, PPP, SLIP, FDDI, Token Ring and null interfaces, and understands BPF filter logic in the same fashion as more common packet sniffing tools, such as tcpdump and snoop.
  • Cacti is a complete network graphing solution designed to harness the power of RRDTool's data storage and graphing functionality. Cacti provides a fast poller, advanced graph templating, multiple data acquisition methods, and user management features out of the box. All of this is wrapped in an intuitive, easy to use interface that makes sense for LAN-sized installations up to complex networks with hundreds of devices.
  • Bro is a passive, open-source network traffic analyzer. It is primarily a security monitor that inspects all traffic on a link in depth for signs of suspicious activity. More generally, however, Bro supports a wide range of traffic analysis tasks even outside of the security domain, including performance measurements and helping with trouble-shooting. [14]

Wireshark

  • Wireshark is the world's foremost network protocol analyzer. It lets you see what's happening on your network at a microscopic level. It is the de facto (and often de jure) standard across many industries and educational institutions.

iftop

  • iftop does for network usage what top does for CPU usage. It listens to network traffic on a named interface and displays a table of current bandwidth usage by pairs of hosts. Handy for answering the question "why is our ADSL link so slow?".

ntop

vnStat

  • vnStat is a console-based network traffic monitor for Linux and BSD that keeps a log of network traffic for the selected interface(s). It uses the network interface statistics provided by the kernel as information source. This means that vnStat won't actually be sniffing any traffic and also ensures light use of system resources. However, in Linux at least a 2.2 series kernel is required.

sFlow

other



Simulation / emulation

  • OMNeT++ is an extensible, modular, component-based C++ simulation library and framework, primarily for building network simulators. "Network" is meant in a broader sense that includes wired and wireless communication networks, on-chip networks, queueing networks, and so on. Domain-specific functionality such as support for sensor networks, wireless ad-hoc networks, Internet protocols, performance modeling, photonic networks, etc., is provided by model frameworks, developed as independent projects. OMNeT++ offers an Eclipse-based IDE, a graphical runtime environment, and a host of other tools. There are extensions for real-time simulation, network emulation, alternative programming languages (Java, C#), database integration, SystemC integration, and several other functions.


Security

Software-defined networking

  • OpenFlow enables networks to evolve, by giving a remote controller the power to modify the behavior of network devices, through a well-defined "forwarding instruction set". The growing OpenFlow ecosystem now includes routers, switches, virtual switches, and access points from a range of vendors.


Layer 1/2

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Link_layer - the group of methods and communications protocols that only operate on the link that a host is physically connected to. The link is the physical and logical network component used to interconnect hosts or nodes in the network and a link protocol is a suite of methods and standards that operate only between adjacent network nodes of a local area network segment or a wide area network connection.

Despite the different semantics of layering in TCP/IP and OSI, the link layer is sometimes described as a combination of the data link layer (layer 2) and the physical layer (layer 1) in the OSI model. However, the layers of TCP/IP are descriptions of operating scopes (application, host-to-host, network, link) and not detailed prescriptions of operating procedures, data semantics, or networking technologies.





Modem





xDSL

Fiber

Ethernet

etc..


Wireless

  • WiGLE.net - All the networks. Found by Everyone.

Wi-Fi



  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11s - an IEEE 802.11 amendment for mesh networking, defining how wireless devices can interconnect to create a WLAN mesh network, which may be used for static topologies and ad hoc networks.




iwlist wlan0 scanning


Avoid NetworkManager if possible?

Other

LTE

Security

  • wifite - An automated wireless attack tool.


  • You Are a Rogue Device - A New Apparatus Capable of Spying on You Has Been Installed Throughout Downtown Seattle. Very Few Citizens Know What It Is, and Officials Don’t Want to Talk About It. [23]

Other

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UUCP - an abbreviation of Unix-to-Unix Copy. The term generally refers to a suite of computer programs and protocols allowing remote execution of commands and transfer of files, email and netnews between computers. Specifically, a command named uucp is one of the programs in the suite; it provides a user interface for requesting file copy operations. The UUCP suite also includes uux (user interface for remote command execution), uucico (the communication program that performs the file transfers), uustat (reports statistics on recent activity), uuxqt (execute commands sent from remote machines), and uuname (reports the UUCP name of the local system).


