Box

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General

A box, yer computer, physical (or abstract) box. [1]

These are the steps that I follow (and create) when I set-up Arch Linux. They are incomplete.

See also Stack, *nix#Configuration 2, Server, Distros, Distros#Live Distro


Arch Linux stock install

Todo: convert parts into this style - https://github.com/unexicon/meta-unexicon




Setup in ArchISO

Setup ArchISO environment.

# set keyboard for UK qwerty, gives access to pipe character, etc.
loadkeys /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/i386/qwerty/uk.map.gz

# check for potentially failed services (i.e. network DHCP if you have already plugged in an Ethernet cable)
systemctl --failed

Network

# If you don't have an Ethernet cable and gateway to plug into but do have WiFi available;

# for wifi-menu / wpa_cli to work
vim /etc/wpa_supplicant/base.conf
# new file

  ctrl_interface=/run/wpa_supplicant
  update_config=1

# get wifi interface name
ip a


wifi-menu

(or)

# start wpa_supplicant
wpa_supplicant -B -i interfacename -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/base.conf

# establish wifi data link
wpa_cli

  scan
  scan_results

  add_network
  set_network 0 ssid "MYSSID"
  set_network 0 psk "passphrase"
  enable_network 0

  # or for open wifi
  set_network 0 key_mgmt NONE
  enable_network 0

  save_config
  q


### for wifi and ethernet???
# establish ip linkcli
dhcpcd [interface]

Updates

# update pacman software list
pacman -Sy

# install terminfo for urxvt
pacman -S rxvt-unicode-terminfo

Setup target storage

Either basic or LVM (or btrfs (to come))

Basic

# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Partitioning
# there can be only 4 'primary' partitions in an MBR partition table.
# or GPT can be used

# if not using LVM, make the fourth 'extended' so it can contain further 'logical' partitions
# filesystem partition size ideas:
# /boot - 512M
  # contains boot kernel images (linux, linux-lts, linux-ck, etc.) - Type: linux (83 / 20)
# [swap]
  # swap size to match RAM size - Type: Linux swap (82 / 19)
# /
  # one large partition for the rest - Type: Linux (83 / 20) OR Linux LVM (8e / 31)


# all-in-one partitioning, boot flag and swap partition setup
echo -e "n\n\n\n\n+512M\n n\n\n\n\n+1G\n n\n\n\n\n\n a\n1\n t\n2\n82\nw\n"|
fdisk /dev/vda


# check drive partitions
lsblk

# formatting
# boot as ext2 (no journal for less fuckups?)
mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
e2label /dev/sda1 /boot

mkfs.ext4 /dev/[partition]


# create swap partition
mkswap /dev/[swappartition]
swapon /dev/[swappartition]


# mount partitions - root first
mount /dev/mapper/<lv-root> /mnt
mkdir /mnt/boot
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot


# give device label, for file managers - https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Persistent_block_device_naming#by-label
e2label /dev/XXX <label>

LVM (optional)

# managing storage devices with LVM allows for easier partition resizing, etc. later
# see https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/LVM

# you cannot have an LVM /boot, unless you are booting from a linux based bootloader such as coreboot, libreboot
# an LVM swap is only worth it if the LVM setup is to be mirrored (for speed)

# scan for available devices
lvmdiskscan

# create physical volume
pvcreate /dev/DEVICE

# confirm the above with either:
pvdisplay
pvscan
pvs


# create and add to internal drive volume group
vgcreate <volume_group> /dev/DEVICE

# or
vgcreate <volume_group> /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc

# or
vgextend <volume_group> <physical_volume>

# confirm the above with:
vgdisplay


# logical volume / partition ideas:

# root (/) logical volume, will contain /usr (includes installed programs)
   # minimum 100G
# [swap]
   # match size of RAM if you use suspend-to-disk - Type
   # only worth it if the swap will be mirrored
# var (/var) logical volume - contains misc. including spools, logs, packages downloaded for installation. separate to avoid running out of space
   # minimum 100G
# home (/home) logical volume - contains user home folders


# create partition group. -C = contiguous.
lvcreate -C y -L 100G <volume_group> -n <lv_name>

etc.


