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Information and knowledge

a mess. to reorder and fix win relation to other pages.

See also Data, Open data, Media, Editors, Wiki, Documents, File sharing, Net/web media, Web systems, Networked media, Media, SaaS#Office, Being#Knowledge and truth, Being#Epistemology, Research, Learning, Literature, FLOS etc., Design, Politics, Technology, Maths, etc.

  • - an abstract concept that refers to that which has the power to inform. At the most fundamental level, information pertains to the interpretation (perhaps formally) of that which may be sensed, or their abstractions. Any natural process that is not completely random and any observable pattern in any medium can be said to convey some amount of information. Whereas digital signals and other data use discrete signs to convey information, other phenomena and artefacts such as analogue signals, poems, pictures, music or other sounds, and currents convey information in a more continuous form. Information is not knowledge itself, but the meaning that may be derived from a representation through interpretation. The concept of information is relevant or connected to various concepts, including constraint, communication, control, data, form, education, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, proposition, representation, and entropy. Information is often processed iteratively: Data available at one step are processed into information to be interpreted and processed at the next step. For example, in written text each symbol or letter conveys information relevant to the word it is part of, each word conveys information relevant to the phrase it is part of, each phrase conveys information relevant to the sentence it is part of, and so on until at the final step information is interpreted and becomes knowledge in a given domain. In a digital signal, bits may be interpreted into the symbols, letters, numbers, or structures that convey the information available at the next level up. The key characteristic of information is that it is subject to interpretation and processing. The derivation of information from a signal or message may be thought of as the resolution of ambiguity or uncertainty that arises during the interpretation of patterns within the signal or message. Information may be structured as data. Redundant data can be compressed up to an optimal size, which is the theoretical limit of compression. The information available through a collection of data may be derived by analysis. For example, a restaurant collects data from every customer order. That information may be analyzed to produce knowledge that is put to use when the business subsequently wants to identify the most popular or least popular dish.

  • - a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communication, and reasoning; while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgement in human beings.

  • - try to determine the essential features of knowledge. Closely related terms are conception of knowledge, theory of knowledge, and analysis of knowledge. Some general features of knowledge are widely accepted among philosophers, for example, that it constitutes a cognitive success or an epistemic contact with reality and that propositional knowledge involves true belief.

  • - or implicit knowledge—as opposed to formal, codified or explicit knowledge—is knowledge that is difficult to express or extract; therefore it is more difficult to transfer to others by means of writing it down or verbalizing it. This can include motor skills, personal wisdom, experience, insight, and intuition.

  • - is knowledge that can be readily articulated, codified, stored and accessed. It can be expressed in formal and systematical language and shared in the form of data, scientific formulae, specifications, manuals and such like. It is easily codifiable and thus transmittable without loss of integrity once the syntactical rules required for deciphering it are known. Most forms of explicit knowledge can be stored in certain media. Explicit knowledge is often seen as complementary to tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge is often seen as easier to formalize compared to tacit knowledge, but both are necessary for knowledge creation.

Nonaka and Takeuchi introduce the SECI model as a way for knowledge creation. The SECI model involves four stages where explicit and tacit knowledge interact with each other in a spiral manner. The four stages are: Socialization, from tacit to tacit knowledge; Externalization, from tacit to explicit knowledge; Combination, from explicit to explicit knowledge; Internalization, from explicit to tacit knowledge.

  • - or the Nonaka-Takeuchi model, is a model of knowledge creation that explains how tacit and explicit knowledge are converted into organizational knowledge. The aim is to change the explicit knowledge of the model back into the tacit knowledge of the employees. In this case, employees' tacit knowledge can be kept in the organization. When employees express their thoughts and ideas openly and share their best working practices, it can lead to new innovations and help to make operations more efficient.

The SECI model distinguishes four knowledge dimensions (forming the "SECI" acronym): Socialization, Externalization, Combination, and Internalization.

  1. from tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge, or socialization;
  2. from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, or externalization;
  3. from explicit knowledge to explicit knowledge, or combination; and
  4. from explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge, or internalization.

  • - BOK or BoK, is the complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association. It is a type of knowledge representation by any knowledge organization. Several definitions of BOK have been developed, for example: "Structured knowledge that is used by members of a discipline to guide their practice or work." "The prescribed aggregation of knowledge in a particular area an individual is expected to have mastered to be considered or certified as a practitioner." (BOK-def). Waite's pragmatic view is also worth noting (Ören 2005): "BOK is a stepping stone to unifying community" (Waite 2004). The systematic collection of activities and outcomes in terms of their values, constructs, models, principles and instantiations, which arises from continuous discovery and validation work by members of the profession and enables self-reflective growth and reproduction of the profession (Romme 2016). A set of accepted and agreed upon standards and nomenclatures pertaining to a field or profession (INFORMS 2009). A set of knowledge within a profession or subject area which is generally agreed as both essential and generally known (Oliver 2012).

