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  • - preceded the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as a transport layer protocol used during the early ARPANET. NCP was a simplex protocol that utilized two port addresses, establishing two connections, for two-way communications. An odd and an even port were reserved for each application layer application or protocol. The standardization of TCP and UDP reduced the need for the use of two simplex ports for each application down to one duplex port


See also DNS


See also Networked media#UPnP / DNLA

  • - a set of networking protocols that permits networked devices, such as personal computers, printers, Internet gateways, Wi-Fi access points and mobile devices to seamlessly discover each other's presence on the network and establish functional network services for data sharing, communications, and entertainment. UPnP is intended primarily for residential networks without enterprise-class devices.The UPnP technology was promoted by the UPnP Forum, a computer industry initiative to enable simple and robust connectivity to stand-alone devices and personal computers from many different vendors. The Forum consisted of over eight hundred vendors involved in everything from consumer electronics to network computing. Since 2016, all UPnP efforts are now managed by the Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF).

UPnP assumes the network runs Internet Protocol (IP) and then leverages HTTP, on top of IP, in order to provide device/service description, actions, data transfer and eventing. Device search requests and advertisements are supported by running HTTP on top of UDP (port 1900) using multicast (known as HTTPMU). Responses to search requests are also sent over UDP, but are instead sent using unicast (known as HTTPU).

Conceptually, UPnP extends plug and play—a technology for dynamically attaching devices directly to a computer—to zero configuration networking for residential and SOHO wireless networks. UPnP devices are "plug and play" in that, when connected to a network, they automatically establish working configurations with other devices.UPnP is generally regarded as unsuitable for deployment in business settings for reasons of economy, complexity, and consistency: the multicast foundation makes it chatty, consuming too many network resources on networks with a large population of devices; the simplified access controls don't map well to complex environments; and it does not provide a uniform configuration syntax such as the CLI environments of Cisco IOS or JUNOS.

  • MiniUPnP - software which supports the UPnP Internet Gateway Device (IGD) specifications. NAT-PMP and PCP support was added to MiniUPnPd. For client side NAT-PMP support, use libnatpmp. The MiniUPnP daemon (MiniUPnPd) supports OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, DragonFly BSD, (Open)Solaris and Mac OS X in combination with pf or ipfw (ipfirewall) or ipf and Linux with netfilter. The MiniUPnP client (MiniUPnPc) and MiniSSDPd are portable and should work on any POSIX system. MiniUPnPc also works under MS Windows and AmigaOS (version 3 and 4).

  • pwnat - NAT to NAT client-server communication. A tool that allows any number of clients behind NATs to communicate with a server behind a separate NAT with *no* port forwarding *no* DMZ setup, and *no* 3rd party involvement. The server does not need to know anything about the clients trying to connect. Simply put, this is a proxy server that works behind a NAT, even when the client is behind a different NAT, without any 3rd party or network changes. There is no middle man, no proxy, no 3rd party, no UPnP/STUN/ICE required, no spoofing, and no DNS tricks. More importantly, the client can then connect to any host or port on any remote host or to a fixed host and port decided by the server. Researched and developed by Samy Kamkar. Read the paper, "Autonomous NAT Traversal", joint work with Christian Grothoff, Nathan S. Evans, and Andreas Müller published by IEEE at the IEEE P2P'10 Conference (bib, pdf) pwnat is based off of the UDP tunneling software by Daniel Meekins, udptunnel, and my original chownat.


See also HTTP, SSH, Gopher

traceroute -m 100
traceroute -m 120


  • - Transparent proxy server that works as a poor man's VPN. Forwards over ssh. Doesn't require admin. Works with Linux and MacOS. Supports DNS tunneling.

  • Localtunnel allows you to easily share a web service on your local development machine without messing with DNS and firewall settings. Localtunnel will assign you a unique publicly accessible url that will proxy all requests to your locally running webserver. [3]

  • - allows you to redirect any TCP connection to SOCKS or HTTPS proxy using your firewall, so redirection is system-wide. Why is that useful? I can suggest following reasons: you use tor and don't want any TCP connection to leak. you use DVB ISP and this ISP provides internet connectivity with some special daemon that may be also called "Internet accelerator" and this accelerator acts as proxy. Globax is example of such an accelerator.


