- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inhalation - also known as inspiration, happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apneustic_center - or apneustic area of the lower pons appears to promote inspiration by stimulation of the I neurons in the medulla oblongata providing a constant stimulus. The apneustic center of pons sends signals to the dorsal respiratory center in the medulla to delay the 'switch off' signal of the inspiratory ramp provided by the pneumotaxic center of pons. It controls the intensity of breathing. The apneustic center is inhibited by pulmonary stretch receptors. However, it gives positive impulses to the inspiratory (I) neurons.
- CN X - Thoracic and abdominal organs.
- CN IX - All pharyngeal muscles.
- CN VII - Facial muscles and stomach wall.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoracic_diaphragm - or simply the diaphragm (Ancient Greek: διάφραγμα diáphragma "partition"), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity, containing the heart and lungs, from the abdominal cavity and performs an important function in respiration: as the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases and air is drawn into the lungs.
The term diaphragm in anatomy can refer to other flat structures such as the urogenital diaphragm or pelvic diaphragm, but "the diaphragm" generally refers to the thoracic diaphragm. In humans, the diaphragm is slightly asymmetric—its right half is higher up (superior) to the left half, since the large liver rests beneath the right half of the diaphragm. Other mammals have diaphragms, and other vertebrates such as amphibians and reptiles have diaphragm-like structures, but important details of the anatomy vary, such as the position of the lungs in the abdominal cavity.
- Anatomy and physiology of muscles involved in breathing
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_volume - the lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied. In a healthy, young human adult, tidal volume is approximately 500 mL per inspiration or 7 mL/kg of body mass.
- Coupling of respiration and attention via the locus coeruleus: Effects of meditation and pranayama - Melnychuk - Psychophysiology - Wiley Online Library - 
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breathwork - Refers to many forms of conscious alteration of breathing, such as connecting the inhale and exhale, or energetically charging and discharging, when used within psychotherapy or meditation. Breathwork has been used as a label for yogic Pranayama and Tibetan Tantric Tummo, traditional spiritual practices from which the modern Western therapies, developed in the 1970s, most probably derive. Proponents believe breathwork technique may be used to attain alternate states of consciousness, and that sustained practice of techniques may result in spiritual or psychological benefits. Breathwork may also relate to optimal healthy breathing in a healing context.
- YouTube: Control Of Respiration - Armando Hasudungan
- YouTube: The correct way to breathe in
- The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human | European Respiratory Society - Slow breathing practices have been adopted in the modern world across the globe due to their claimed health benefits. This has piqued the interest of researchers and clinicians who have initiated investigations into the physiological (and psychological) effects of slow breathing techniques and attempted to uncover the underlying mechanisms. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of normal respiratory physiology and the documented physiological effects of slow breathing techniques according to research in healthy humans. The review focuses on the physiological implications to the respiratory, cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory and autonomic nervous systems, with particular focus on diaphragm activity, ventilation efficiency, haemodynamics, heart rate variability, cardiorespiratory coupling, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and sympathovagal balance. The review ends with a brief discussion of the potential clinical implications of slow breathing techniques. This is a topic that warrants further research, understanding and discussion.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypoventilation_training - a physical training method in which periods of exercise with reduced breathing frequency are interspersed with periods with normal breathing. The hypoventilation technique consists of short breath holdings and can be performed in different types of exercise. Generally, there are two ways to carry out hypoventilation: at high lung volume or at low lung volume. At high lung volume, breath holdings are performed with the lungs full of air (inhalation then breath hold). Conversely, during hypoventilation at low lung volume, breath holdings are performed with the lung half full of air. To do so, one has to first exhale normally, without forcing, then hold one’s breath. This is called the exhale-hold technique. The scientific studies have shown that only hypoventilation at low lung volume could lead to both a significant decrease in oxygen (O2) concentrations in the body and an increase in carbon dioxide concentrations (CO2), which are indispensable for the method to be effective.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_breathing - Expanding the abdomen while breathing out through the nose, and then compressing it while inhaling via the mouth - the opposite of what an abdomen would do during natural, instinctive breathing
- YouTube: Breathing Techniques To Release DMT!