  • - also known as knowing-how, and sometimes referred to as practical knowledge, imperative knowledge, or performative knowledge) is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. Unlike descriptive knowledge (also known as declarative knowledge, propositional knowledge or "knowing-that"), which involves knowledge of specific facts or propositions (e.g. "I know that snow is white"), procedural knowledge involves one's ability to do something (e.g. "I know how to change a flat tire"). A person doesn't need to be able to verbally articulate their procedural knowledge in order for it to count as knowledge, since procedural knowledge requires only knowing how to correctly perform an action or exercise a skill.

  • - information which one can express but not use. The process of understanding by learners does not happen to that extent where the knowledge can be used for effective problem-solving in realistic situations. The phenomenon of inert knowledge was first described in 1929 by Alfred North Whitehead: "[T]heoretical ideas should always find important applications within the pupil’s curriculum. This is not an easy doctrine to apply, but a very hard one. It contains within itself the problem of keeping knowledge alive, of preventing it from becoming inert, which is the central problem of all education." An example for inert knowledge is vocabulary of a foreign language which is available during an exam but not in a real situation of communication. An explanation for the problem of inert knowledge is that people often encode knowledge to a specific situation, so that later remindings occur only for highly similar situations. In contrast so called conditionalized knowledge is knowledge about something which includes also knowledge as to the contexts in which that certain knowledge will be useful.

  • - a non-fiction work, such as a paper, book or periodical (or their electronic equivalents), to which one can refer for information. The information is intended to be found quickly when needed. Such works are usually referred to for particular pieces of information, rather than read beginning to end. The writing style used in these works is informative; the authors avoid use of the first person, and emphasize facts.

Indices are a common navigation feature in many types of reference works. Many reference works are put together by a team of contributors whose work is coordinated by one or more editors, rather than by an individual author. Updated editions are usually published as needed, in some cases annually (Whitaker's Almanack, Who's Who).

Reference works include textbooks, almanacs, atlases, bibliographies, biographical sources, catalogs such as library catalogs and art catalogs, concordances, dictionaries, directories such as business directories and telephone directories, discographies, encyclopedias, filmographies, gazetteers, glossaries, handbooks, indices such as bibliographic indices and citation indices, manuals, research guides, thesauruses, and yearbooks. Many reference works are available in electronic form and can be obtained as reference software, CD-ROMs, DVDs, or online through the Internet. Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, is both the largest and the most-read reference work in history.

  • - a repository for persistently storing and managing collections of data which include not just repositories like databases, but also simpler store types such as simple files, emails, etc. A database is a collection of data that is managed by a database management system (DBMS) (though the term can sometime more generally refer to any collection of data that is stored and accessed electronically). A file is a series of bytes that is managed by a file system. Thus, any database or file is a series of bytes that, once stored, is called a data store.

  • - in economics is the notion that no single agent has information as to all of the factors which influence prices and production throughout the system. The term has been both expanded upon and popularized by American economist Thomas Sowell.


See Documents

  • - a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin Documentum, which denotes a "teaching" or "lesson": the verb doceō denotes "to teach". In the past, the word was usually used to denote written proof useful as evidence of a truth or fact. In the Computer Age, "document" usually denotes a primarily textual computer file, including its structure and format, e.g. fonts, colors, and images. Contemporarily, "document" is not defined by its transmission medium, e.g., paper, given the existence of electronic documents. "Documentation" is distinct because it has more denotations than "document". Documents are also distinguished from "realia", which are three-dimensional objects that would otherwise satisfy the definition of "document" because they memorialize or represent thought; documents are considered more as 2-dimensional representations. While documents can have large varieties of customization, all documents can be shared freely and have the right to do so, creativity can be represented by documents, also. History, events, examples, opinions, etc. all can be expressed in documents.

  • - any communicable material that is used to describe, explain or instruct regarding some attributes of an object, system or procedure, such as its parts, assembly, installation, maintenance and use. As a form of knowledge management and knowledge organization, documentation can be provided on paper, online, or on digital or analog media, such as audio tape or CDs. Examples are user guides, white papers, online help, and quick-reference guides. Paper or hard-copy documentation has become less common. Documentation is often distributed via websites, software products, and other online applications. Documentation as a set of instructional materials shouldn't be confused with documentation science, the study of the recording and retrieval of information.