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Line_Internet_Protocol - SLIP, an encapsulation of the Internet Protocol designed to work over serial ports and modem connections. It is documented in RFC 1055. On personal computers, SLIP has been largely replaced by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which is better engineered, has more features and does not require its IP address configuration to be set before it is established. On microcontrollers, however, SLIP is still the preferred way of encapsulating IP packets due to its very small overhead.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_Line_Internet_Protocol - PLIP - direct computer-to-computer communications using the parallel port normally used for connections to a printer.The Parallel Line Internet Protocol provides Link Layer services for the Internet Protocol, the protocol used for forming small local area networks and large computer networks, such as the Internet, enabling computers without standard dedicated networking hardware, such as Ethernet, but with older parallel port devices, to communicate.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-Point_Protocol - PPP - a data link protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption (using ECP, RFC 1968), and compression. PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line, trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, and fiber optic links such as SONET. PPP is also used over Internet access connections. Internet service providers (ISPs) have used PPP for customer dial-up access to the Internet, since IP packets cannot be transmitted over a modem line on their own, without some data link protocol. Two derivatives of PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA), are used most commonly by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to establish a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Internet service connection with customers.

Audio / ultrasonic

Layer 3/4



  • The History of Packets - This guide seeks to take you on the adventure of the changing packet, and how it has survived over the past four decades of networking hardware and computer software. The Internet started in the late 1960s as ARPANET.




Ports

Scanning

nmap -A 192.168.1.1
  scan machine and report

nmap -v -A 192.168.1.1-255
  verbose scan range and report

nmap -sT -sU -O -p 1-65535 localhost
  full port scan, to check args
nmap -p T:110,955
nmap -R -sL 209.85.229.99/27 | awk ‘{if($3==”not”)print”(“$2″) no PTR”;else print$3″ is “$2}’ | grep ‘(‘

"This command uses nmap to perform reverse DNS lookups on a subnet. It produces a list of IP addresses with the corresponding PTR record for a given subnet. You can enter the subnet in CDIR notation (i.e. /24 for a Class C)). You could add “–dns-servers x.x.x.x” after the “-sL” if you need the lookups to be performed on a specific DNS server. On some installations nmap needs sudo I believe. Also I hope awk is standard on most distros."

IP

  • onics - A suite of command line tools and libraries for manipulating packets in the style of cat, sed, awk, grep, diff, etc... [29]



ARP

Protocol to resolve IPv4 addresses to lower level addressed, i.e., ethernet MAC.

Subnetting


Addressing

Switching

Routing

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interface_Message_Processor - the packet-switching node used to interconnect participant networks to the ARPANET from the late 1960s to 1989. It was the first generation of gateways, which are known today as routers.[1][2][3] An IMP was a ruggedized Honeywell DDP-516 minicomputer with special-purpose interfaces and software.[4] In later years the IMPs were made from the non-ruggedized Honeywell 316 which could handle two-thirds of the communication traffic at approximately one-half the cost. An IMP requires the connection to a host computer via a special bit-serial interface, defined in BBN Report 1822. The IMP software and the ARPA network communications protocol running on the IMPs was discussed in RFC 1, the first of a series of standardization documents published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

DHCP

  • dhclient - The Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client, dhclient, provides a means for configuring one or more network interfaces using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, BOOTP protocol, or if these protocols fail, by statically assigning an address.


NAT

ICMP

Tunnelling

  • iodine lets you tunnel IPv4 data through a DNS server. This can be usable in different situations where internet access is firewalled, but DNS queries are allowed.


IPsec

IPv6

Security

NCP

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_Control_Program - preceded the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as a transport layer protocol used during the early ARPANET. NCP was a simplex protocol that utilized two port addresses, establishing two connections, for two-way communications. An odd and an even port were reserved for each application layer application or protocol. The standardization of TCP and UDP reduced the need for the use of two simplex ports for each application down to one duplex port

UDP

See also DNS

UPnP

TCP

See also HTTP, SSH, Gopher

traceroute -m 100 216.81.59.173
traceroute -m 120 216.81.59.173

Tunnelling

  • sshuttle - Transparent proxy server that works as a poor man's VPN. Forwards over ssh. Doesn't require admin. Works with Linux and MacOS. Supports DNS tunneling.
  • Localtunnel allows you to easily share a web service on your local development machine without messing with DNS and firewall settings. Localtunnel will assign you a unique publicly accessible url that will proxy all requests to your locally running webserver. [36]