# confirm the above
lvs



# confirm drive partitions
lsblk

# format drive partitions
# boot as ext2
mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
e2label /dev/sda1 /boot


mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/[partition]
# repeat for each partition, excluding swap partition

# create swap partition
mkswap /dev/[swappartition]
swapon /dev/[swappartition]

# mount partitions - root first
mount /dev/mapper/<lv-root> /mnt

mkdir /mnt/boot
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot

mkdir /mnt/var
mount /dev/mapper/<lv-var> /mnt/var

mkdir /mnt/home
mount /dev/mapper/<lv-home> /mnt/home


# if mirroring with raid1;
lvconvert --type raid1 -m 1 /dev/milk-hdd-internal/logicalvolume /dev/sdd1


# give device label, for file managers - https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Persistent_block_device_naming#by-label
e2label /dev/XXX <label>


Bootstrap target system

# use geographically close arch package mirror
vim /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
# move local mirror at top of the list. this config is also copied across in the next step.

pacman -S archlinux-keyring

# bootstrap including the installation of pacman and a few extras
pacstrap /mnt base base-devel linux linux-headers linux-lts linux-lts-headers vim syslinux gptfdisk pacman-contrib  zsh polkit git netctl openssh p7zip reflector iotop mlocate ripgrep fzf tmux htop atop dmidecode ncdu dfc tree pkgfile wget bind-tools dhcping exfat-utils sshfs dateutils trash-cli wpa_supplicant dialog mediainfo python-pip python2-pip fasd go mpv


# generate file system configuration info
genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

# chroot into new system
arch-chroot /mnt

Accounts, names, time and language

# set root user password
passwd

# add your own user account and set a password
useradd -m [USERNAME]
passwd [USERNAME]

# let wheel group use sudo for root permission
visudo
# uncomment %wheel      ALL=(ALL) ALL

## USERNAME HOST_NAME= NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/halt,/usr/bin/poweroff,/usr/bin/reboot,/usr/bin/pacman -Syu

# add user to wheel group for sudo/etc, access
gpasswd -a [USERNAME] wheel


# set a computer name
echo computer_name > /etc/hostname


# set the timezone
ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/London /etc/localtime

# uncomment en_GB.UTF-8 or appropriate locale
vim /etc/locale.gen
/#en_GB
xZZ


# generate locale
locale-gen

# set locale conf
echo LANG=en_GB.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf

# set persistant console keymap and font preferences in /etc/vconsole.conf
vim /etc/vconsole.conf
i
KEYMAP=uk
[esc]ZZ

Kernel images

# edit mkinitcpio.conf
vim /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
  # add lvm2 to hooks

  HOOKS=" ... block lvm2 filesystems ... "
 
  # uncomment "xz" compression

# build boot arch and lts boot images
mkinitcpio -p linux linux-lts


x86 bootloader

syslinux

# install bootloader: syslinux (installed above)
syslinux-install_update -i -a -m

# the above does this:

# fdisk for boot flag
# dd bs=440 count=1 if=/usr/lib/syslinux/bios/mbr.bin of=/dev/sda

#CAUTION - edit /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg to use correct device/mapper addresses

GRUB

# OR
# install bootloader: GRUB
# syslinux is easier to manage than GRUB
#pacman -S grub
#grub-install --recheck --target=i386-pc /dev/sdx

# allow for saving the last booted kernel, edit /etc/default/grub, set
#GRUB_DEFAULT=saved
# and add
#GRUB_SAVEDEFAULT=true

# generate/regenerate config file
#grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

AUR and Git

su [non-root-username]

# bootstrap AUR access with pacman wrapper AUR helper yay
# (in terms of yay > trizen > pacaur w/ pacget > yaourt > *

mkdir -p ~/pkgs && cd ~/pkgs && git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/yay-git.git && cd yay-git && makepkg -si


# Install various handy apps
yay -S --answeredit n --answerdiff n pkgcacheclean longoverdue inxi fd-rs localepurge dtrx downgrade topgrade

# pkgcacheclean - Easy purging of older package cache files
# longoverdue - System service update management made easy
# inxi - Display various system hardware and software infos
# fd-rs - fd command, improved find using gipgrep
# localepurge - Script to remove disk space wasted for unneeded localizations.
# dtrx - Do The Right X, an intelligent archive extraction tool
# downgrade - Bash script for downgrading one or more packages to a version in your cache or the A.L.A.
# topgrade - Invoke the upgrade proceadure of multiple package managers