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shallow_breathing - thoracic breathing, or chest breathing is the drawing of minimal breath into the lungs, usually by drawing air into the chest area using the intercostal muscles rather than throughout the lungs via the diaphragm. Shallow breathing can result in or be symptomatic of rapid breathing and hyperventilation. Most people who breathe shallowly do it throughout the day and are almost always unaware of the condition. In upper lobar breathing, clavicular breathing, or clavicle breathing air is drawn predominantly into the chest by the raising of the shoulders and collarbone (clavicles), and simultaneous contracting of the abdomen during inhalation. Maximum amount of air can be drawn this way only for short periods of time, since it requires a lot of effort. When used for prolonged time, this is the most superficial mode of shallow breathing.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diaphragmatic_breathing - or abdominal breathing, belly breathing or deep breathing. Expanding the abdomen while breathing in, collapsing it to breathe out. Hatha Yoga, tai chi and meditation traditions draw a clear distinction between diaphragmatic breathing and abdominal breathing or belly breathing.
Full deep breathing - 1; diaphragm expansion, 2; rib expansion, 3; clavicle lift:
- YouTube: Diaphragmatic breathing and accessory muscle training - learn the mechanics and natural flow before getting onto pranayama
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhastrika - breathing is forcible and through the nose, with equal time for inhalation and exhalation, whist making breath deeper and longer
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simhasana - is an asana in hatha yoga and modern yoga as exercise.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maipayat - Originally recorded late in the Vedic period, in conjunction with Vedanta, and Yoga, is done working from a full-deep yogic breathing, by initiating set movement patterns that nurture creativity and feeds the body with breath energy. Similar exercises are taught in t'ai chi although Maipayat exercises more fluid movements while attempting to align the chakras.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ujjayi_breath - or spinal breath, chakra activation breath, employed in a variety of Taoist and Yoga practices. In relation to Yoga, it is sometimes called "the ocean breath". Unlike some other forms of pranayama, the ujjayi breath is typically done in association with asana practice. Ujjayi is a diaphragmatic breath, which first fills the lower belly (activating the first and second chakras), rises to the lower rib cage (the third and fourth chakras), and finally moves into the upper chest and throat. The technique is very similar to the three-part Tu-Na breathing found in Taoist Qigong practice. Inhalation and exhalation are both done through the nose. The "ocean sound" is created by moving the glottis as air passes in and out. As the throat passage is narrowed so, too, is the airway, the passage of air through which creates a "rushing" sound. The length and speed of the breath is controlled by the diaphragm, the strengthening of which is, in part, the purpose of ujjayi. The inhalations and exhalations are equal in duration, and are controlled in a manner that causes no distress to the practitioner.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumbhaka - technique of increasing the pause between inhalation and exhalation using various types of pranayama and kumbhaka exercises.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tummo - Tibetan yoga tantra found in the Six Yogas of Naropa Lamdre, Kalachakra and Anuyoga teachings of Tibetan Vajrayana. Tummo originally derives from Indian Vajrayana tradition, including the instruction of the Mahasiddha Krishnacarya and the Hevajra Tantra. The purpose of tummo is to gain control over body processes during the completion stage of 'highest yoga tantra' (Anuttarayoga Tantra) or Anuyoga.
