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  • - GIScience, GISc) or geoinformation science is a scientific discipline at the crossroads of computational science, social science, and natural science that studies geographic information, including how it represents phenomena in the real world, how it represents the way humans understand the world, and how it can be captured, organized, and analyzed. It is a sub-field of geography, specifically part of technical geography. It has applications to both physical geography and human geography, although its techniques can be applied to many other fields of study as well as many different industries. As a field of study or profession, it can be contrasted with geographic information systems (GIS), which are the actual repositories of geospatial data, the software tools for carrying out relevant tasks, and the profession of GIS users. That said, one of the major goals of GIScience is to find practical ways to improve GIS data, software, and professional practice; it is more focused on how gis is applied in real life as opposed to being a geographic information system tool in and of it self. The field is also sometimes called geographical information science.

British geographer Michael Goodchild defined this area in the 1990s and summarized its core interests, including spatial analysis, visualization, and the representation of uncertainty. GIScience is conceptually related to geomatics, information science, computer science, and data science, but it claims the status of an independent scientific discipline. Overlapping disciplines are: geocomputation, geoinformatics, geomatics and geovisualization. Other related terms are geographic data science (after data science) and geographic information science and technology (GISci&T), with job titles geospatial information scientists and technologists.

  • - systems are software programs designed to store and recall spatial information for navigation applications, and are thus a form of Geographic information system. They are widely used in localization and navigation, especially in automotive applications. Moreover, they are playing an increasingly important role in the emerging areas of location-based services, active safety functions and advanced driver-assistance systems. Common to these functions is the requirement for an on-board map database that contains information describing the road network. When designed well, a map database enables the rapid indexing and lookup of a large amount of geographic data.

  • - also called an object or entity, in the context of geography and geographic information science, is a discrete phenomenon that exists at a location in the space and scale of relevance to geography; that is, at or near the surface of Earth, at a moderate to global scale.: 62 It is one of the primary types of phenomena represented in geographic information, such as that represented in maps, geographic information systems, remote sensing imagery, statistics, and other forms of geographic discourse. Such representations of features consists of descriptions of their inherent nature, their spatial form and location, and their characteristics or properties.

  • - GIS, consists of integrated computer hardware and software that store, manage, analyze, edit, output, and visualize geographic data. Much of this often happens within a spatial database, however, this is not essential to meet the definition of a GIS. In a broader sense, one may consider such a system also to include human users and support staff, procedures and workflows, the body of knowledge of relevant concepts and methods, and institutional organizations.

The uncounted plural, geographic information systems, also abbreviated GIS, is the most common term for the industry and profession concerned with these systems. It is roughly synonymous with geoinformatics. The academic discipline that studies these systems and their underlying geographic principles, may also be abbreviated as GIS, but the unambiguous GIScience is more common. GIScience is often considered a subdiscipline of geography within the branch of technical geography.

  • - general-purpose database (usually a relational database) that has been enhanced to include spatial data that represents objects defined in a geometric space, along with tools for querying and analyzing such data. Most spatial databases allow the representation of simple geometric objects such as points, lines and polygons. Some spatial databases handle more complex structures such as 3D objects, topological coverages, linear networks, and triangulated irregular networks (TINs). While typical databases have developed to manage various numeric and character types of data, such databases require additional functionality to process spatial data types efficiently, and developers have often added geometry or feature data types. Geographic database (or geodatabase) is a georeferenced spatial database, used for storing and manipulating geographic data (or geodata), i.e., data associated with a location on Earth. The term "geodatabase" may also refer specifically to a set of proprietary spatial database formats, Geodatabase (Esri).

  • Open Geospatial Consortium - a consortium of experts committed to improving access to geospatial, or location information. We connect people, communities, and technology to solve global challenges and address everyday needs.
  • - an international voluntary consensus standards organization for geospatial content and location-based services, sensor web and Internet of Things, GIS data processing and data sharing. It originated in 1994 and involves more than 500 commercial, governmental, nonprofit and research organizations in a consensus process encouraging development and implementation of open standards.