# If there is ever a missing gpg key;
#gpg --recv-key [keyfromerror]

Network

# set better network interface device names in relation to their MAC (media access control) address.
#vim /etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules

# if only one active interface:
echo SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="$(cat /sys/class/net/$(ls /sys/class/net/ | grep -v lo | grep -v wlan)/address)", NAME="eth0" > /etc/udev/rules.d/10.network.rules

# if there is wifi (to fix):
#echo SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="$(cat /sys/class/net/**wifiinterfacename**/address)", NAME="wlan0" >> /etc/udev/rules.d/10.network.rules


# enable DHCP
# multiple network management methods are available
# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Network_configuration#Dynamic_IP_address

# dhcpcd for all interfaces
systemctl enable dhcpcd
systemctl start dhcpcd


# netctl (arch dev grown systemd interface)
cp /etc/netctl/examples/ethernet-dhcp /etc/netctl
cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl
vim /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa
# change essid and key

# test netctl ethernet profile
netctl start ethernet-dhcp
ip a
ping bbc.co.uk
netctl stop ethernet-dhcp

# test netctl wireless-wpa profile
netctl start ethernet-dhcp
ip a
ping bbc.co.uk
netctl stop wireless-wpa

# make ethernet profile persistant
netctl enable ethernet-dhcp


#optional network extras
pacman -S dnsmasq dnscrypt-proxy

systemctl enable dnsmasq

# either use straight DNS
# set dns resolver (router)
# see https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Resolv.conf#Alternative_DNS_servers for a pair of public DNS server address to set
#vim /etc/resolv.conf

# or use encrypted DNS
# install dnscrypt

# setup dnsmasq config to listen to port 40 instead of 53
vim /etc/dnsmasq.conf

  no-resolv
  server=127.0.0.1#40
  listen-address=127.0.0.1
  proxy-dnssec

# make a network socket for dnscrypt to use port 40
systemctl edit dnscrypt-proxy.socket

  [Socket]
  ListenStream=
  ListenDatagram=
  ListenStream=127.0.0.1:40
  ListenDatagram=127.0.0.1:40

# create a unit file for dnscrypt with your chosen resolver
cp /usr/lib/systemd/system/dnscrypt-proxy.service /etc/systemd/system
vim /etc/systemd/system/dnscrypt-proxy.service

   # following [https://github.com/jedisct1/dnscrypt-proxy/blob/master/dnscrypt-resolvers.csv resolver] works
   dnscrypt.eu-dk

# make sure dnsmasq doesn't fall over due from dnscrypt not responding while it starts up
cp /usr/lib/systemd/system/dnsmasq.service /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants
vim /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants

   # edit to load After=dnscrypt-proxy.service
 
systemctl daemon-reload

# um.. could be above? edit file after auto copy rather than before?
systemctl enable dnscrypt-proxy.service

 vim /etc/resolv.conf

   nameserver 127.0.0.1


# setup ssh access
systemctl enable sshd
systemctl start sshd
# reboot
# ctrl-alt-del is quickest


# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/fail2ban
pacman -S fail2ban


SSH and dotfiles

# Make .ssh directory
mkdir ~/.ssh

# Generate an [[SSH]] key using EdDSA (SHA-512/256 and Curve25519)
ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -b 4096 -C "your_email@example.com" -f $HOME/.ssh/id_KEYNAME

# Ensure ssh-agent is enabled for this shell instance
eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

# Add your SSH key to the ssh-agent
ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_[whatever]


# copy public SSH key to services


# dotfile configuration management using GNU Stow
pacman -S stow
git clone https://github.com/mxmilkb/dotfiles ~/dotfiles && cd ~/dotfiles
stow base
stow zsh
stow vim
stow systemd
stow yay
stow bin
#etcetc

Video drivers

# find out graphics chipset
lspci | grep -e VGA -e 3D

# find gfx chipset drivers to install
pacman -Ss xf86-video | grep ##something##

# install gfx drivers
pacman -S xf86-video-ati # or whatever package

# hardware video acceleration, framebuffer support
pacman -S libva-mesa-driver xf86-video-fbdev

GUI


### fonts
# yay -S --answeredit n --noedit gohfont
 
 
### GUI apps
# yay -S  --answeredit n --noedit mediainfo-gui rxvt-unicode-fontspacing-noinc-vteclear-secondarywheel urxvtcd emoji-keyboard-git





Do you want X11 or wayland?