UDT

  • UDT is a reliable UDP based application level data transport protocol for distributed data intensive applications over wide area high-speed networks. UDT uses UDP to transfer bulk data with its own reliability control and congestion control mechanisms. The new protocol can transfer data at a much higher speed than TCP does. UDT is also a highly configurable framework that can accommodate various congestion control algorithms. [37]

SCTP

DCCP

Other

  • Secure Socket Funneling (SSF) is a network tool and toolkit. It provides simple and efficient ways to forward data from multiple sockets (TCP or UDP) through a single secure TLS link to a remote computer. [41]


Virtual


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_network - a computer network that consists, at least in part, of virtual network links. A virtual network link is a link that does not consist of a physical (wired or wireless) connection between two computing devices but is implemented using methods of network virtualization. The two most common forms of network virtualization are protocol-based virtual networks (such as VLANs, VPNs, and VPLSs) and virtual networks that are based on virtual devices (such as the networks connecting virtual machines inside a hypervisor). In practice, both forms can be used in conjunction.




Circuit

hmm

X.25

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X.25 - an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication. An X.25 WAN consists of packet-switching exchange (PSE) nodes as the networking hardware, and leased lines, plain old telephone service connections, or ISDN connections as physical links.

X.25 is a family of protocols that was popular during the 1980s with telecommunications companies and in financial transaction systems such as automated teller machines. X.25 was originally defined by the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT, now ITU-T) in a series of drafts and finalized in a publication known as The Orange Book in 1976. While X.25 has, to a large extent, been replaced by less complex protocols, especially the Internet protocol (IP), the service is still used (e.g. as of 2012 in the credit card payment industry) and available in niche and legacy applications.

Beginning in the early 1990s, in North America, use of X.25 networks (predominated by Telenet and Tymnet)[11] started to be replaced by Frame Relay, service offered by national telephone companies. Most systems that required X.25 now use TCP/IP, however it is possible to transport X.25 over TCP/IP when necessary.

X.25 networks are still in use throughout the world. A variant called AX.25 is also used widely by amateur packet radio. Racal Paknet, now known as Widanet, is still in operation in many regions of the world, running on an X.25 protocol base. In some countries, like the Netherlands or Germany, it is possible to use a stripped version of X.25 via the D-channel of an ISDN-2 (or ISDN BRI) connection for low volume applications such as point-of-sale terminals; but, the future of this service in the Netherlands is uncertain.

Frame Relay

ATM


Virtual LAN


Network virtualization

  • Mininet creates a realistic virtual network, running real kernel, switch and application code, on a single machine (VM, cloud or native), in seconds, with a single command

Virtual Extensible LAN

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_Extensible_LAN - VXLAN, a network virtualization technology that attempts to improve the scalability problems associated with large cloud computing deployments. It uses a VLAN-like encapsulation technique to encapsulate MAC-based OSI layer 2 Ethernet frames within layer 4 UDP packets, using 4789 as the default IANA-assigned destination UDP port number. VXLAN endpoints, which terminate VXLAN tunnels and may be both virtual or physical switch ports, are known as VXLAN tunnel endpoints (VTEPs).


NGN

MPLS

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiprotocol_Label_Switching - type of data-carrying technique for high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols, hence its name "multiprotocol". MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL.


VPN

PPTP

Not recommended for use any more.

L2TP

Requires use of encrypted protocol (IPsec). Uses UDP port 500, which is more easily blocked by NAT firewalls.

L2FP

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Layer_2_Forwarding_Protocol - a tunneling protocol developed by Cisco Systems, Inc. to establish virtual private network connections over the Internet. L2F does not provide encryption or confidentiality by itself; It relies on the protocol being tunneled to provide privacy. L2F was specifically designed to tunnel Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) traffic.[

IPsec

IPsec is an end-to-end security scheme operating in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite, while some other Internet security systems in widespread use, such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Shell (SSH), operate in the upper layers of the TCP/IP model. Hence, IPsec protects any application traffic across an IP network.

OpenVPN

n2n

Tinc

WireGuard

strongSwan

Algo

  • Algo VPN - short for "Al Gore", the Vice President of Networks everywhere for inventing the Internet, a set of Ansible scripts that simplifies the setup of a personal IPSEC VPN. It contains the most secure defaults available, works with common cloud providers, and does not require client software on most devices.