  • - officially Simple Feature Access, is a set of standards that specify a common storage and access model of geographic features made of mostly two-dimensional geometries (point, line, polygon, multi-point, multi-line, etc.) used by geographic information systems. It is formalized by both the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO 19125 standard comes in two parts. Part 1, ISO 19125-1 (SFA-CA for "common architecture"), defines a model for two-dimensional simple features, with linear interpolation between vertices, defined in a hierarchy of classes; this part also defines representation of geometry in text (WKT) and binary (WKB) forms. Part 2 of the standard, ISO 19125-2 (SFA-SQL), defines a "SQL/MM" language binding API for SQL under the prefix "SF_". The open access OGC standards cover additionally APIs for CORBA and OLE/COM, although these have lagged behind the SQL one and are not standardized by ISO. There are also adaptations to other languages covered below. The ISO/IEC 13249-3 SQL/MM Spatial extends the Simple Features data model mainly with circular interpolations (e.g. circular arcs) and adds other features like coordinate transformations and methods for validating geometries as well as Geography Markup Language support.

  • - defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as data and information having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to Earth (a geographic location or geographic position). It is also called geospatial data and information, georeferenced data and information, as well as geodata and geoinformation. Approximately 90% of government sourced data has a location component. Location information (known by the many names mentioned here) is stored in a geographic information system (GIS). There are also many different types of geodata, including vector files, raster files, geographic databases, web files, and multi-temporal data. Spatial data or spatial information is broader class of data whose geometry is relevant but it is not necessarily georeferenced, such as in computer-aided design (CAD), see geometric modeling.

  • - A geographic data model, geospatial data model, or simply data model in the context of geographic information systems, is a mathematical and digital structure for representing phenomena over the Earth. Generally, such data models represent various aspects of these phenomena by means of geographic data, including spatial locations, attributes, change over time, and identity. For example, the vector data model represents geography as collections of points, lines, and polygons, and the raster data model represent geography as cell matrices that store numeric values. Data models are implemented throughout the GIS ecosystem, including the software tools for data management and spatial analysis, data stored in a variety of GIS file formats, specifications and standards, and specific designs for GIS installations.

While the unique nature of spatial information has led to its own set of model structures, much of the process of data modeling is similar to the rest of information technology, including the progression from conceptual models to logical models to physical models, and the difference between generic models and application-specific designs.

  • - a reference document produced by the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) as the first product of its Model Curricula project, started in 1997 by Duane Marble and a select task force, and completed in 2006 by David DiBiase and a team of editors. The GISTBoK is the most successful effort to date to create a comprehensive outline of the concepts and skills unique to the geospatial realm, including geographic information systems, geographic information science, remote sensing, satellite navigation systems, and cartography. However, it is missing some topics, such as geocoding, and has significant granularity issues: large, mature subfields such as surveying, GPS, and remote sensing are covered in small sections, while the relatively immature field of geocomputation is granted an entire knowledge area. There is also opposition to the document as a whole, especially from the critical GIS community, on the grounds that the discipline is too diverse and too subjective to be so easily encapsulated. The editors have acknowledged these shortcomings, and have expressed hope that wider input on future editions will solve some of these issues.


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Open Street Map

  • LearnOSM - Anyone can edit OpenStreetMap. Here you can learn how. LearnOSM provides easy to understand, step-by-step guides for you to get started with contributing to OpenStreetMap and using OpenStreetMap and using OpenStreetMap data. If you are interested in running an OpenStreetMap workshop, check out the LearnOSM trainer resources.

  • weeklyOSM - updates the community about what is going on in the OSM Universe. weeklyOSM is intended for everyone, from experienced mappers to new OSM members. It is created by mappers and OSM enthusiasts. Contributors to weeklyOSM in all languages are always welcome.

  • Simple 3D Buildings - OpenStreetMap Wiki - This page describes tags for basic 3D attributes of buildings.The following tagging methods are results of the 2nd 3D Workshop Garching, where most 3D developers agreed on supporting a unified subset of tags in their programs. Basically, we describe the volume of a building using two types of areas: 1) building outlines for the most general area of a complex building and 2) building parts to describe sections of the building, especially those with different height or other attributes.