X11

  1. if you want a graphical login, install a display manager # https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/display_manager
  2. yay -S --answeredit n lightdm lightdm-gtk-greeter
  3. systemctl enable lightdm.service

localectl set-x11-keymap gb

  1. install basic X11 related

yay -S --answeredit n --noedit xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-xsetroot xorg-xrdb xorg-xset xorg-xev \

py3status checkupdates-aur xorg-xinput arandr xorg-xprop


  1. set X11 keyboard layout

sudoedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-keyboard.conf

Section "InputClass"
   Identifier "keyboard"
   MatchIsKeyboard "yes"
   Option "XkbLayout" "gb"
   Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
EndSection


  1. install X11 window manager
  2. bspwm-git sxhkd-git - using i3 now.

yay -S --answeredit n i3-gaps


  1. install other X11 related

yay -S --answeredit n autocutsel xscreensaver compton dunst hsetroot feh dmenu pnmixer-git redshift unclutter \

radiotray lxappearance workrave xorg-xdpyinfo xdotool glxinfo systemd-numlockontty gohufont


  1. enable numlock for ttys and X

systemctl enable numLockOnTty

  1. doesn't work?


  1. set the default browser

gio mime x-scheme-handler/http google-chrome.desktop gio mime x-scheme-handler/https google-chrome.desktop

Wayland

yay -S sway swaylock swayidle 

Miscellaneous

# install software
yay -S --answeredit n --answerdiff n links-g-directfb smartmontools gsmartcontrol youtube-dl-git dnscrypt-proxy-gui meld xcwd-git google-chrome caffeine-ng dolphin dolphin-plugins qt5ct fortune-mod ttf-symbola


# update pkgfile search cache
sudo pkgfile --update

systemctl enable pkgfile-update.timer



# set Git config
# if not using vcsh managed git config
#git config --global user.name USERNAME
#git config --global user.email MAILADDRESS


Sync

to check


yay -S --answeredit n syncthing syncthing-gtk syncthing-inotify

systemctl --user enable syncthing.service

syncthing-gtk
# to get api key

mkdir /etc/systemd/user/syncthing-inotify.service.d/

sudoedit /etc/systemd/user/syncthing-inotify.service.d/start.conf

  [Unit]
  ExecStart=
  ExecStart=/usr/bin/syncthing-inotify -logflags=0 -api="0M6ubcgtcy7KBLucu0jeXrgqB8U7YKp9"
  RuntimeDirectory=syncthing-inotify

  edit api

systemctl --user enable syncthing-inotify.service


#sudo ln -s /home/milk/.zshrc /root/.zshrc
#sudo ln -s /home/milk/.zsh /root/.zsh
#sudo ln -s /home/milk/.vimrc /root/.vimrc
#sudo ln -s /home/milk/.vim /root/.vim

Backup

to actually sort

See also Backup

yay -S --answeredit n pakbak-git

sudo mkdir -p /var/backup/pakbak

sudoedit /etc/pakbak.conf

 # edit backup folder to /var/backup/pakbak

systemctl enable pakbak

* tar -cjf pacman_database.tar.bz2 /var/lib/pacman/local


### Borg


# list intentionally installed packages
#pacman -Qqe



# Backup paths;
#
# /home/*
# /etc
# /var
# /boot
# /opt?
# etc..?

# Exclude
#/var/tmp

Virtual machine

yay -S --answeredit n linux-headers virtualbox virtualbox-host-dkms

sudoedit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf

  vboxdrv
    # add to end of modules (not hooks!)

sudo mkinitcpio -p linux

sudo modprobe vboxdrv

virtualbox

Audio

# install some apps
yay -S --answeredit n jack2 pulseaudio-jack cadence-git carla-git lv2-plugins sequencer64 audacity audacity-extras

Extra notes

Laptop

# Set up ACPI
yay -S --answeredit n apci acpid vattery wicd wicd-gtk tlp hdparm mons

systemctl enable acpid.service
# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Acpid

sudoedit /etc/udev/rules.d/99-lowbat.rules

  # Suspend the system when battery level drops to 5% or lower
  SUBSYSTEM=="power_supply", ATTR{status}=="Discharging", ATTR{capacity}=="[0-5]", RUN+="/usr/bin/systemctl hibernate"

