Cryptography

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General

a mess

See also Security (to rework with)





  • Crypto 101 - an introductory course on cryptography, freely available for programmers of all ages and skill levels.







  • Tamarin Prover - a security protocol verification tool that supports both falsification and unbounded verification in the symbolic model. Security protocols are specified as multiset rewriting systems and analysed with respect to (temporal) first-order properties and a message theory that models Diffie-Hellman exponentiation combined with a user-defined subterm-convergent rewriting theory.


Ciphers

Blowfish

1993

AES

2001


Symmetric-key

DES

1977. Symmetric-key algorithm

Cryptographic hash function



  • Historic Password Hashes - a collection of historic password hashing algorithms. Please do not use most of them today! Send pull request if you have more.






  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_derivation_function - derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key, a password, or a passphrase using a pseudo-random function. KDFs can be used to stretch keys into longer keys or to obtain keys of a required format, such as converting a group element that is the result of a Diffie–Hellman key exchange into a symmetric key for use with AES. Keyed cryptographic hash functions are popular examples of pseudo-random functions used for key derivation.





  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argon2 - a key derivation function that was selected as the winner of the Password Hashing Competition in July 2015. It was designed by Alex Biryukov, Daniel Dinu, and Dmitry Khovratovich from University of Luxembourg. Argon2 is released under a Creative Commons CC0 license, and provides two related versions: Argon2d maximizes resistance to GPU cracking attacks. Argon2i is optimized to resist side-channel attacks. Both are allow specification by three parameters that control: execution time, memory required, degree of parallelism


Public-key cryptography

  • httpd://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_infrastructure

Diffie-Hellman key exchange

Alice           Bob
---------------------------
Sa = random
Pa = g^Sa   --> Pa
                Sb = random
Pb          <-- Pb = g^Sb
s = Pb^Sa       s = Pa^Sb
k = KDF(s)      k = KDF(s)


There are several methods to use a block cipher to build a cryptographic hash function, specifically a one-way compression function. The methods resemble the block cipher modes of operation usually used for encryption. All well-known hash functions, including MD4, MD5, SHA-1 and SHA-2 are built from block-cipher-like components designed for the purpose, with feedback to ensure that the resulting function is not invertible. SHA-3 finalists included functions with block-cipher-like components (e.g., Skein, BLAKE) though the function finally selected, Keccak, was built on a cryptographic sponge instead.


Elliptic curve Diffie–Hellman

Alice           Bob
---------------------------
Sa = random
Pa = Sa * G --> Pa
                Sb = random
Pb          <-- Pb = Sb * G
s = Sa * Pb     s = Sb * Pa
k = KDF(s)      k = KDF(s)

PAKE

to sort


  • Community framework for electronic signatures - This Directive establishes the legal framework at European level for electronic signatures and certification services. The aim is to make electronic signatures easier to use and help them become legally recognised within the Member States.



RSA

1977, by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman at MIT

ECC


NTRU

Suites

Encryption


PGP / GPG

Guides

gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys ABAF11C65A2970B130ABE3C479BE3E4300411886
  # retrieve a public key
gpg --export --armor <keyid> | awk '{ print "    "$0 }'

Tools

  • WebPG - Browser Extensions
  • Monkeysphere project's goal is to extend OpenPGP's web of trust to new areas of the Internet to help us securely identify servers we connect to, as well as each other while we work online. The suite of Monkeysphere utilities provides a framework to transparently leverage the web of trust for authentication of TLS/SSL communications through the normal use of tools you are familiar with, such as your web browser0 or secure shell.

Key servers


DNS

E-mail

Libraries

Google

  • Penango is a web browser add-on that allows people to send and receive authenticated and encrypted messages end-to-end on the Internet with standards-based, interoperable protocols.
  • gAES - Encrypt your google chats and make the NSA sad

Other


File system

TrueCrypt

Other

  • LUKS is the standard for Linux hard disk encryption. By providing a standard on-disk-format, it does not only facilitate compatibility among distributions, but also provides secure management of multiple user passwords. In contrast to existing solution, LUKS stores all setup necessary setup information in the partition header, enabling the user to transport or migrate his data seamlessly. While LUKS is a standard on-disk format, there is also a reference implementation. LUKS for dm-crypt is implemented in an enhanced version of cryptsetup.
  • Tomb aims to be an 100% free and open source system for easy encryption and backup of personal files, written in code that is easy to review and links commonly shared components. Tomb generates encrypted storage files to be opened and closed using their associated keyfiles, which are also protected with a password chosen by the user.
  • zuluCrypt is a front end to cryptsetup and tcplay and its a tool that make it easy to manage LUKS, PLAIN and TRUECRYPT encrypted volumes through a GUI and a simpler to use CLI interface. zuluCrypt can manage encrypted volumes residing in regular files, LVM devices, mdraid devices as well as regular block devices and partitions.
  • EncFS provides an encrypted filesystem in user-space. It runs without any special permissions and uses the FUSE library and Linux kernel module to provide the filesystem interface. You can find links to source and binary releases below. EncFS is open source software, licensed under the GPL. As with most encrypted filesystems, Encfs is meant to provide security against off-line attacks; ie your notebook or backups fall into the wrong hands, etc. The way Encfs works is different from the “loopback” encrypted filesystem support built into the Linux kernel because it works on files at a time, not an entire block device. This is a big advantage in some ways, but does not come without a cost.
  • Cryptkeeper is a Linux system tray applet that manages EncFS encrypted folders.

Other

  • The Guardian Project creates easy-to-use open source apps, mobile OS security enhancements, and customized mobile devices for people around the world to help them communicate more freely, and protect themselves from intrusion and monitoring.



  • Vault is a tool for securely accessing secrets. A secret is anything that you want to tightly control access to, such as API keys, passwords, certificates, and more. Vault provides a unified interface to any secret, while providing tight access control and recording a detailed audit log.

RNG

Homomorphic

Steganography

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steganography - the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video. The word steganography combines the Greek words steganos (στεγανός), meaning "covered, concealed, or protected," and graphein (γράφειν) meaning "writing".


  • FontCode - an information embedding technique for text documents. Provided a text document with specific fonts, our method embeds user-specified information in the text by perturbing the glyphs of text characters while preserving the text content. We devise an algorithm to choose unobtrusive yet machine-recognizable glyph perturbations, leveraging a recently developed generative model that alters the glyphs of each character continuously on a font manifold. We then introduce an algorithm that embeds a user-provided message in the text document and produces an encoded document whose appearance is minimally perturbed from the original document. We also present a glyph recognition method that recovers the embedded information from an encoded document stored as a vector graphic or pixel image, or even on a printed paper. In addition, we introduce a new error-correction coding scheme that rectifies a certain number of recognition errors. Lastly, we demonstrate that our technique enables a wide array of applications, using it as a text document metadata holder, an unobtrusive optical barcode, a cryptographic message embedding scheme, and a text document signature.