  • OSM2World - OpenStreetMap Wiki - an application that converts OpenStreetMap data to three-dimensional models. The models can be exported to different formats.

  • Protomaps - A serverless system for planet-scale maps. An alternative to map APIs at 1% the cost, via single static files on your own cloud storage. Deploy datasets like OpenStreetMap for your site in minutes.

Google Maps

Bing maps

Other maps

  • Pastmaps - The new tool for professional-grade historical land research. Search, explore, and analyze the history of your surroundings through maps.

Extra info

  • Geocaching - The Official Global GPS Cache Hunt Site

Google Maps



Open Street Map

  • Openrouteservice - Conduct reachability analysis computed with user-generated and collaboratively collected free geographic data directly from


Tiles and data

  • FerrarGIS - Using QGIS to apply a 1777 style to today's OpenStreetMap data. [7]

  • MapLibre - an umbrella for open-source mapping libraries with the two central rendering projects being MapLibre GL JS and MapLibre Native which are surrounded by an ecosystem of plugins and tools to generate maps. The MapLibre Governing Board was elected by the Voting Members, a group who represents the broader community, in August 2023 and is in charge to steer the Organization. The project coordinator is Oliver Wipfli who supports the Governing Board in organizational tasks.
    • - a free and open-source library for publishing maps in your apps and desktop applications on various platforms. Fast displaying of maps is possible thanks to GPU-accelerated vector tile rendering. This project originated as a fork of Mapbox GL Native, before their switch to a non-OSS license in December 2020. For more information, see:

  • - location infrastructure for mobile and web apps. Thousands of developers trust Radar's geofencing SDKs and maps APIs to power location-based experiences across hundreds of millions of devices worldwide.


  • Graphserver - The open-source multi-modal trip planner.

  • Ecosynth - a suite of tools used to map and measure vegetation in 3 dimensions (3D) using off-the-shelf digital cameras and open-source computer vision software, from the ground or using low altitude hobbyist aircraft. The goals of the Ecosynth project are to: Generate 3D and spectral imaging data useful for ecological research and monitoring work. Create low-cost portable systems built on publicly available hardware and open-source software. Be deployable by individual users, including researchers and citizen scientists, as-needed across sample areas.

  • OwnTracks - allows you to keep track of your own location. You can build your private location diary or share it with your family and friends. OwnTracks is open-source and uses open protocols for communication so you can be sure your data stays secure and private.


  • QGIS - A Free and Open Source Geographic Information System
  • Simple SVG Qgis Plugin tries to save current map as SVG. Other then the normal SaveAsSVG in the composer, this plugin tries to keep the GIS-grouping intact: layers in Qgis will be layers in Inkscape, symbol classes will be groups. Objects will have ids with the layername in it, so the id's kan be used of a search in the xml-view of Inkscape.


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  • - Long list of geospatial analysis tools. Geospatial analysis, or just spatial analysis, is an approach to applying statistical analysis and other analytic techniques to data which has a geographical or spatial aspect.

  • GDAL - a translator library for raster and vector geospatial data formats that is released under an MIT style Open Source License by the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. As a library, it presents a single raster abstract data model and single vector abstract data model to the calling application for all supported formats. It also comes with a variety of useful command line utilities for data translation and processing.

  • MapFish - a flexible and complete framework for building rich web-mapping applications. It emphasizes high productivity, and high-quality development. MapFish is based on the Pylons Python web framework. MapFish extends Pylons with geospatial-specific functionality. For example MapFish provides specific tools for creating web services that allows querying and editing geographic objects. MapFish also provides a complete RIA-oriented JavaScript toolbox, a JavaScript testing environment, and tools for compressing JavaScript code. The JavaScript toolbox is composed of the ExtJS, OpenLayers , GeoExt JavaScript toolkits. MapFish is compliant with the Open Geospatial Consortium standards. This is achieved through OpenLayers or GeoExt supporting several OGC norms, like WMS, WFS, WMC, KML, GML etc.. MapFish is open source, and distributed under the BSD license.

