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See also Electronics, Living

See also Physics#Electromagnetism, Hardware



Ep = mgh Ek = 1/2 mv Eh = cm{delta}T

Lf/v = EH / m

a = V-u / t

v = d/t


Rt (series) = R1 + R2 + R3 ...

Rt (parallel x2) = R1xR2 / R1+R2

Rt (parallel x2+) = 1 / 1/Ra + 1/R2 + 1/R3



  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductance - the property of a conductor by which a change in current flowing through it "induces" (creates) a voltage (electromotive force) in both the conductor itself (self-inductance) and in any nearby conductors (mutual inductance).

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulomb - a fundamental unit of electrical charge, and is also the SI derived unit of electric charge (symbol: Q or q). It is equal to the charge of approximately 6.241×1018 electrons. Its SI definition is the charge transported by a constant current of one ampere in one second. One coulomb is also the amount of excess charge on a capacitor of one farad charged to a potential difference of one volt.

  • WaveDrom is Free and Open Source online digital timing diagram (waveform) rendering engine that uses javascript, HTML5 and SVG to convert WaveJSON input text description into SVG vector graphics. WaveJSON is an application of the JSON format. The purpose of WaveJSON is to provide a compact exchange format for digital timing diagrams utilized by digital HW / IC engineers.




See also Living#Fuel cell

UPG 12V 55Ah Sealed


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_completeness - means that every possible logic gate can be realized as a network of gates of the types prescribed by the set. In particular, all logic gates can be assembled from either only binary NAND gates, or only binary NOR gates.

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor_device - electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors. Semiconductor devices have replaced thermionic devices (vacuum tubes) in most applications. They use electronic conduction in the solid state as opposed to the gaseous state or thermionic emission in a high vacuum. Semiconductor devices are manufactured both as single discrete devices and as integrated circuits (ICs), which consist of a number—from a few (as low as two) to billions—of devices manufactured and interconnected on a single semiconductor substrate, or wafer.

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor - a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOSFET - metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. Although the MOSFET is a four-terminal device with source (S), gate (G), drain (D), and body (B) terminals, the body (or substrate) of the MOSFET is often connected to the source terminal, making it a three-terminal device like other field-effect transistors. Because these two terminals are normally connected to each other (short-circuited) internally, only three terminals appear in electrical diagrams. The MOSFET is by far the most common transistor in both digital and analog circuits, though the bipolar junction transistor was at one time much more common.





  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic_family - may refer to one of two related concepts. A logic family of monolithic digital integrated circuit devices is a group of electronic logic gates constructed using one of several different designs, usually with compatible logic levels and power supply characteristics within a family. Many logic families were produced as individual components, each containing one or a few related basic logical functions, which could be used as "building-blocks" to create systems or as so-called "glue" to interconnect more complex integrated circuits. A "logic family" may also refer to a set of techniques used to implement logic within VLSI integrated circuits such as central processors, memories, or other complex functions. Some such logic families use static techniques to minimize design complexity. Other such logic families, such as domino logic, use clocked dynamic techniques to minimize size, power consumption and delay.

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/7400_series - of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic. Quickly replacing diode–transistor logic, it was used to build the mini and mainframe computers of the 1960s and 1970s. Several generations of pin-compatible descendants of the original family have since become de facto standard electronic components.

Integrated circuits

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programmable_logic_controller - PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedised and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.

They were first developed in the automobile industry to provide flexible, ruggedised and easily programmable controllers to replace hard-wired relays and timers. Since then they have been widely adopted as high-reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments. A PLC is an example of a "hard" real-time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result.

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Very-large-scale_integration - the process of creating an integrated circuit by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. The microprocessor is a VLSI device. Before the introduction of VLSI technology most ICs had a limited set of functions they could perform. An electronic circuit might consist of a CPU, ROM, RAM and other glue logic. VLSI lets IC makers add all of these into one chip.


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_inverter - an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power; the power is provided by the DC source. A power inverter can be entirely electronic or may be a combination of mechanical effects (such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry. Static inverters do not use moving parts in the conversion process.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rectifier - an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.


Wire and cable


  • Hackster.io gives professionals and hobbyists the resources they need to build hardware, the easy way.
  • EEVblog Electronics Resource Wiki - This resource site contains useful links and information related to all aspects of Electronics Engineering and associated electronics design.

  • Basic Electronics Tutorials provides students and beginners alike studying Electronics a good Basic Electronics Tutorials and information to help develop a knowledge and understanding of the subject of Electronics.

Electrical engineering

See also Computing, etc.


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_design_automation - a category of software tools for designing electronic systems such as printed circuit boards and integrated circuits. The tools work together in a design flow that chip designers use to design and analyze entire semiconductor chips. EDA is also referred to as electronic computer-aided design (ECAD).
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_flow_(EDA) - the explicit combination of electronic design automation tools to accomplish the design of an integrated circuit. Moore's law has driven the entire IC implementation RTL to GDSII design flows[clarification needed] from one which uses primarily stand-alone synthesis, placement, and routing algorithms to an integrated construction and analysis flows for design closure. The challenges of rising interconnect delay led to a new way of thinking about and integrating design closure tools.

  • gEDA project has produced and continues working on a full GPL'd suite and toolkit of Electronic Design Automation tools. These tools are used for electrical circuit design, schematic capture, simulation, prototyping, and production. Currently, the gEDA project offers a mature suite of free software applications for electronics design, including schematic capture, attribute management, bill of materials (BOM) generation, netlisting into over 20 netlist formats, analog and digital simulation, and printed circuit board (PCB) layout.

