Box

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General

A box, yer computer, physical (or abstract) box. [1]

These are the steps that I follow (and create) when I set-up Arch Linux. They are incomplete.

See also Stack, *nix#Configuration 2, Server, Distros, Distros#Live Distro

Arch Linux install

Todo: convert parts into this style - https://github.com/unexicon/meta-unexicon

Initial setup

Setup for ArchISO environment.

# set keyboard for UK qwerty, gives access to pipe character, etc.
loadkeys /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/i386/qwerty/uk.map.gz

# check for potentially failed services (i.e. network dhcp)
systemctl --failed

# update pacman software list
pacman -Sy

# install terminfo for urxvt
pacman -S rxvt-unicode
# and reconnect via ssh

Network

# if there isn't a network already..

# for wifi-menu / wpa_cli to work
vim /etc/wpa_supplicant/base.conf
# new file

  ctrl_interface=/run/wpa_supplicant
  update_config=1

# get wifi interface name
ip a


wifi-menu

(or)

# start wpa_supplicant
wpa_supplicant -B -i interfacename -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/base.conf

# establish wifi data link
wpa_cli

  scan
  scan_results

  add_network
  set_network 0 ssid "MYSSID"
  set_network 0 psk "passphrase"
  enable_network 0

  # or for open wifi
  set_network 0 key_mgmt NONE
  enable_network 0

  save_config
  q


### for wifi and ethernet???
# establish ip linkcli
dhcpcd [interface]

File storage

Basic

# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Partitioning
# there can be only 4 'primary' partitions in the MBR. if not using LVM, make the fourth 'extended' so it can contain further 'logical' partitions
# filesystem partition size ideas:
# /boot - 512M
  # contains boot kernel images (linux, linux-lts, linux-ck, etc.) - Type: linux (83)
# [swap]
  # swap size to match RAM size - Type: linux swap (82)
# /
  # one large partition for the rest - Type: linux (83) OR linux LVM (8e)


# all-in-one partitioning, boot flag and swap partition setup
echo -e "n\n\n\n\n+512M\n n\n\n\n\n+1G\n n\n\n\n\n\n a\n1\n t\n2\n82\nw\n"|
fdisk /dev/vda


# check drive partitions
lsblk

# formatting
# boot as ext2 (no journal for less fuckups?)
mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
e2label /dev/sda1 /boot

mkfs.ext4 /dev/[partition]


# create swap partition
mkswap /dev/[swappartition]
swapon /dev/[swappartition]


# mount partitions - root first
mount /dev/mapper/<lv-root> /mnt
mkdir /mnt/boot
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot


# give device label, for file managers - https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Persistent_block_device_naming#by-label
e2label /dev/XXX <label>

LVM (optional)

# managing storage devices with LVM allows for easier partition resizing, etc. later
# see https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/LVM

# scan for available devices
lvmdiskscan

# create physical volume
pvcreate /dev/DEVICE

# confirm the above with either:
pvdisplay
pvscan
pvs


# create and add to internal drive volume group
vgcreate <volume_group> /dev/DEVICE

# or
vgcreate <volume_group> /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc

# or
vgextend <volume_group> <physical_volume>

# confirm the above with:
vgdisplay


# logical volume / partition ideas:

# root (/) logical volume, will contain /usr (includes installed programs)
   # minimum 100G - Bootable - Type: linux (83)
# [swap]
   # match size of RAM if you use suspend-to-disk - Type
# var (/var) logical volume - contains misc. including spools, logs, packages downloaded for installation. separate to avoid running out of space
   # minimum 100G - Type: linux (83)
# home (/home) logical volume - contains user home folders
   # remainder - Type: linux (83)


# create partition group. -C = contiguous.
lvcreate -C y -L 100G <volume_group> -n <lv_name>

etc.