  • UDT is a reliable UDP based application level data transport protocol for distributed data intensive applications over wide area high-speed networks. UDT uses UDP to transfer bulk data with its own reliability control and congestion control mechanisms. The new protocol can transfer data at a much higher speed than TCP does. UDT is also a highly configurable framework that can accommodate various congestion control algorithms. [4]


  • - a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RTP is used extensively in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications including WebRTC, television services and web-based push-to-talk features.

RTP typically runs over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). RTP is used in conjunction with the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP). While RTP carries the media streams (e.g., audio and video), RTCP is used to monitor transmission statistics and quality of service (QoS) and aids synchronization of multiple streams. RTP is one of the technical foundations of Voice over IP and in this context is often used in conjunction with a signaling protocol such as the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) which establishes connections across the network.

RTP was developed by the Audio-Video Transport Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and first published in 1996 as RFC 1889, superseded by RFC 3550 in 2003.


  • - a Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) profile, intended to provide encryption, message authentication and integrity, and replay attack protection to the RTP data in both unicast and multicast applications. It was developed by a small team of Internet Protocol and cryptographic experts from Cisco and Ericsson. It was first published by the IETF in March 2004 as RFC 3711.

Since RTP is closely related to RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) which can be used to control the RTP session, SRTP also has a sister protocol, called Secure RTCP (SRTCP); SRTCP securely provides the same features to RTCP, as the ones provided by SRTP to RTP. Utilization of SRTP or SRTCP is optional in RTP or RTCP applications; but even if SRTP or SRTCP are used, all provided features (such as encryption and authentication) are optional and can be separately enabled or disabled. The only exception is the message authentication feature which is indispensably required when using SRTCP.


  • - a computer networking communications protocol which operates at the transport layer and serves a role similar to the popular protocols TCP and UDP. It is standardized by IETF in RFC 4960. SCTP provides some of the features of both UDP and TCP: it is message-oriented like UDP and ensures reliable, in-sequence transport of messages with congestion control like TCP. It differs from those protocols by providing multi-homing and redundant paths to increase resilience and reliability. In the absence of native SCTP support in operating systems, it is possible to tunnel SCTP over UDP, as well as to map TCP API calls to SCTP calls so existing applications can use SCTP without modification. The reference implementation was released as part of FreeBSD version 7. It has since been widely ported.



  • - a reliable multicast computer network transport protocol. PGM provides a reliable sequence of packets to multiple recipients simultaneously, making it suitable for applications like multi-receiver file-transfer.Multicast is a network addressing method for the delivery of information to a group of destinations simultaneously using the most efficient strategy to deliver the messages over each link of the network only once, creating copies only when the links to the multiple destinations split (typically network switches and routers). However, like the User Datagram Protocol, multicast does not guarantee the delivery of a message stream. Messages may be dropped, delivered multiple times, or delivered out of order. A reliable multicast protocol, like PGM, adds the ability for receivers to detect lost and/or out-of-order messages and take corrective action (similar in principle to TCP), resulting in a gap-free, in-order message stream.


  • Secure Socket Funneling (SSF) is a network tool and toolkit. It provides simple and efficient ways to forward data from multiple sockets (TCP or UDP) through a single secure TLS link to a remote computer. [9]

  • - a high performance network stack from Solarflare that dramatically reduces latency and cpu utilisation, and increases message rate and bandwidth. OpenOnload runs on Linux and supports TCP/UDP/IP network protocols with the standard BSD sockets API, and requires no modifications to applications to use. It achieves performance improvements in part by performing network processing at user-level, bypassing the OS kernel entirely on the data path. Networking performance is improved without sacrificing the security and multiplexing functions that the OS kernel normally provides.