See also Being#Drugs 2 (to merge with)
- WP: International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use - ICH is a project that brings together the regulatory authorities of Europe, Japan and the United States and experts from the pharmaceutical industry in the three regions to discuss scientific and technical aspects of pharmaceutical product registration. The purpose of ICH is to reduce or eliminate the need to duplicate the testing carried out during the research and development of new medicines by recommending ways to achieve greater harmonisation in the interpretation and application of technical guidelines and requirements for product registration. Harmonisation would lead to a more economical use of human, non-human animal and material resources, and the elimination of unnecessary delay in the global development and availability of new medicines while maintaining safeguards on quality, safety, and efficacy, and regulatory obligations to protect public health.
- What's In My Baggie? - Documentary
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EC50 - refers to the concentration of a drug, antibody or toxicant which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time. It is commonly used as a measure of drug's potency.
- The Likely Cause of Addiction Has Been Discovered, and It Is Not What You Think - Addiction - "It's not you. It's your cage. ... the opposite of addiction is not sobriety. It is human connection."
- http://i.imgur.com/SZBL4.png - drugs explained as shapes
- http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2225411014000431 Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
"At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-inflammatory - refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling. Anti-inflammatory drugs make up about half of analgesics, remedying pain by reducing inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opioid_receptor - a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. The endogenous opioids are dynorphins, enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins and nociceptin. The opioid receptors are ~40% identical to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Opioid receptors are distributed widely in the brain, and are found in the spinal cord and digestive tract.
- Electronic cigarettes - miracle or menace? - get you off tobacco, not off of nicotine
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hookah - also known as a waterpipe, narghile, arghila, qalyān, or shisha, is a single or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco called shisha in which the vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin ‒ often glass-based ‒ before inhalation.
From Norman and Tom; Chamomile is great on its own but with a little (3/2) elderflower mixed in is also very nice. There's also premade 'greengrow' in Real Foods that's eucalyptus, hazel leaf, papaya and mint. Coltsfoot is a classic, grows abundantly but maybe best in the springtime. Raspberry leaf is great also (you buy it as loose leaf herbal tea).
- Leafly - Find Marijuana Strains
- http://www.businessinsider.com.au/marijuana-memory-problems-prevented-with-otc-painkillers-2013-11 - ibuprofen helps with memory issues
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diazepam - Valium
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diclazepam - functional analog of diazepam
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenazepam - developed in the Soviet Union in 1974 and now produced in Russia and some CIS countries. Phenazepam is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, alcohol withdrawal syndrome and insomnia. It can be used as a premedication before surgery as it augments the effects of anesthetics and reduces anxiety.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flubromazepam - a structural analog of phenazepam
- The safety and efficacy of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: the first randomized controlled pilot study
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative - a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment - dissociation - from the environment and self. This is done through reducing or blocking signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain. Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances. Some, which are nonselective in action and affect the dopamine and/or opioid] systems, may be capable of inducing euphoria. Many dissociatives have general depressant effects and can produce sedation, respiratory depression, analgesia, anesthesia, and ataxia, as well as cognitive and memory impairment and amnesia.
- binaureal tones; 8800hz, 4400hz/ 5440hz? ish. others?
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esketamine - the S(+) enantiomer of the drug ketamine, a general anaesthetic. Esketamine acts primarily as a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, but is also a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. As of August 18, 2016, it is in phase III clinical trials for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Esketamine is approximately twice as potent as racemic ketamine. It is eliminated from the human body more quickly than arketamine (R(–)-ketamine) or racemic ketamine, although arketamine slows its elimination. A number of studies have suggested that esketamine has a more medically useful pharmacological action than arketamine or racemic ketamine. Esketamine inhibits dopamine transporters eight times more than arketamine.
- R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects. - Yang C1, Shirayama Y1,2, Zhang JC1, Ren Q1, Yao W1, Ma M1, Dong C1, Hashimoto K1. Transl Psychiatry. 2015 Sep 1;5:e632. doi: 10.1038/tp.2015.136.
"Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability."
- Psychological effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers - Phenomenological study. E. Pomarol-Clotet, G. D. Honey, G. K. Murray, P. R. Corlett, A. R. Absalom, M. Lee, P. J. McKenna, E. T. Bullmore, P. C. Fletcher. The British Journal of Psychiatry Jul 2006, 189 (2) 173-179.
"Ketamine induced a range of perceptual distortions, but not hallucinations. Referential ideas were seen in nearly half the sample. There were only mild and infrequent ratings on the thought disorder scale. Affective flattening and alogia were seen in some volunteers.
"Ketamine does not reproduce the full picture of schizophrenia. The main point of similarity concerns referential thinking. Phenomena resembling negative symptoms are also seen, but the distinction of these from the drug’s sedative effects requires further elucidation."
- Psychopathological consequences of ketamine - J. M. Stone, L. S. Pilowsky, The British Journal of Psychiatry, Nov 2006
- Performance on a probabilistic inference task in healthy subjects receiving ketamine compared with patients with schizophrenia
- YouTube: New Mechanisms Elicited with Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression
- YouTube: Ketamine and Next Generation Therapies - Carlos Zarate, M.D.
