Git

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Reference

See also Vim#Git

Guides

Articles

Consider how a common Git workflow falls apart.

Create a branch off Master, do work, and merge it back into Master when you’re done

Most of the time this behaves as you expect because Master changed since you branched. Then one day you merge a feature branch into Master, but Master hasn’t diverged. Instead of creating a merge commit, Git points Master to the latest commit on the feature branch, or “fast forwards.” (Diagram)

Unfortunately, your feature branch contained checkpoint commits, frequent commits that back up your work but captures the code in an unstable state. Now these commits are indistinguishable from Master’s stable commits. You could easily roll back into a disaster.

Config

git config --global --edit
  open config file in editor
git config --global user.name "Your Name Here"
git config --global user.email "your_email@youremail.com"
git config color.ui true
  turns on colour for everything
git config format.pretty oneline
git config --global push.default matching
  (will be default soon)


git config --global help.autocorrect 10
git config --global credential.helper 'cache --timeout=3600'

The credential helper only works when you clone an HTTPS repo URL. If you use the SSH repo URL instead, SSH keys are used for authentication.

Aliases

Bare repo

To convert repo to bare repo; [9]

mv repo/.git repo.git
git --git-dir=repo.git config core.bare true
rm -rf repo

Commands

See Vim#Git

Clone

git clone git://github.com/SomeUser/SomeRepo.git
  # clone read-only repo

git clone git@github.com:UserName/OtherRepo.git
  # clone with SSH key

git clone https://github.com/UserName/OtherRepo
  # clone with github username

Repo config

  • git config receive.denyCurrentBranch warn - allow pushing to a non-base repo
git repo-config core.sharedRepository true - allow access by multiple users

Status

git status
  # show repo status
git status -uno
  # show status without untracked file list

Listing

git ls-files --modified
git ls-tree -r HEAD --name-only

Diff

See also Vim#Git

git diff
  diff uncommitted changes
git diff --cached
  diff changes in the staging area
git diff master <branch> - show difference between master and another branch
git diff shaOfCheckIn
  show diff between sha and current
git show shaOfCheckIn
  show diff of sha from previous
  or
git diff shaOfCheckIn^ shaOfCheckIn
git diff shaOfCheckIn{^,}
git diff <revision_1>:<file_1> <revision_2>:<file_2>
  diff between two files

Adding files

git add .
  # add file to Index (staging)
git add *
  # add all (except those in .gitignore) files to Index
git add -p
  # add hunks seperatly [10]

# y = stage, n = don't stage, q = quit,
git ls-files --modified | xargs git add
  # list modified (not untracked) and add [11]

Commits

Committing moves files from Index into HEAD.

git commit -m Commit message goes here.
git commit -a
  git adds at the same time
git commit --amend
  without file change, alter last commit msg

Remotes

git remote -v
  # list all remotes
git remote add origin <server>

git remote show origin
git remote set-url origin git://github.com/chief/global.git

git remote set-url --push origin git@github.com:User/forked.git

git remote set-url --push origin DISABLE
git branch --set-upstream master origin/master
  # branch master set up to track remote branch master from origin.

Sending/receiving

git fetch [origin] [master]
  get files from origin master remote

git pull [origin] [master]
  fetch from and merge with another repository or a local branch

git push otherrepo <branch>
  stick branch on otherrepo remote

Reset

git reset --hard HEAD
  reset any uncommitted changes in Index
git reset --hard origin/master
  reset from remote master

Rebase

Branches

git branch
  # list branches with current starred
git branch -a
  # list branches (including remote)

git branch <branch>
  # create branch
git branch -d <branch>
  # delete branch

Staging

git checkout <branch>
  # switch to working on <branch>
git checkout -b <branch>
  # same as "git branch <branch> | git checkout <branch>"

git checkout -- <file>
  # checkout file from HEAD

git checkout -
   check out previous branch
git checkout HEAD@{1}
  checkout next commit on current branch
git checkout HEAD~
  checkout previous commit on current branch

Merging

git merge <branch>
  merge branch, keep branch in commit log
cd path/to/project-b
git remote add project-a path/to/project-a
git fetch project-a
git merge project-a/master # or whichever branch you want to merge
git remote remove project-a [12]
git rebase <branch> - fast-forward merge current to <branch> (?)

Stash

Log

git log
  list commits with message and sha
git log .
  log for current directory

git log --since="today"
git log --since="6am"

git log -p
  show diffs
git log -p -2
   show second two last diffs
lol = log --graph --decorate --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit
git log --graph --pretty=format:'%Cred%h%Creset -%C(yellow)%d%Creset %s %Cgreen(%cr) %C(bold blue)<%an>%Creset' --abbrev-commit

Bisect

Merging

git mergetool

git mergetool -t opendiff

Meld GUI is worth checking.