  • Stamen Design - a world-leading provider of visualization and analytics design and strategic data communication for private and public sector clients across various industries. Stamen operates across several professional market segments:

  • WhirlyGlobe-Maply SDK - a mapping toolkit with two parts, hence the dash. The WhirlyGlobe part is an interactive 3D globe. The Maply part is an interactive 2D map. There are separate view controllers (on iOS) for each, but otherwise they share 95% of their code. This toolkit is used in quite a few big, complicated apps and even more smaller, less complicated apps. Feel free to use it in yours. WhirlyGlobe-Maply is available for both iOS and Android.

  • Modest Maps - a small, extensible, and free library for designers and developers who want to use interactive maps in their own projects. It provides a core set of features in a tight, clean package with plenty of hooks for additional functionality.

  • OwnTracks - allows you to keep track of your own location. You can build your private location diary or share it with your family and friends. OwnTracks is open-source and uses open protocols for communication so you can be sure your data stays secure and private.

  • - creates tiles from 3D city objects.As input, tyler takes CityJSON Features, where each feature is stored in a separate file.


  • - a code that represents a geographic entity (location or object). It is a unique identifier of the entity, to distinguish it from others in a finite set of geographic entities. In general the geocode is a human-readable and short identifier.



  • - the XML grammar defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC, to express geographical features. GML serves as a modeling language for geographic systems as well as an open interchange format for geographic transactions on the Internet. Key to GML's utility is its ability to integrate all forms of geographic information, including not only conventional "vector" or discrete objects, but coverages (see also GMLJP2) and sensor data.


  • - an extension of GeoJSON that encodes topology. Rather than representing geometries discretely, geometries in TopoJSON files are stitched together from shared line segments called arcs. This technique is similar to Matt Bloch’s MapShaper and the Arc/Info Export format, .e00.

  • CityJSON - a JSON-based encoding for a subset of the CityGML data model (version 3.0.0), which is an open standardised data model and exchange format to store digital 3D models of cities and landscapes. CityGML is an official standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium.CityJSON is also an official international standard: OGC document 20-072r2.CityJSON defines ways to describe most of the common 3D features and objects found in cities (such as buildings, roads, rivers, bridges, vegetation and city furniture) and the relationships between them. It also defines different standard levels of detail (LoDs) for the 3D objects, which allows us to represent different resolutions of objects for different applications and purposes.A CityJSON file describes both the geometry and the semantics of the city features of a given area, eg buildings, roads, rivers, the vegetation, and the city furniture.


  • WebVMT: The Web Video Map Tracks Format - This specification defines WebVMT, the Web Video Map Tracks format, which is an enabling technology whose main use is for marking up external metadata track resources in connection with the HTML <track> element. WebVMT files provide map presentation, annotation and interpolation synchronized to web media content, and more generally any form of data that is time-aligned with audio or video content, including those from location-aware devices such as dashcams, drones and smartphones.





Microsoft TerraServer

  • Microsoft TerraServer - The Microsoft® TerraServer stores aerial and satellite images of the earth in a Microsoft SQL Server™ database served to the public through the Internet. It is the world's largest atlas, combining five terabytes of image data from the United States Geodetic Survey, SOVINFORMSPUTNIK, and Encarta® Virtual Globe. Internet browsers provide intuitive spatial and gazetteer interfaces to the data. The TerraServer demonstrates the scalability of Microsoft Windows NT® Server, Enterprise Edition version 4.0 and SQL Server, Enterprise Edition running on Digital hardware including the AlphaServer 8400 and StorageWorks™ storage system. The TerraServer is also an E-Commerce application. Users can buy the right to use the imagery using Microsoft Site Servers managed by the USGS and Aerial Images. This paper describes the TerraServer's design and implementation. June 1998. [14]



  • - a fully open source, self-hosted location sharing service. Install the backend code on a PHP-compatible web server, install the companion app on your phone, and you're good to go!

  • -Uses WiFi signals and machine learning (sklearn's RandomForest) to predict where you are. Even works for small distances like 2-10 meters.Your computer will known whether you are on Couch #1 or Couch #2.