The gEDA project was started because of the lack of free EDA tools for POSIX systems with the primary purpose of advancing the state of free hardware or open source hardware. The suite is mainly being developed on the GNU/Linux platform with some development effort going into making sure the tools run on other platforms as well.

  • KiCad EDA - A Cross Platform and Open Source Electronics Design Automation Suite [6]


  • CircuitBee provides a platform for you to share live versions of your circuit schematics on your websites, blogs or forums.
  • CircuitLab - online schematic editor & circuit simulator
  • upverter - Create hardware better, faster. Design open source and private projects as a team. Draw schematics, layout PCBs and review designs together.




Circuit printers


12/24v system

"Leisure batteries differ in construction from vehicle starter batteries because they are designed for different jobs, and consequently require a different charging regime.

"Fixed voltage battery chargers won't achieve full re-charging of a leisure battery because the lead plates are thicker, so charging has to take place in controlled stages with the voltage level being automatically adjusted throughout to ensure full charge absoprtion. This is where dedicated multi-stage or 'intelligent' chargers need to be used to ensure your battery receives a full, deep charge and its serviceable lifetime is maximised.

"As a rule of the thumb the charger output current should be around 10-15% of your battery's Ah capacity."

  • Capacitor

"you'll find that the spec says you need a BIG electrolytic cap across your battery, you don't need one for a portable system; it is recommended because class D amplifiers can backfeed current. Deep Cycle batteries cope with this; the capacitor is for car setups where the deep cycle battery for the amp is split charged and is only there to run the system full blast for an hour without the engine running."

Sound system

  •  ??? = guess
  • () = got/probably got
  • ** = probably can borrow or get later


  • Leisure deep cycle battery - ideal: 120A/h (heavy) - Ben W. has a 70A/h and 110A.h available to use?
  • Li-Ion - lightest, most expensive
  • LiFePo4 - lighter
  • Lead-acid - heavy, hmmm
  • Automatic battery charger - Halfords - £39
  • (Capacitor over battery? not needed?)

  • (fuse???)

Power (watts) is volts times amps.

Amp is 800w. Future proof for a second amp. Device charging also.

800x2 = 1600w

1600 + 24 + 15w

2amp pull for usb charge? 12v = 24w

"In the USB 1.0 and 2.0 specs, a standard downstream port is capable of delivering up to 500mA (0.5A)

"With USB 3.0, it moves up to 900mA (0.9A). The charging downstream and dedicated charging ports provide up to 1,500mA (1.5A).

"USB 3.1 bumps throughput to 10Gbps in what’s called SuperSpeed+ mode, bringing it roughly equivalent with first-generation Thunderbolt. It also supports power draw of 1.5A and 3A over the 5V bus." [11]

5v x 3a = 15w

CSA - cross sectional area

welding cable is thicker at the same gauge due to a better jacket, still flexible though (turning radius = 15x diamater)

Total: £39**


Head unit?

£17 on aliexpress.com for a basic head unit - mp3 (usb, sdcard), aux, remote, bluetooth v3..

    • only 2Gb memory - internal not needed
    • only bluetooth 3

bluetooth 4 not really available yet

not required for basic operation

Total: -- **

Class D amplifier

800W - 75W x 4 RMS @ 4 Ohm

bridged: 200W x 2 RMS @ 4 Ohm

100W for 8 Ohm (tannoy speakers are 90W RMS??)

£75.72 on amazon w/ delivery


Total: £75.72


  • Speakers - Tannoy 632 - Milk has these
    • Recommended amplifier power: 10-90W (no detailed spec online.. 90W RMS??)
    • Sensitivity: 87dB
    • Nominal impedance: 8 Ohm
    • Frequency response: 55 - 30.000Hz
    • Crossover frequency: 4Khz [13]
  • 2-way passive crossover (3.8Khz mid+tweeter) - Phonocar 5/342 - £28 + £5 shipping
    • nput power: 100W RMS / 200W Max
    • Crossover Frequency: 3.8 KHz
    • Cutt-off Slope: 12 dB/Oct
    • Impedance: 4 Ohm

Total: £33

Cables and connectors

  • (Battery terminals - single connection for now - £7)
  • (Power cabling - rated to 15A - got some cooker power cable, that work? - $£???)
  • (Optional: Power on cabling - rated to 500mW??)

  • (3.5mm to RCA phono cable - £5? got one)
  • (RCA phono to RCA phono cable - head unit to amp - £5? probably got one)

  • Speaker connectors - for getting out the box - £8???

Total: 4 + 8 = £12


for amp, battery, etc.

  • Wooden blocks in the base, drilled into from outside, board placed across(?) and screwed in, equipment and switch mounted - free?
  • Screws/washers - £5 ???
  • (Epoxy to seal the base screws? - £8???)

  • Tools inc. soldering iron to create speaker/etc. connector holes - Ben W. has a gas one?

  • LED lamp(s) for in the box for seeing things at night

  • Bungee chords to secure box in the cart - Amazon - £5

Total: 23.45 + 5 + 8.59 + 1.06 + 7 + 3 + 67.82 + 5 = £120.92

Basic cost estimation

very basic estimated cost, sans some stuff

  • amp - £76
  • crossover - £33
  • cable/connector - £12
  • housing - £120.92

= £242.92


  • No mains or genny powered equipment to be connected in any way!!!
  • Do not use a battery for sound whilst it is being charged!!!
  • No inverter!!!

else the zzzzz get ya

((how to transfer from linux/windows usb to android without airdroid (internet)?))