- Neurocognitive and Somatic Components of Temperature Increases during g-Tummo Meditation: Legend and Reality
- The Tummo Experiment: Preliminary Practices
- Stay Warm in Winter with Qi Gong's Tumo
- Warm your Body with your Chi: The Tummo Technique
- The Wim Hof Method - Similar to Tummo
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buteyko_method - a form of complementary or alternative physical therapy that proposes the use of breathing exercises primarily as a treatment for asthma and other respiratory conditions. The therapy takes its name from Soviet doctor Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko, who first formulated its principles during the 1950s.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papworth_method - a specific diaphragmatic breathing technique that was developed in the 1960s. The technique emphasises nose breathing and the development of a breathing pattern to suit current activity. It also involves relaxation exercises that, in concert with the breathing technique, have been purported to aid depression and anxiety. Developed at Papworth Hospital in Cambridgeshire, England, the method seeks to control "over-breathing" (rapid shallow breaths taken at the top of the chest) that are usually associated with persons under stressful conditions. The aim is to encourage gentler, more relaxed breathing, using the abdomen and diaphragm rather than the chest.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/rebirthing-breathwork - Grew out of the work of Leonard Orr, based on the technique of conscious connected breathing; connecting the inhale and exhale without a pause between them. Claimed can heal suppressed emotions regardless of at what point in one's life they became suppressed.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holotropic_Breathwork - Developed by Stanislav Grof and Christina Grof, comprises five elements: group process, intensified breathing (hyperventilation), evocative music, focused body work, and expressive drawing. The method's general effect is advocated as a non-specific amplification of a person's psychic process, which facilitates the psyche's natural capacity for healing. In 1993 the Scottish Charities Office commissioned a report into the technique, having received complaints concerning its implementation at the Findhorn Foundation, a registered charity. The report was written by Anthony Busuttil (Regius Professor of Forensic Medicine at the University of Edinburgh), whose opinions caused the Findhorn Foundation to suspend its breathwork programme.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vivation - The First Element of Vivation is circular breathing, which has three basic aspects. The first is that inhales and exhales are connected together, with no pauses in between. The second is the exhale is completely relaxed. By relaxed, this means the exhale comes out all on its own and not forced or controlled in any way. This differs from many other forms of pranayama which have a forced exhale component. Also, because the exhale is completely relaxed, there is no hyperventilation in Vivation. If hyperventilation does occur, it is because the exhale is being forced or inhibited in some way. Hyperventilation disappears as the exhale is relaxed again. In Vivation, breathing rhythms occur along a continuum through three quadrants: Slow and Full, Fast and Full, and Fast and Shallow. Slow and shallow breathing takes you out of your body, and so is not used in Vivation. Circular breathing is adjusted in real-time to resonate with the feelings in the body in the most gentle, loving and enjoyable way possible. In this way, it is the experience of the feelings in the body that instructs and leads each session.
- YouTube: How to Make a Loud Water Drop Sound
- Mindfulness at the computer - This application reminds you to take breaks from the computer, helps you remember to stay in touch with and be mindful of your breathing and body while sitting at the computer, and helps you concentrate on breathing in and out when you need a breathing pause.
- https://github.com/Kolyunya/breath-assistant - An Qt application which helps you to maintain a constant breath rate. Broken? Screen goes all black excluding pointer, have to kill via pty.
- https://github.com/enormandeau/meditation-timer - Simple meditation timer for Linux in Python
- SitQuietly - a meditation timer that began life as a small Python program for GNU/Linux. Over time it received a little polish, but has been left without an update for a while now. I decided to create an online version of the timer, which was more of a “let’s see if I can do this” kind of thing. This page deals with both timers.
- https://github.com/kbrugh/meditation - works by using text in a terminal as a matrix of pixels precisely stimulating the eye's visual field at a specific brainwave frequency (in Hz). This relatively simple neurohacking program involves rapidly cycling a flow of random character generation to provide a stark contrast for the user-defined meditation string. All the characters will be scrolling up the screen quickly, and your brain will repeatedly recognize your meditation from the background noise of random characters. Such console printing can be used simply to set a useful mental frame such as creating a deep state of focus, or more expirimentally as some variety of linguistic self-metaprogramming
- https://github.com/BigEd/Box-Breathing - Box Breathing CSS animation
- Breathe - Reminder extension for Chrome
- Paced Breathing - Android app, really good.
- Zen Breath Meditation - Android app.