# confirm the above
lvs



# confirm drive partitions
lsblk

# format drive partitions
# boot as ext2
mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1
e2label /dev/sda1 /boot


mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/[partition]
# repeat for each partition, excluding swap partition

# create swap partition
mkswap /dev/[swappartition]
swapon /dev/[swappartition]

# mount partitions - root first
mount /dev/mapper/<lv-root> /mnt

mkdir /mnt/boot
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot

mkdir /mnt/var
mount /dev/mapper/<lv-var> /mnt/var

mkdir /mnt/home
mount /dev/mapper/<lv-home> /mnt/home


# if mirroring with raid1;
lvconvert --type raid1 -m 1 /dev/milk-hdd-internal/logicalvolume /dev/sdd1


# give device label, for file managers - https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Persistent_block_device_naming#by-label
e2label /dev/XXX <label>

Bootstrap

# use geographically close arch package mirror
vim /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
# move local mirror at top of the list. this config is also copied across in the next step.

# bootstrap including the installation of pacman and a few extras
pacstrap /mnt base base-devel archlinux-keyring pacman-contrib syslinux zsh polkit netctl openssh p7zip reflector iotop mlocate ripgrep fzf vim git tmux htop atop dmidecode fasd ncdu dfc tree pkgfile wget bind-tools dhcping exfat-utils sshfs dateutils trash-cli mediainfo-cli pip python2-pip


# generate file system configuration info
genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

# chroot into new system
arch-chroot /mnt


#optional extra
pacman -S linux-headers linux-lts linux-lts-headers lvm2 

pacman -S wpa_supplicant dialog dnsmasq dnscrypt-proxy


Users

# set root user password
passwd

# add your own user account and set a password
useradd -m [USERNAME]
passwd [USERNAME]

# let wheel group use sudo for root permission
visudo
# uncomment %wheel      ALL=(ALL) ALL

## USERNAME HOST_NAME= NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/halt,/usr/bin/poweroff,/usr/bin/reboot,/usr/bin/pacman -Syu

# add user to wheel group for sudo/etc, access
gpasswd -a [USERNAME] wheel

Name, time, language

# set a hostname
echo computer_name > /etc/hostname

# set timezone
ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/London /etc/localtime

# uncomment en_GB.UTF-8 or appropriate locale
vim /etc/locale.gen
/#en_GB
xZZ

# generate locale
locale-gen

# set locale conf
echo LANG=en_GB.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf

# set persistant console keymap and font preferences in /etc/vconsole.conf
vim /etc/vconsole.conf
i
KEYMAP=uk
[esc]ZZ

Kernel images

# edit mkinitcpio.conf
vim /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
  # add lvm2 to hooks

  HOOKS=" ... block lvm2 filesystems ... "
 
  # uncomment "xz" compression

# build boot arch and lts boot images
mkinitcpio -p linux linux-lts

Bootloader

# install bootloader: syslinux (installed above)
syslinux-install_update -i -a -m
# the above does this:
# fdisk for boot flag
# dd bs=440 count=1 if=/usr/lib/syslinux/bios/mbr.bin of=/dev/sda
#CAUTION - edit /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg to use correct device/mapper addresses

# OR
# install bootloader: GRUB
# syslinux is easier to manage than GRUB
#pacman -S grub
#grub-install --recheck --target=i386-pc /dev/sdx

# allow for saving the last booted kernel, edit /etc/default/grub, set
#GRUB_DEFAULT=saved
# and add
#GRUB_SAVEDEFAULT=true

# generate/regenerate config file
#grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

Network

# set better network interface device names in relation to their MAC (media access control) address.
#vim /etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules

# if only one active interface:
echo SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="$(cat /sys/class/net/$(ls /sys/class/net/ | grep -v lo | grep -v wlan)/address)", NAME="eth0" > /etc/udev/rules.d/10.network.rules

# if there is wifi (to fix):
#echo SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="$(cat /sys/class/net/**wifiinterfacename**/address)", NAME="wlan0" >> /etc/udev/rules.d/10.network.rules


# enable DHCP
# multiple network management methods are available
# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Network_configuration#Dynamic_IP_address

# dhcpcd for all interfaces
systemctl enable dhcpcd
systemctl start dhcpcd


# netctl (arch dev grown systemd interface)
cp /etc/netctl/examples/ethernet-dhcp /etc/netctl
cp /etc/netctl/examples/wireless-wpa /etc/netctl
vim /etc/netctl/wireless-wpa
# change essid and key