# add vattery and wicd-gkt --tray to .xinitrc

# Set up touchpad

yay -S --answeredit n xf86-input-libinput


# intel video chipset?
sv /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Section "Device"
    Identifier  "Card0"
    Driver      "intel"
    Option      "Backlight"  "intel_backlight"
EndSection


sv /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-touchpad.conf

Section "InputClass"
        Identifier "MyTouchpad"
        MatchIsTouchpad "on"
        Driver "libinput"
        Option "Tapping" "on"
EndSection

Mobile

yay -S kdeconnect indicator-kdeconnect

   exec --no-startup-id /usr/bin/indicator-kdeconnect
   # in .xinitrc

ODROID-N2

pacman -S sudo git tmux

su USERNAME

pacman -S --needed base base base-devel sudo vim git tmux archlinux-keyring pacman-contrib zsh polkit netctl openssh p7zip iotop mlocate ripgrep fzf htop atop dmidecode fasd ncdu dfc tree pkgfile wget bind-tools dhcping exfat-utils sshfs dateutils trash-cli python2-pip lvm2 wpa_supplicant dialog


#not on arm
syslinux reflector mediainfo-cli pip

mkdir -p ~/pkgs && cd ~/pkgs && git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/yay-git.git || true && cd yay-git && makepkg -si

yay -S --answeredit n --answerdiff n pkgcacheclean longoverdue downgrade inxi fd-rs localepurge neobundle-git dtrx


pkgfile --update

# put this in .bashrc
eval "$(fasd --init auto)"




passwd
# change root password
useradd -m USERNAME
passwd USERNAME
# change your password

visudo
# uncomment first wheel directive
gpasswd -a USERNAME wheel

echo NEWHOSTNAME > /etc/hostname
rm /etc/localtime
ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/London /etc/localtime

aconfmgr

scp milk@rose:~/state/aconfmgr ~/state/aconfmgr
   ??

Environment

old?

## usb drive partition - 8Gb
/boot

## lvm raid 1
# root filesystem
/
/usr
/usr/src
/etc
/opt
/dev
/media     # external media mount point
/proc      # process info virtual filesystem
/sys       # system and kernel info virtual filesystem
/run       # running system shit virtual filesystem

/home
  /milk

  /lmedia  # large block size

/var
/var/cache
/var/tmp
/var/log

# ramdisk 
/tmp

# swap 
[SWAP]

Fonts:

noto-fonts-cjk
droid sans mono 10
gohufont

Old Ubuntu setup

ooold

hostname new.host.name

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install tmux git
git clone git@github.com:milkmiruku/dottmux.git ~/.tmux
ln -s ~/.tmux/.tmux.conf ~/.tmux.conf
tmux

sudo apt-get install curl zsh ncdu htop tree mercurial build-essential gcc libc6-dev ncurses-dev

sudo git clone git@github.com:milkmiruku/zsh.git ~/.zsh && cd ~/.zsh && sudo git submodule init && sudo git submodule update
  # edit zshrc location config 
useradd -m -s /usr/bin/zsh milk
passwd milk
adduser milk sudo

sudo apt-get remove vim vim-runtime gvim
  # (disable distro vim. not possible with apt on ubuntu [2])
mkdir ~/src && mkdir ~/src/vim
hg clone https://vim.googlecode.com/hg/ ~/src/vim && cd ~/src/vim && ./configure --enable-pythoninterp=yes && make && sudo make install
cd

git clone git@github.com:milkmiruku/dotvim.git ~/.vim
ln -s ~/.vim/vimrc ~/.vimrc
mkdir ~/.vim/bundle
git clone git://github.com/Shougo/neobundle.vim ~/.vim/bundle/neobundle.vim
echo ':NeoBundleInstall' > ~/viminit.txt
echo ':q' >> ~/viminit.vim
vim -s ~/viminit.vim
rm ~/viminit.vim
git clone    vimproc ......

wget -O src/atop.tar.gz http://www.atoptool.nl/download/atop-2.0.2.tar.gz && cd ~/src && tar zxvf atop.tar.gz && cd ~/src/atop && ./configure && make && make install
cd

vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config
  # disable root, change port, etc.
ssh-keygen -t rsa
  # (for user and root?)


To sort: multiuser config. permissions? Or /usr/share/config/ ...

apt-get install php mariadb
apt-get install ruby rubygems
apt-get install python pip

backup

Live USB

See Distros#Live Distro