Data

From Things and Stuff Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Things and Stuff Wiki - an organically evolving knowledge base personal wiki with a totally on-the-fly taxonomy containing topic outlines, descriptions and breadcrumbs, with links to sites, systems, software, manuals, organisations, people, articles, guides, slides, papers, books, comments, screencasts, webcasts, scratchpads and more. use the Table of Contents for navigation on longer pages. see About for further information. / et / em

See also Computing#Data structures, Open data, Visualisation

General

data, noun

  • facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis: there is very little data available
    • the quantities, characters, or symbols on which operations are performed by a computer, which may be stored and transmitted in the form of electrical signals and recorded on magnetic, optical, or mechanical recording media.
    • Philosophy things known or assumed as facts, making the basis of reasoning or calculation.


Articles

Learning

Management

See also Database, Visualisation, Maths#Software




Science

  • A Taxonomy of Data Science - Both within the academy and within tech startups, we’ve been hearing some similar questions lately: Where can I find a good data scientist? What do I need to learn to become a data scientist? Or more succinctly: What is data science?


  • School of Data works to empower civil society organizations, journalists and citizens with the skills they need to use data effectively in their efforts to create more equitable and effective societies.
  • Kaggle - Service - From Big Data to Big Analytics.



Encoding




Telegraph

Morse

Baudot

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baudot_code - a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII. It was the predecessor to the International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2 (ITA2), the teleprinter code in use until the advent of ASCII. Each character in the alphabet is represented by a series of bits, sent over a communication channel such as a telegraph wire or a radio signal. The symbol rate measurement is known as baud, and is derived from the same name.

BCD

EBCDIC

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EBCDIC - an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems. EBCDIC descended from the code used with punched cards and the corresponding six bit binary-coded decimal code used with most of IBM's computer peripherals of the late 1950s and early 1960s.[2] It is also supported on various non-IBM platforms such as Fujitsu-Siemens' BS2000/OSD, OS-IV, MSP, and MSP-EX, the SDS Sigma series, and Unisys VS/9 and MCP.

ASCII / ANSI

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII - abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character-encoding scheme. Originally based on the English alphabet, it encodes 128 specified characters into 7-bit binary integers as shown by the ASCII chart on the right. The characters encoded are numbers 0 to 9, lowercase letters a to z, uppercase letters A to Z, basic punctuation symbols, control codes that originated with Teletype machines, and a space. For example, lowercase j would become binary 1101010 and decimal 106.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_ASCII - eight-bit or larger character encodings that include the standard seven-bit ASCII characters as well as others. The use of the term is sometimes criticized, because it can be mistakenly interpreted that the ASCII standard has been updated to include more than 128 characters or that the term unambiguously identifies a single encoding, both of which are untrue.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_page_437







Art

Unicode

mirroring char in brackets: (‮‮test ( 



Serialization

See also HTML/CSS#Markup, JavaScript#JSON


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delimiter-separated_values - store two-dimensional arrays of data by separating the values in each row with specific delimiter characters. Most database and spreadsheet programs are able to read or save data in a delimited format. A delimited text file is a text file used to store data, in which each line represents a single book, company, or other thing, and each line has fields separated by the delimiter. Compared to the kind of flat file that uses spaces to force every field to the same width, a delimited file has the advantage of allowing field values of any length



CSV


TSV

ML

A Document Type Definition (DTD) defines the legal building blocks of an XML document. It defines the document structure with a list of legal elements and attributes. A DTD can be declared inline inside an XML document, or as an external reference. XML uses a subset of SGML DTD.

As of 2009, newer XML namespace-aware schema languages (such as W3C XML Schema and ISO RELAX NG) have largely superseded DTDs. A namespace-aware version of DTDs is being developed as Part 9 of ISO DSDL. DTDs persist in applications that need special publishing characters, such as the XML and HTML Character Entity References, which derive from larger sets defined as part of the ISO SGML standard effort.


XML




  • w3c: XQuery - a query and functional programming language that queries and transforms collections of structured and unstructured data, usually in the form of XML, text and with vendor-specific extensions for other data formats (JSON, binary, etc.). The language is developed by the XML Query working group of the W3C. The work is closely coordinated with the development of XSLT by the XSL Working Group; the two groups share responsibility for XPath, which is a subset of XQuery.
  • http://www.xembly.org/ Xembly is an Assembly-like imperative programming language for data manipulation in XML documents. It is a much simplier alternative to XSLT and XQuery. Read this blog post for a more detailed explanation: Xembly, an Assembly for XML.



Schema


XSL

JSON

  • JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data-interchange format. It is easy for humans to read and write. It is easy for machines to parse and generate. It is based on a subset of the JavaScript Programming Language, Standard ECMA-262 3rd Edition - December 1999. JSON is a text format that is completely language independent but uses conventions that are familiar to programmers of the C-family of languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python, and many others. These properties make JSON an ideal data-interchange language.
  • JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. The claims in a JWT are encoded as a JSON object that is digitally signed using JSON Web Signature (JWS). - IETF. [18]