# test netctl ethernet profile
netctl start ethernet-dhcp
ip a
ping bbc.co.uk
netctl stop ethernet-dhcp

# test netctl wireless-wpa profile
netctl start ethernet-dhcp
ip a
ping bbc.co.uk
netctl stop wireless-wpa

# make ethernet profile persistant
netctl enable ethernet-dhcp


systemctl enable dnsmasq

# either use straight DNS
# set dns resolver (router)
# see https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Resolv.conf#Alternative_DNS_servers for a pair of public DNS server address to set
#vim /etc/resolv.conf

# or use encrypted DNS
# install dnscrypt

# setup dnsmasq config to listen to port 40 instead of 53
vim /etc/dnsmasq.conf

  no-resolv
  server=127.0.0.1#40
  listen-address=127.0.0.1
  proxy-dnssec

# make a network socket for dnscrypt to use port 40
systemctl edit dnscrypt-proxy.socket

  [Socket]
  ListenStream=
  ListenDatagram=
  ListenStream=127.0.0.1:40
  ListenDatagram=127.0.0.1:40

# create a unit file for dnscrypt with your chosen resolver
cp /usr/lib/systemd/system/dnscrypt-proxy.service /etc/systemd/system
vim /etc/systemd/system/dnscrypt-proxy.service

   # following [https://github.com/jedisct1/dnscrypt-proxy/blob/master/dnscrypt-resolvers.csv resolver] works
   dnscrypt.eu-dk

# make sure dnsmasq doesn't fall over due from dnscrypt not responding while it starts up
cp /usr/lib/systemd/system/dnsmasq.service /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants
vim /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants

   # edit to load After=dnscrypt-proxy.service
 
systemctl daemon-reload

# um.. could be above? edit file after auto copy rather than before?
systemctl enable dnscrypt-proxy.service

 vim /etc/resolv.conf

   nameserver 127.0.0.1


# setup ssh access
systemctl enable sshd
systemctl start sshd
# reboot
# ctrl-alt-del is quickest


# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/fail2ban
pacman -S fail2ban

Video drivers

# find out graphics chipset
lspci | grep -e VGA -e 3D

# find gfx chipset drivers to install
pacman -Ss xf86-video | grep ##something##

# install gfx drivers
pacman -S xf86-video-ati # or whatever package

# hardware video acceleration, framebuffer support
pacman -S libva-mesa-driver xf86-video-fbdev

AUR and Git

# bootstrap AUR access with AUR helper pacaur
# https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-use-yaourt-to-easily-download-arch-linux-community-packages
# yay > trizen > pacaur w/ pacget > yaourt > *

mkdir -p ~/pkgs && cd ~/pkgs && git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/yay-git.git && cd yay-git && makepkg -si

yay -S --answeredit n --answerdiff n pkgcacheclean longoverdue downgrade inxi fd-rs localepurge neobundle-git dtrx


#gpg --recv-key [keyfromerror]

SSH and dotfiles

# Make .ssh directory
mkdir ~/.ssh

# Generate an [[SSH]] key using EdDSA (SHA-512/256 and Curve25519)
ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -b 4096 -C "your_email@example.com" -f $HOME/.ssh/id_[keynamehere]

# Ensure ssh-agent is enabled for this shell instance
eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

# Add your SSH key to the ssh-agent
ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_[whatever]


# install; vcsh myrepos
yay -S --answeredit n --answerdiff n  vcsh-git myrepos-git

git clone https://github.com/tarjoilija/zgen.git ~/.zgen

mkdir -p ~/.zsh/cache/`hostname --short`

# bootstrap vcsh
vcsh clone git@github.com:milkmiruku/vcsh_mr.git

# edit config.d symlinks to available.d
cd .config/mr/available.d
#etc.

# mr bootstrap
mr up

GUI


### fonts
# yay -S --answeredit n --noedit terminus-font terminus-font-ttf ttf-ms-fonts
 
 
### GUI apps
# yay -S  --answeredit n --noedit mediainfo-gui rxvt-unicode-fontspacing-noinc-vteclear-secondarywheel urxvtcd emoji-keyboard-git