DNS

Services

Systems

  • BadVPN is a peer-to-peer VPN system. It provides a Layer 2 (Ethernet) network between the peers (VPN network nodes). The peers connect to a central server which acts as a chat server for them to establish direct connections between each other (data connections). These connections are used for transferring network data (Ethernet frames).
  • Freelan - A free, open-source, multi-platform, highly-configurable and peer-to-peer VPN software, designed to easily connect remote hosts and mainly focused on security and performance. [51]
  • Social VPN Project - free and open-source P2P Social Virtual Private Network (VPN) that seamlessly networks your computer with the computers of your friends.
  • Campagnol is a distributed IP-based VPN software able to open new connections through NATs or firewalls without any configuration. It uses UDP for the transport layer and utilizes tunneling and encryption (with DTLS) and the UDP hole punching NAT traversal technique. The established connections are P2P.


  • SigmaVPN is simple, light-weight and modular VPN software for UNIX systems, deploying the NaCl encryption library. It's easy to configure, has low overheads and is reliable. No longer is it necessary to waste precious time configuring overcomplicated tunnels. [54]

Overlay

Tor

Usage

sudo systemctl start tor

google-chrome-stable --proxy-server="socks://localhost:9050" -incognito
chromium --proxy-server="socks://localhost:9050" -incognito

Software

Exit nodes

Hidden services

Chat

Search

Social

Other

I2P

Other


Cloud

See also Cloud

  • Maestro is an "operating system" for orchestrating network control applications. Maestro provides interfaces for implementing modular network control applications to access and modify state of the network, and coordinate their interactions. Maestro is a platform for achieving automatic and programmatic network control functions using these modularized applications. Although this project focuses on building an OpenFlow controller using Maestro, Maestro is not only limited to OpenFlow networks.

Mesh

See also Open social.

General

Protocols

DSDV

Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) is a table-driven routing scheme for ad hoc mobile networks based on the Bellman–Ford algorithm. It was developed by C. Perkins and P.Bhagwat in 1994. The main contribution of the algorithm was to solve the routing loop problem. Each entry in the routing table contains a sequence number, the sequence numbers are generally even if a link is present; else, an odd number is used. The number is generated by the destination, and the emitter needs to send out the next update with this number. Routing information is distributed between nodes by sending full dumps infrequently and smaller incremental updates more frequently.

AODV

It is a reactive routing protocol, meaning that it establishes a route to a destination only on demand. In contrast, the most common routing protocols of the Internet are proactive, meaning they find routing paths independently of the usage of the paths. AODV is, as the name indicates, a distance-vector routing protocol. AODV avoids the counting-to-infinity problem of other distance-vector protocols by using sequence numbers on route updates, a technique pioneered by DSDV. AODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing.

OLSR

Bmx6

  • Bmx6 is a routing protocol for Linux based operating systems.

Babel

Babel is based on the ideas in Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector routing (DSDV), Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), and Cisco's Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), but it uses a variant of Expected Transmission Count (ETX) link cost estimation rather than a simple hop-count metric. It employs several techniques to ensure the absence of routing pathologies, such as routing loops. Babel operates on IPv4 and IPv6 networks. It has been reported to be a robust protocol and to have fast convergence properties.

Two implementations of Babel are freely available: the standalone sample implementation, and a version that is integrated into the Quagga routing suite. The version integrated into Quagga allows for authentication.

B.A.T.M.A.N.

HWMP

cjdns

Wanderlust

  • Wanderlust - A Worldwide Network with Distributed Routing through Location Swapping

Other

Router

Hardware

Projects

Networks

  • ninux.org is a Wireless Network Community in Italy. OLSR

Project Mesh Net

Serval

Commotion

OLSR

FabFi

OLSR

to sort



Stacks

Freedom Box

Byzantium

Other

ArcOS

Mapping

Darknets

Other

UK ISPs

Wireless broadband

Scotland

Layer 5 / 6 / 7

See Communication


SNMP

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simple_Network_Management_Protocol - an Internet-standard protocol for collecting and organizing information about managed devices on IP networks and for modifying that information to change device behavior. Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks and more. SNMP is widely used in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention. SNMP exposes management data in the form of variables on the managed systems, which describe the system configuration. These variables can then be queried (and sometimes set) by managing applications.

telnet

HTTP

See HTTP

Gopher

FTP / SFTP

BGP

  • OpenBGPD is a FREE implementation of the Border Gateway Protocol, Version 4. It allows ordinary machines to be used as routers exchanging routes with other systems speaking the BGP protocol.