  • - a group of documents that share the same origin and that have occurred naturally as an outgrowth of the daily workings of an agency, individual, or organization. An example of a fonds could be the writings of a poet that were never published or the records of an institution during a specific period. Fonds are a part of a hierarchical level of description system in an archive that begins with fonds at the top. Subsequent levels become more descriptive and narrower as one goes down the hierarchy. The level descriptions go from fonds to series to file and then item level. Between the fonds and series level there is sometimes a sub-fonds or sous-fonds level, and between the series and file level there is sometimes a sub-series level.

In modern archival practice, the idea of fonds still exists today, principally in Europe and North America. However, the fonds is sometimes changed slightly to suit other archival practices. For example, in Britain the term archive group is used instead of fonds, and in the United States' National Archives the term record group is preferred. Record groups are often compared to fonds, but in actuality they can be composed of more than one fonds or not even a full fonds. In Australian archival theory, there is recognition of the principle of respect des fonds, but the theory focuses on series as the primary descriptive level and the existence of multiple provenances. Fonds should not be confused with the term document collection, which is used for document aggregations assembled based on some shared characteristic by a collector, but it is not created by the collector and it often does not follow provenance.

  • Diátaxis - identifies four distinct needs, and four corresponding forms of documentation - tutorials, how-to guides, technical reference and explanation. It places them in a systematic relationship, and proposes that documentation should itself be organised around the structures of those needs.

Information management

  • - a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. From a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, people, structure (or roles), and technology. Information systems can be defined as an integration of components for collection, storage and processing of data of which the data is used to provide information, contribute to knowledge as well as digital products that facilitate decision making.

A computer information system is a system that is composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used to simply refer to a computer system with software installed.

"Information systems" is also an academic field study about systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of computer hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an information system having a definitive boundary, users, processors, storage, inputs, outputs and the aforementioned communication networks.

In many organizations, the department or unit responsible for information systems and data processing is known as "information services".

Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and decision-making. An information system is the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, and also the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.

Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end-use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.

Alter argues for advantages of viewing an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans or machines perform processes and activities using resources to produce specific products or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying information.

As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.

Information systems are the primary focus of study for organizational informatics.

  • - the appropriate and optimized capture, storage, retrieval, and use of information. It may be personal information management or organizational. IM for organizations concerns a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, and its ultimate disposal through archiving or deletion. This cycle of information organisation involves a variety of stakeholders, including those who are responsible for assuring the quality, accessibility and utility of acquired information; those who are responsible for its safe storage and disposal; and those who need it for decision making. Stakeholders might have rights to originate, change, distribute or delete information according to organisational information management policies. Information management embraces all the generic concepts of management, including the planning, organizing, structuring, processing, controlling, evaluation and reporting of information activities, all of which is needed in order to meet the needs of those with organisational roles or functions that depend on information. These generic concepts allow the information to be presented to the audience or the correct group of people. After individuals are able to put that information to use, it then gains more value. Information management is closely related to, and overlaps with, the management of data, systems, technology, processes and – where the availability of information is critical to organisational success – strategy. This broad view of the realm of information management contrasts with the earlier, more traditional view, that the life cycle of managing information is an operational matter that requires specific procedures, organisational capabilities and standards that deal with information as a product or a service.

  • - a term applied to an engineering specialty dealing with the complexities around the use of content in computer-facilitated environments. Content authoring and production, content management, content modeling, content conversion, and content use and repurposing are all areas involving this practice. It is not a specialty with wide industry recognition and is often performed on an ad hoc basis by members of software development or content production or marketing staff, but is beginning to be recognized as a necessary function in any complex content-centric project involving both content production as well as software system development mainly involving content management systems (CMS) or digital experience platforms (DXP).

  • - a set of processes and technologies that supports the collection, managing, and publishing of information in any form or medium. When stored and accessed via computers, this information may be more specifically referred to as digital content, or simply as content. Content management systems take the following forms: Web content management system—software for web site management (often what content management implicitly means), Output of a newspaper editorial staff organization, Workflow for article publication, Document management system, Single source content management system—content stored in chunks within a relational database, Variant management system—where personnel tag source content (usually text and graphics) to represent variants stored as single source "master" content modules, resolved to the desired variant at publication

  • - also known as information studies, is an academic field which is primarily concerned with analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information. Practitioners within and outside the field study the application and the usage of knowledge in organizations in addition to the interaction between people, organizations, and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, replacing, improving, or understanding the information systems. Historically, information science (informatics) is associated with computer science, data science, psychology, technology, library science, healthcare, and intelligence agencies. However, information science also incorporates aspects of diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, commerce, law, linguistics, museology, management, mathematics, philosophy, public policy, and social sciences.