# do you want X11 or wayland?


# X11:

# if you want a graphical login, install a display manager # https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/display_manager
#yay -S --answeredit n lightdm lightdm-gtk-greeter
#systemctl enable lightdm.service
 
localectl set-x11-keymap gb
 
# install basic X11 related
yay -S --answeredit n --noedit xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-xsetroot xorg-xrdb xorg-xset xorg-xev \
 py3status checkupdates-aur xorg-xinput arandr xorg-xprop
 
 
# set X11 keyboard layout
sudoedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-keyboard.conf

 Section "InputClass"
    Identifier "keyboard"
    MatchIsKeyboard "yes"
    Option "XkbLayout" "gb"
    Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys"
 EndSection


# install X11 window manager
# bspwm-git sxhkd-git - using i3 now.

yay -S --answeredit n i3-gaps


# install other X11 related
yay -S --answeredit n autocutsel xscreensaver compton dunst hsetroot feh dmenu pnmixer-git redshift unclutter \
 radiotray lxappearance workrave xorg-xdpyinfo xdotool glxinfo systemd-numlockontty gohufont



# enable numlock for ttys and X
systemctl enable numLockOnTty
# doesn't work?


# set the default browser
gio mime x-scheme-handler/http google-chrome.desktop
gio mime x-scheme-handler/https google-chrome.desktop

Misc

# install software
yay -S --answeredit n --answerdiff n links-g-directfb smartmontools gsmartcontrol youtube-dl-git dnscrypt-proxy-gui meld xcwd-git google-chrome caffeine-ng dolphin dolphin-plugins qt5ct fortune-mod ttf-symbola


# update pkgfile search cache
sudo pkgfile --update

systemctl enable pkgfile-update.timer



# set Git config
# if not using vcsh managed git config
#git config --global user.name USERNAME
#git config --global user.email MAILADDRESS

Laptop

# Set up ACPI
yay -S --answeredit n apci acpid vattery wicd wicd-gtk tlp hdparm mons

systemctl enable acpid.service
# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Acpid

sudoedit /etc/udev/rules.d/99-lowbat.rules

  # Suspend the system when battery level drops to 5% or lower
  SUBSYSTEM=="power_supply", ATTR{status}=="Discharging", ATTR{capacity}=="[0-5]", RUN+="/usr/bin/systemctl hibernate"

# add vattery and wicd-gkt --tray to .xinitrc

# Set up touchpad

yay -S --answeredit n xf86-input-libinput


# intel video chipset?
sv /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Section "Device"
    Identifier  "Card0"
    Driver      "intel"
    Option      "Backlight"  "intel_backlight"
EndSection


sv /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-touchpad.conf

Section "InputClass"
        Identifier "MyTouchpad"
        MatchIsTouchpad "on"
        Driver "libinput"
        Option "Tapping" "on"
EndSection

Mobile

yay -S kdeconnect indicator-kdeconnect

   exec --no-startup-id /usr/bin/indicator-kdeconnect
   # in .xinitrc

Sync

to check


yay -S --answeredit n syncthing syncthing-gtk syncthing-inotify

systemctl --user enable syncthing.service

syncthing-gtk
# to get api key

mkdir /etc/systemd/user/syncthing-inotify.service.d/

sudoedit /etc/systemd/user/syncthing-inotify.service.d/start.conf

  [Unit]
  ExecStart=
  ExecStart=/usr/bin/syncthing-inotify -logflags=0 -api="0M6ubcgtcy7KBLucu0jeXrgqB8U7YKp9"
  RuntimeDirectory=syncthing-inotify

  edit api

systemctl --user enable syncthing-inotify.service


#sudo ln -s /home/milk/.zshrc /root/.zshrc
#sudo ln -s /home/milk/.zsh /root/.zsh
#sudo ln -s /home/milk/.vimrc /root/.vimrc
#sudo ln -s /home/milk/.vim /root/.vim

Backup

to actually sort

See also Backup

yay -S --answeredit n pakbak-git

sudo mkdir -p /var/backup/pakbak

sudoedit /etc/pakbak.conf

 # edit backup folder to /var/backup/pakbak

systemctl enable pakbak

* tar -cjf pacman_database.tar.bz2 /var/lib/pacman/local


### Borg


# list intentionally installed packages
#pacman -Qqe



# Backup paths;
#
# /home/*
# /etc
# /var
# /boot
# /opt?
# etc..?

# Exclude
#/var/tmp

Virtual machine

yay -S --answeredit n linux-headers virtualbox virtualbox-host-dkms

sudoedit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf

  vboxdrv
    # add to end of modules (not hooks!)