SOCKS

NFS

nfs - fstab format and options for the nfs file systems
mount.nfs
showmount -e server-Ip-address

http://linux.die.net/man/8/mount.cifs

SMB / CIFS


File sharing

See Sharing

  • tus - The protocol provides a mechanism for resumable file uploads via HTTP/1.1 (RFC 7230) and HTTP/2 (RFC 7540).
  • InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) - a peer-to-peer distributed file system that seeks to connect all computing devices with the same system of files. In some ways, IPFS is similar to the Web, but IPFS could be seen as a single BitTorrent swarm, exchanging objects within one Git repository. In other words, IPFS provides a high throughput content-addressed block storage model, with content-addressed hyperlinks. This forms a generalized Merkle DAG, a data structure upon which one can build versioned file systems, blockchains, and even a Permanent Web. IPFS combines a distributed hashtable, an incentivized block exchange, and a self-certifying namespace. IPFS has no single point of failure, and nodes do not need to trust each other.



Authentication, etc.


LDAP


Kerberos

SASL

RADIUS

Other

  • OpenAM - The only “all-in-one” access management solution that includes Authentication, SSO, Authorization, Federation, Entitlements, Adaptive Authentication, Strong Authentication, and Web Services Security, in a single, unified product. Mobile support out of the box with full OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect support, modern protocols that provide the most efficient method for developing secure native or HTML5 mobile applications optimized for bandwidth and CPU.

Messaging

Apache Kafka

RabbitMQ

Distributed

Consensus

Raft

Piping


  • Huginn is a system for building agents that perform automated tasks for you online. They can read the web, watch for events, and take actions on your behalf. Huginn's Agents create and consume events, propagating them along a directed event flow graph. Think of it as Yahoo! Pipes plus IFTTT on your own server. [76]


Other


Anti-spam

Shared/remote desktop

See also GUI#XDMCP

KVM

VNC


Server

  • x11vnc allows one to view remotely and interact with real X displays (i.e. a display corresponding to a physical monitor, keyboard, and mouse) with any VNC viewer. In this way it plays the role for Unix/X11 that WinVNC plays for Windows.
  • Vinagre (Remote Desktop Viewer) is the default VNC client in Ubuntu 8.04. It currently allows you to connect to desktops running VNC servers and control them. Specific connection options are not currently supported, e.g. high or low bandwidth settings, but it is planned to add them in an upcoming version.


Client

  • noVNC - VNC client using HTML5 (WebSockets, Canvas) with encryption (wss://) support. There are many companies/projects that have integrated noVNC into their products including: Ganeti Web Manager, Archipel, openQRM, OpenNode, OpenStack, Broadway (HTML5 GDK/GTK+ backend), OpenNebula, CloudSigma, Zentyal (formerly Ebox), SlapOS, Intel MeshCentral, Amahi, Brightbox, Foreman, LibVNCServer, and PocketVNC.

Chicken is a VNC client for Mac OS X. A VNC client allows remote access to another computer over the network. Chicken is based on Chicken of the VNC.

RDP

NX

FreeNX

Neatx

X2Go

  • X2Go enables you to access a graphical desktop of a computer over a low bandwidth (or high bandwidth) connection. Multiple users/clients can access a single X2Go Server at the same time, with each user/client having an individual Desktop session by default - however, Desktop sharing (Remote Assistance) is possible, too (see below). For the graphical part of remote desktop sessions, X2Go uses No Machine NX3 technology under the hood.

Other

  • ShareX - a free and open source program that lets you capture or record any area of your screen and share it with a single press of a key. It also allows uploading images, text or other types of files to over 80 supported destinations you can choose from. [82]
  • Apache Guacamole is a clientless remote desktop gateway. It supports standard protocols like VNC, RDP, and SSH. We call it clientless because no plugins or client software are required. Thanks to HTML5, once Guacamole is installed on a server, all you need to access your desktops is a web browser. [83] [84]

to sort

View The Daily Show, etc. in the UK, etc. Mofity HTTP headers; X-Forwarded-For "12.13.14.15" [85]

  • GLIF, the Global Lambda Integrated Facility, is an international consortium that promotes the paradigm of lambda networking.


  • OpenSignalMaps - database of cell phone towers, cell phone signal strength readings, and Wi-Fi access points around the world