Fugitive

:ls
  list window numbers
[c
  jump to previous changeset

]c
  jump to next changeset
:diffget [window]
   get change from active window to working
:diffupdate
   redraw diff highlighting

Tags

git tag
  list repo tags
git tag 1.0 <sha>
  tag <sha> (branch+commit hash) with 1.0

tags point to a sha. use git checkout [tag] to change to the commit.

Submodules

git submodule add git@mygithost:project [--branch x.y] [directory/path]
  # add submodule and checkout specific branch
git submodule init
git submodule update

or

git submodule update --init
  # bootstrap submodules listed in .gitmodules after cloning somewhere
git submodule foreach git pull origin master
  # update all submodules


git submodule deinit directory/path
  # disable a submodule
git rm --cached path/to/submodule
  # remove a submodule

Subtrees

Patches

git diff > change.patch
# create a patch

git diff > [description]-[issue-number]-[comment-number].patch
# create a Drupal patch

git apply -v <patch>
# apply patch. also;

curl https://github.com/github/jobs/pull/25.patch | git am

.gitignore

  • man gitignore - Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore

Example to exclude everything except a specific directory foo/bar (note the /* - without the slash, the wildcard would also exclude everything within foo/bar):

$ cat .gitignore
# exclude everything except directory foo/bar
/*
!/foo
/foo/*
!/foo/bar
*
!.gitignore
!sxhkd/sxhkdrc
!bspwm/*
!compton.conf
!gtk-2.0/gtkrc-2.0
!/myrepos

Archive to tar

git archive [14]
  default output is tar
git archive master | tar -x -C /somewhere/else
  pipe to extraction
git archive --format=tar --remote=git@server:repo.git master | tar -xf -

also, Legit.

Bundle

git bundle - Move objects and refs by archive

Filter branch

Plumbing

CLI tools

Zsh prompt symbols

Status:
✔:	repository clean
●n:	there are n staged files
✖n:	there are n unmerged files
✚n:	there are n changed but unstaged files
…:	there are some untracked files

Branch:
↑n:	ahead of remote by n commits
↓n:	behind remote by n commits
↓m↑n:	branches diverged, other by m commits, yours by n commits
::	hash, not a branch

Ncurses

other

GUI

Handy

  • git-up - fetch and rebase all locally-tracked remote branches
  • SCM Breeze is a set of shell scripts (for bash and zsh) that enhance your interaction with git. It integrates with your shell to give you numbered file shortcuts, a repository index with tab completion, and many other useful features. [16]
  • git-export - Export the contents of the current git index to the given destination, ready to rock.
  • git pissed tracks any number of words across your entire git history. The defaults are wildly offensive and inspired by Vidar Holen's Linux Kernel Swear Counts.
  • gitsome - A Supercharged Git/Shell Autocompleter with GitHub Integration. [18]

Large files

git-annex

GitMedia

LFS

Repository management

Articles

Git used for private repo, with Gitweb for easy overview.

git-daemon

Gitolite

  • create git user
  • ~/.ssh/authorized_keys is empty or non-existent
  • put pub key in $HOME/YourName.pub
git clone git://github.com/sitaramc/gitolite
mkdir -p $HOME/bin
gitolite/install -to $HOME/bin
gitolite setup -pk YourName.pub

gitolite-admin is only accessible with the public key named after the git account used for the gitolite

GitLab

recommends 1Gb ram!

gerrit

RhodeCode

GitBucket

Gitblit

Gogs

Services

GitHub

Tools

  • github-cli - command-line interface to GitHub's Issues API (v2)
  • hub is a command-line wrapper for git that makes you better at GitHub.
  • willitmerge - A command line tool to check if pull requests are mergeable.

Gist

Related

  • GitTorrent - a peer-to-peer network of Git repositories being shared over BitTorrent. You can read more about the project at this blog post. The design of GitTorrent has five components: A "git transport helper" that knows how to download and unpack git objects, and can be used by Git itself to perform a fetch/clone/push. A distributed hash table that advertises which git commits a node is willing to serve. A BitTorrent protocol extension that negotiates sending a packfile with needed objects to a peer. A key/value store on the distributed hash table, used as a "user profile" describing a user's repositories and their latest git hashes. A method for registering friendly usernames on Bitcoin's blockchain, so that a written username can be used to find a user instead of an ugly hex string.
  • http://prose.io/ - static site management
  • Ost.io ("open-source talks") is a forum for open-source projects and the best place for discussing project stuff with other users. It is tightly integrated with GitHub.

Bitbucket

N.b. https clone url includes username@, which will require password. remove this for straight-through access.

curl -k -X POST --user user:pass "https://api.bitbucket.org/1.0/repositories" -d "name=project_name"
https://<user>:<pass>@bitbucket.org/<user>/<project>.git

Other

to sort



Plumbing