Variations

  • JSON-P or "JSON with padding" is a communication technique used in JavaScript programs which run in Web browsers. It provides a method to request data from a server in a different domain, something prohibited by typical web browsers because of the same origin policy - pre CORS
  • JsonML (JSON Markup Language) is an application of the JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format. The purpose of JsonML is to provide a compact format for transporting XML-based markup as JSON which allows it to be losslessly converted back to its original form. Native XML/XHTML doesn't sit well embedded in JavaScript. When XHTML is stored in script it must be properly encoded as an opaque string. JsonML allows easy manipulation of the markup in script before completely rehydrating back to the original form.
  • JSON-LD (JavaScript Object Notation for Linking Data) is a lightweight Linked Data format that gives your data context. It is easy for humans to read and write. It is easy for machines to parse and generate. It is based on the already successful JSON format and provides a way to help JSON data interoperate at Web-scale. If you are already familiar with JSON, writing JSON-LD is very easy. These properties make JSON-LD an ideal Linked Data interchange language for JavaScript environments, Web service, and unstructured databases such as CouchDB and MongoDB.
  • BSON, short for Bin­ary JSON, is a bin­ary-en­coded seri­al­iz­a­tion of JSON-like doc­u­ments. Like JSON, BSON sup­ports the em­bed­ding of doc­u­ments and ar­rays with­in oth­er doc­u­ments and ar­rays. BSON also con­tains ex­ten­sions that al­low rep­res­ent­a­tion of data types that are not part of the JSON spec. For ex­ample, BSON has a Date type and a BinData type.
  • json-stat.org is an attempt to define a JSON schema for statistical dissemination or at least some guidelines and good practices when dealing with stats in JSON.
  • JSON API is a JSON-based read/write hypermedia-type designed to support a smart client who wishes build a data-store of information.
  • Javascript Object Signing and Encryption - JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a text format for the serialization of structured data described in RFC 4627. The JSON format is often used for serializing and transmitting structured data over a network connection. With the increased usage of JSON in protocols in the IETF and elsewhere, there is now a desire to offer security services, which use encryption, digital signatures, message authentication codes (MACs) algorithms, that carry their data in JSON format.
  • JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON data structure that represents a set of public keys.

Learning

  • Getting Started with JSON - You send data in a JSON format between different parts of your system. API results are often returned in JSON format, for example. JSON is a lightweight format which makes for easy reading if you're even the least bit familiar with JavaScript.

Tools

Generate
Checking
Command-line
  • Pjson - Like python -mjson.tool but with moar colors (and less conf)


  • jq is like sed for JSON data – you can use it to slice and filter and map and transform structured data with the same ease that sed, awk, grep and friends let you play with text.



to sort

YAML

TOML

  • https://github.com/toml-lang/toml - TOML aims to be a minimal configuration file format that's easy to read due to obvious semantics. TOML is designed to map unambiguously to a hash table. TOML should be easy to parse into data structures in a wide variety of languages.

STON

Other



Markup

HTML / CSS

See HTML/CSS

Markdown

See also Documents#Markdown




Variations

  • https://github.com/karlcow/markdown-testsuite - This project was initiated to provide a test suite for Markdown markup, and eventually create a specification from this test results. A part of of the community has started a new endeavor which seems to get traction as CommonMark.



Tools

  • Markdown Here is a Google Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, and Thunderbird extension that lets you write email in Markdown and render them before sending. It also supports syntax highlighting (just specify the language in a fenced code block).
  • https://github.com/mwhite/resume - a simple Markdown resumé template, LaTeX header, and pre-processing script that can be used with Pandoc to generate professional-looking PDF and HTML output.
  • Markx - Markdown editor for scientific writing. Batteries included.


  • Markdown.css - CSS to make HTML markup look like plain-text markdown.
  • PageDown is the JavaScript Markdown previewer used on Stack Overflow and the rest of the Stack Exchange network. It includes a Markdown-to-HTML converter and an in-page Markdown editor with live preview.


  • Lorem Markdownum - Inspired by the many excellent lorem ipsum generators, this simple webapp generates placeholder text. However, instead of generating plain text, this generator gives you structured text in the form of markdown. In order to do so, it uses Markov Chains and many heuristics.
  • Markdown Extra is an extension to PHP Markdown implementing some features currently not available with the plain Markdown syntax. Markdown Extra is available as a separate parser class in PHP Markdown Lib.


  • mdp - A command-line based markdown presentation tool. [32]



  • Fountain is a simple markup syntax for writing, editing and sharing screenplays in plain, human-readable text. Fountain allows you to work on your screenplay anywhere, on any computer or tablet, using any software that edits text files.


Table of Contents

cat ~/projects/Dockerfile.vim/README.md | ./gh-md-toc -
 * [Dockerfile.vim](#dockerfilevim)
 * [Screenshot](#screenshot)
 * [Installation](#installation)
       * [OR using Pathogen:](#or-using-pathogen)
       * [OR using Vundle:](#or-using-vundle)
 * [License](#license)


WYSIWYM

Configuration

JSON

Systems

WikiCreole

other

  • Pandoc - a universal document converter. If you need to convert files from one markup format into another, pandoc is your swiss-army knife. Pandoc can convert documents in markdown, reStructuredText, textile, HTML, DocBook, LaTeX, or MediaWiki markup to; HTML formats: XHTML, HTML5, and HTML slide shows using Slidy, Slideous, S5, or DZSlides. Word processor formats: Microsoft Word docx, OpenOffice/LibreOffice ODT, OpenDocument XML, Ebooks: EPUB version 2 or 3, FictionBook2, Documentation formats: DocBook, GNU TexInfo, Groff man pages, TeX formats: LaTeX, ConTeXt, LaTeX Beamer slides, PDF via LaTeX, Lightweight markup formats: Markdown, reStructuredText, AsciiDoc, MediaWiki markup, Emacs Org-Mode, Textile

XMPP

Other


Maths

Mining


Scraping

See also HTTP#Scraping, Network#Saving

  • Scrapy is a fast high-level screen scraping and web crawling framework, used to crawl websites and extract structured data from their pages. It can be used for a wide range of purposes, from data mining to monitoring and automated testing.
  • kimono - Turn websites into structured APIs from your browser in seconds [39]




Tools





Services