  • - the study of computational systems. According to the ACM Europe Council and Informatics Europe, informatics is synonymous with computer science and computing as a profession, in which the central notion is transformation of information. In other countries, the term "informatics" is used with a different meaning in the context of library science, in which case it is synonymous with data storage and retrieval.

  • - or computer and information science (CIS) (plural forms, i.e., sciences, may also be used) is a field that emphasizes both computing and informatics, upholding the strong association between the fields of information sciences and computer sciences and treating computers as a tool rather than a field.

  • - the set of concepts, and relations among them, held by an information system; it describes the range of possible values or meanings an entity can have under the given rules and circumstances.

  • - the rapid increase in the amount of published information or data and the effects of this abundance. As the amount of available data grows, the problem of managing the information becomes more difficult, which can lead to information overload. The Online Oxford English Dictionary indicates use of the phrase in a March 1964 New Statesman article.

  • - also known as infobesity, infoxication, information anxiety, and information explosion) is the difficulty in understanding an issue and effectively making decisions when one has too much information (TMI) about that issue, and is generally associated with the excessive quantity of daily information. The term "information overload" was first used as early as 1962 by scholars in management and information studies, including in Bertram Gross' 1964 book, The Managing of Organizations, and was further popularized by Alvin Toffler in his bestselling 1970 book Future Shock. Speier et al. (1999) said that if input exceeds the processing capacity, information overload occurs, which is likely to reduce the quality of the decisions.

  • - refers to the prodigious amount of data, structured and unstructured, that businesses and governments continue to generate at an unprecedented rate and the usability problems that result from attempting to store and manage that data. While originally pertaining to problems associated with paper documentation, data proliferation has become a major problem in primary and secondary data storage on computers.

  • - the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation. It refers to a multidisciplinary approach to achieving organisational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.]An established discipline since 1991, KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration, information systems, management, library, and information sciences. Other fields may contribute to KM research, including information and media, computer science, public health and public policy. Several universities offer dedicated master's degrees in knowledge management.Many large companies, public institutions and non-profit organisations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts, often as a part of their business strategy, IT, or human resource management departments. Several consulting companies provide advice regarding KM to these organisations. Knowledge management efforts typically focus on organisational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organisation. These efforts overlap with organisational learning and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and on encouraging the sharing of knowledge. KM is an enabler of organisational learning.

  • - A curated list of amazingly awesome articles, people, applications, software libraries and projects related to the knowledge management space in general, and in particular Contextualise, the (personal and collaborative, knowledge management application that I am developing.

  • - the degree to which something, especially a piece of content or information, can be found in a search of a file, database, or other information system. Discoverability is a concern in library and information science, many aspects of digital media, software and web development, and in marketing, since products and services cannot be used if people cannot find it or do not understand what it can be used for.

Metadata, or "information about information," such as a book's title, a product's description, or a website's keywords, affects how discoverable something is on a database or online. Adding metadata to a product that is available online can make it easier for end users to find the product. For example, if a song file is made available online, making the title, name of the band, genre, year of release, and other pertinent information available in connection with this song means the file can be retrieved more easily. Organizing information by putting it into alphabetical order or including it in a search engine is an example of how to improve discoverability. Discoverability is related to, but different from, accessibility and usability, other qualities that affect the usefulness of a piece of information.

  • - concept system or concept scheme is a generic term used in knowledge organization for authority files, classification schemes, thesauri, topic maps, ontologies and similar works. Despite their differences in type, coverage and application all KOS aim to support the organization of knowledge and information to facilitate their management and retrieval. The core elements of most KOS can be expressed in RDF with the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS). Many lists of KOS exist with BARTOC being the largest and most general one.

  • - provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing schemes, subject headings, thesauri, taxonomies and other knowledge organization systems. Controlled vocabulary schemes mandate the use of predefined, preferred terms that have been preselected by the designers of the schemes, in contrast to natural language vocabularies, which have no such restriction.

  • - a process that organizes information, for example in library catalogs, by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers. Catalogers assign each subject—such as author, topic, series, or corporation—a particular unique identifier or heading term which is then used consistently, uniquely, and unambiguously for all references to that same subject, which removes variations from different spellings, transliterations, pen names, or aliases. The unique header can guide users to all relevant information including related or collocated subjects. Authority records can be combined into a database and called an authority file, and maintaining and updating these files as well as "logical linkages" to other files within them is the work of librarians and other information catalogers. Accordingly, authority control is an example of controlled vocabulary and of bibliographic control.