sudo mkinitcpio -p linux

sudo modprobe vboxdrv

virtualbox

Audio

# install some apps
yay -S --answeredit n jack2 pulseaudio-jack cadence-git carla-git lv2-plugins sequencer64 audacity audacity-extras

slim (old)

i'm using lightdm now

yay -S --answeredit n slim slim-themes 

# make slim login desktop manager start automatically
systemctl enable slim.service

# edit slim config - default_user, focus_password, current_theme sleep-openbox
vi /etc/slim.conf

Environment

## usb drive partition - 8Gb
/boot

## lvm raid 1
# root filesystem
/
/usr
/usr/src
/etc
/opt
/dev
/media     # external media mount point
/proc      # process info virtual filesystem
/sys       # system and kernel info virtual filesystem
/run       # running system shit virtual filesystem

/home
  /milk

  /lmedia  # large block size

/var
/var/cache
/var/tmp
/var/log

# ramdisk 
/tmp

# swap 
[SWAP]

Fonts:

noto-fonts-cjk
droid sans mono 10
gohufont

Config management

??? b0rken?

yay -S --answeredit n vcsh myrepos
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -f ~/.ssh/github_rsa
eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"
ssh-add ~/.ssh/github_rsa
< ~/.ssh/github_rsa.pub
# add new key on https://github.com/settings/ssh
ssh git@github.com
mkdir ~/.zsh/cache/$HOST
touch ~/.zsh/cache/$HOST/last-working-dir
# rm ~/.gtkrc-2.0
vcsh clone git://github.com/RichiH/vcsh_mr_template.git mr
mr up

???


Once all is working:

vcsh enter whateverrepo
  # only need to do this to change git remotes n such, not for general config editing
exit
vcsh foreach add -u
  # add all tracked but uncomitted files in all repos

vcsh commit
  # commit all

vcsh push
  # push all repos

Old Ubuntu setup

ooold

hostname new.host.name

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install tmux git
git clone git@github.com:milkmiruku/dottmux.git ~/.tmux
ln -s ~/.tmux/.tmux.conf ~/.tmux.conf
tmux

sudo apt-get install curl zsh ncdu htop tree mercurial build-essential gcc libc6-dev ncurses-dev

sudo git clone git@github.com:milkmiruku/zsh.git ~/.zsh && cd ~/.zsh && sudo git submodule init && sudo git submodule update
  # edit zshrc location config 
useradd -m -s /usr/bin/zsh milk
passwd milk
adduser milk sudo

sudo apt-get remove vim vim-runtime gvim
  # (disable distro vim. not possible with apt on ubuntu [2])
mkdir ~/src && mkdir ~/src/vim
hg clone https://vim.googlecode.com/hg/ ~/src/vim && cd ~/src/vim && ./configure --enable-pythoninterp=yes && make && sudo make install
cd

git clone git@github.com:milkmiruku/dotvim.git ~/.vim
ln -s ~/.vim/vimrc ~/.vimrc
mkdir ~/.vim/bundle
git clone git://github.com/Shougo/neobundle.vim ~/.vim/bundle/neobundle.vim
echo ':NeoBundleInstall' > ~/viminit.txt
echo ':q' >> ~/viminit.vim
vim -s ~/viminit.vim
rm ~/viminit.vim
git clone    vimproc ......

wget -O src/atop.tar.gz http://www.atoptool.nl/download/atop-2.0.2.tar.gz && cd ~/src && tar zxvf atop.tar.gz && cd ~/src/atop && ./configure && make && make install
cd

vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config
  # disable root, change port, etc.
ssh-keygen -t rsa
  # (for user and root?)


To sort: multiuser config. permissions? Or /usr/share/config/ ...

apt-get install php mariadb
apt-get install ruby rubygems
apt-get install python pip

backup

Silver


Live USB

See Distros#Live Distro