- IaaS - Infrastructure as a Service - provides base virtual machines - Linode, etc.
- PaaS - Platform as a Service - provides servers with apps enabled, limited shell - Heroku, etc.
- SaaS - Software as a Service - provides "desktop apps" as webpage - calendar, e-mail, social network, etc.
- FaaS - Function as a Service - provides modular microservices linked by APIs
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elasticity_(cloud_computing) - defined as "the degree to which a system is able to adapt to workload changes by provisioning and de-provisioning resources in an autonomic manner, such that at each point in time the available resources match the current demand as closely as possible". Elasticity is a defining characteristic that differentiates cloud computing from previously proposed computing paradigms, such as grid computing. The dynamic adaptation of capacity, e.g., by altering the use of computing resources, to meet a varying workload is called "elastic computing".
- https://github.com/panicsteve/cloud-to-butt - Chrome extension that replaces occurrences of 'the cloud' with 'my butt'
Comparison / news / forums
- /r/VPS/ - for discussions of virtual private servers and cloud servers.
- lowendbox - Hosting Websites on Bare Minimum VPS/Dedicated Servers
- LowEndTalk - discussion forum
- ServerBear - A Fresh Look at Web Hosting Comparison
- Review Signal: Web Hosting Reviews - turns conversations on Twitter into web hosting reviews. We've collected over 335,000 reviews about web hosting companies and publish them for consumers. Our mission is to take valuable insights publicly shared by others and transform it into useful information. Review Signal's core values are transparency and honesty. We publish all of our algorithms, benchmark our ratings against industry measurements and perform the most respected benchmarks in the WordPress community.
- VpsBenchmarks - We collect VPS plan specifications, thoroughly test their performance and provide screening and comparison tools to make your VPS search short and painless.
- ServerScope - Use our customizable benchmark kit to test your server or browse crowdsourced data to pick the best VPS for your needs
VPS / IaaS
- An always-on reserved EC2 micro instance works out to £5.54 a month (3 year), or £7.08 a month (1 year)
- RamNode - USA and NL
- https://www.vultr.com/pricing - many locations
- e24cloud.com - Powered by Beyond.pl
- https://www.vpn.sh - £1?!
- Time4VPS - Europe
- http://www.cloudatcost.com - dodgy, social media links are dead
See also E-mail#Server
- http://www.heroku.com/ - Ruby, Node.js, Clojure, Java, Python, and Scala
gem install heroku foreman
- http://www.engineyard.com/ - PHP, Ruby
- http://www.appfog.com/ - Java, Python, Node, .Net, Ruby, PHP, MySQL, Mongo, PostgreSQL, and more
- https://koding.com/ - free vm
- https://omega8.cc/ - £34.18 monthly (£20.75/month for a year)
- http://www.buzzr.com/ - lullabot
Google Cloud Platform
- Cloud Shell - Browser Based Command Line | Google Cloud Platform - Google Cloud Shell provides you with command-line access to your cloud resources directly from your browser. You can easily manage your projects and resources without having to install the Google Cloud SDK or other tools on your system. With Cloud Shell, the Cloud SDK gcloud command-line tool and other utilities you need are always available, up to date and fully authenticated when you need them. 
- https://www.nitrous.io/ - free node.js basic plan
- https://zeit.co/now - node
- http://ctl-c.io/ - appfog
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microservices - a software development technique—a variant of the service-oriented architecture (SOA) architectural style that structures an application as a collection of loosely coupled services. In a microservices architecture, services are fine-grained and the protocols are lightweight. The benefit of decomposing an application into different smaller services is that it improves modularity. This makes the application easier to understand, develop, test, and become more resilient to architecture erosion. It parallelizes development by enabling small autonomous teams to develop, deploy and scale their respective services independently. It also allows the architecture of an individual service to emerge through continuous refactoring. Microservices-based architectures enable continuous delivery and deployment.
- microservices.io: What are microservices?
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Function_as_a_service - FaaS, a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage application functionalities without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app. Building an application following this model is one way of achieving a "serverless" architecture, and is typically used when building microservices applications.FaaS is an extremely recent development in cloud computing, first made available to the world by hook.io in October 2014, followed by AWS Lambda, Google Cloud Functions, Microsoft Azure Functions, IBM/Apache's OpenWhisk (open source) in 2016 and Oracle Cloud Fn (open source) in 2017 which are available for public use. FaaS capabilities also exist in private platforms, as demonstrated by Uber's Schemaless triggers
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serverless_computing - a cloud-computing execution model in which the cloud provider acts as the server, dynamically managing the allocation of machine resources. Pricing is based on the actual amount of resources consumed by an application, rather than on pre-purchased units of capacity. It is a form of utility computing.The name "serverless computing" is used because the server management and capacity planning decisions are completely hidden from the developer or operator. Serverless code can be used in conjunction with code deployed in traditional styles, such as microservices. Alternatively, applications can be written to be purely serverless and use no provisioned servers at all.
- Fn Project - an open-source container-native serverless platform that you can run anywhere -- any cloud or on-premise. It’s easy to use, supports every programming language, and is extensible and performant.
- OpenFaaS - Serverless Functions Made Simple for Docker and Kubernetes
- https://github.com/knative - Kubernetes-based platform to build, deploy, and manage modern serverless workloads
- Apache OpenWhisk - an open source, distributed Serverless platform that executes functions (fx) in response to events at any scale. OpenWhisk manages the infrastructure, servers and scaling using Docker containers so you can focus on building amazing and efficient applications.
- Istio - an open platform for providing a uniform way to integrate microservices, manage traffic flow across microservices, enforce policies and aggregate telemetry data. Istio's control plane provides an abstraction layer over the underlying cluster management platform, such as Kubernetes, Mesos, etc.
Free and open hosting
- TuxFamily - a non-profit organization that provides free services for projects and contents dealing with the free software philosophy.
- ibiblio.org - a collaboration of the School of Information and Library Science and q
Information Technology Services at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.