- YouTube: Joe Rogan Experience #665 - Neal Brennan - from 1:01:00
- PDF: Ketamine Psychedelic Psychotherapy: Focus on its Pharmacology, Phenomenology, and Clinical Applications
- The Differences Among R-Ketamine, S-Ketamine, and Racemic | DoubleBlind - “The higher NMDA receptor activity of S-ketamine allows a lower volume of solution to be administered via the intrasanal route compared to ketamine or R-ketamine.” In other words, S-ketamine has more NMDAR-blocking bang per spray than R- or racemic ketamine, thus allowing for lower dosage.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallucinogen - psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychonautics - refers both to a methodology for describing and explaining the subjective effects of altered states of consciousness, including those induced by meditation or mind altering substances, and to a research paradigm in which the researcher voluntarily immerses himself or herself into an altered state by means of such techniques, as a means to explore human experience and existence.
- MAPS - Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies
- Mood and cognition after administration of low LSD doses in healthy volunteers: A placebo controlled dose-effect finding study - ScienceDirect - There is a popular interest in microdosing with psychedelics such as LSD. This practice of using one-tenth of a full psychedelic dose according to a specific dosing schedule, anecdotally enhances mood and performance. Nonetheless, controlled research on the efficacy of microdosing is scarce. The main objective of the present dose-finding study was to determine the minimal dose of LSD needed to affect mood and cognition. A placebo-controlled within-subject study including 24 healthy participants, was conducted to assess the acute effects of three LSD doses (5, 10, and 20 mcg) on measures of cognition, mood, and subjective experience, up until 6 h after administration. Cognition and subjective experience were assessed using the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Cognitive Control Task, Profile of Mood States, and 5-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness rating scale. LSD showed positive effects in the majority of observations by increasing positive mood (20 mcg), friendliness (5, 20 mcg), arousal (5 mcg), and decreasing attentional lapses (5, 20 mcg). Negative effects manifested as an increase in confusion (20 mcg) and anxiety (5, 20 mcg). Psychedelic-induced changes in waking consciousness were also present (10, 20 mcg). Overall, the present study demonstrated selective, beneficial effects of low doses of LSD on mood and cognition in the majority of observations. The minimal LSD dose at which subjective and performance effects are notable is 5 mcg and the most apparent effects were visible after 20 mcg. 
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethyltryptamine - N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a psychedelic compound of the tryptamine family. Since DMT resembles the basic structure of neurotransmitters, when ingested, DMT is able to cross the human blood-brain-barrier, allowing it to act as a powerful hallucinogenic drug that dramatically affects human consciousness.
Depending on the dose and method of administration, its subjective effects can range from short-lived, milder psychedelic states to powerful immersive experiences; these are often described as a total loss of connection to external reality and an experience of encountering indescribable spiritual/alien beings and realms.
DMT is structurally analogous to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) and the hormone melatonin, and furthermore functionally analogous to other psychedelic tryptamines, such as 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenin, psilocin, and psilocybin.
- DMTrmx - from Martin Stebbing
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psilocybin - Prodrug of psilocin. In general, the effects include euphoria, visual and mental hallucinations, changes in perception, a distorted sense of time, and spiritual experiences, and can include possible adverse reactions such as nausea and panic attacks.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O-Acetylpsilocin - also known as Psilacetin, 4-Acetoxy-DMT, or 4-AcO-DMT, synthetically produced, prodrug of psilocin
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayahuasca - also yagé, a psychedelic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine alone or in combination with various plants. It is either mixed with the leaves of dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing species of shrubs from the genus Psychotria or with the leaves of the Justicia pectoralis plant which does not contain DMT. It has been reported that some effects can be felt from consuming the caapi vine alone, but that DMT-containing plants (such as Psychotria) remain inactive when drunk as a brew without a source of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as B. caapi.
- YouTube: Present! - Ayahuasca - Psychologist and consciousness researcher, Stanley Krippner, offers unique insights into the sacred Amazonian medicinal drink, Ayahuasca.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabernanthe_iboga - stimulates the central nervous system when taken in small doses and induces visions in larger doses. the bark of the root is chewed for various pharmacological or ritualistic purposes. also used to treat substance abuse disorders and depression.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bwiti - a spiritual discipline of the forest-dwelling Babongo and Mitsogo peoples of Gabon (where it is recognized as one of three official religions) and by the Fang people of Gabon and Cameroon. Modern Bwiti incorporates animism, ancestor worship and Christianity into a syncretistic belief system. Bwiti practitioners use the psychedelic, dissociative root bark of the Tabernanthe iboga plant, specially cultivated for the religion, to promote radical spiritual growth, to stabilize community and family structure, to meet religious requirements, and to resolve pathological problems.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitragyna_speciosa - kratom
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racetam - a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus. Many, such as piracetam, but not all, are considered nootropics. Some such as oxiracetam and phenylpiracetam are also stimulants. Others such as levetiracetam and seletracetam are anticonvulsants.
- YouTube: Tim Ferriss on Modafinil