A customary way of enforcing authority control in a bibliographic catalog is to set up a separate index of authority records, which relates to and governs the headings used in the main catalog. This separate index is often referred to as an "authority file." It contains an indexable record of all decisions made by catalogers in a given library (or—as is increasingly the case—cataloging consortium), which catalogers consult when making, or revising, decisions about headings. As a result, the records contain documentation about sources used to establish a particular preferred heading, and may contain information discovered while researching the heading which may be useful.[17]

While authority files provide information about a particular subject, their primary function is not to provide information but to organize it.[17] They contain enough information to establish that a given author or title is unique, but that is all; irrelevant but interesting information is generally excluded. Although practices vary internationally, authority records in the English-speaking world generally contain the following information:

  • - unites information about vocabularies and terminology registries to facilitate use of knowledge organization systems.

  • - or a group of such silos, is an insular management system in which one information system or subsystem is incapable of reciprocal operation with others that are, or should be, related. Thus information is not adequately shared but rather remains sequestered within each system or subsystem, figuratively trapped within a container like grain is trapped within a silo: there may be much of it, and it may be stacked quite high and freely available within those limits, but it has no effect outside those limits. Such data silos are proving to be an obstacle for businesses wishing to use data mining to make productive use of their data. Typical information silos in a hierarchic structured organization Information silos occur whenever a data system is incompatible or not integrated with other data systems. This incompatibility may occur in the technical architecture, in the application architecture, or in the data architecture of any data system. However, since it has been shown that established data modeling methods are the root cause of the data integration problem, most data systems are at least incompatible in the data architecture layer.

  • - form of technical writing that uses and creates structured documents. The term was coined by Robert E. Horn and became a central part of his information mapping method of analyzing, organizing, and displaying knowledge in print and in the new online presentation of text and graphics. Horn and colleagues identified dozens of common documentation types, then analyzed them into structural components called information blocks. They identified over 200 common block types. These were assembled into information types using information maps. The seven most common information types were concept, procedure, process, principle, fact, structure, and classification.

  • - a modular approach to content creation where content is structured around topics that can be mixed and reused in different contexts. It is defined in contrast with book-oriented or narrative content, written in the linear structure of written books. Topic-based authoring is popular in the technical publications and documentation arenas, as it is especially suitable for technical documentation. Tools supporting this approach typically store content in XHTML or other XML formats and support content reuse, management, and the dynamic assembly of personalized information. A topic is a discrete piece of content that: focuses on one subject has an identifiable purpose does not require external context to understand Topics can be written to be independent of one another and reused wherever needed.

  • - a set of sentences, each sentence given in a knowledge representation language, with interfaces to tell new sentences and to ask questions about what is known, where either of these interfaces might use inference. It is a technology used to store complex structured data used by a computer system. The initial use of the term was in connection with expert systems, which were the first knowledge-based systems.

  • - described as an emerging anthropological space in which the knowledge of individuals becomes the primary focus for social structure, values, and beliefs. The concept is put forward and explored by philosopher and media critic Pierre Lévy in his 1997 book Collective Intelligence.

  • - may refer to the history of each of the categories listed below (or to combinations of them,. It should be recognized that the understanding of, for example, libraries as information systems only goes back to about 1950. The application of the term information for earlier systems or societies is a retronym.

  • - sometimes called institutional or corporate memory, is the accumulated body of data, information, and knowledge created in the course of an individual organization's existence. Falling under the wider disciplinary umbrella of knowledge management, it has two repositories: an organization's archives, including its electronic data bases; and individuals' memories.Kenneth Megill says corporate memory is information of value for re-use. He views corporate memory from the perspective of information services such as libraries, records management and archival management. Organizational memory can only be applied if it can be accessed. To make use of it, organizations must have effective retrieval systems for their archives and good memory recall among the individuals that make up the organization. Its importance to an organization depends upon how well individuals can apply it, a discipline known as experiential learning or evidence-based practice. In the case of individuals' memories, organizational memory's veracity is invariably compromised by the inherent limitations of human memory. Individuals' reluctance to admit to mistakes and difficulties compounds the problem. The actively encouraged flexible labor market has imposed an Alzheimer's-like corporate amnesia on organizations that creates an inability to benefit from hindsight.

  • - refers to information, data, and content that is collectively owned and managed by a community of users, particularly over the Internet. What distinguishes a knowledge commons from a commons of shared physical resources is that digital resources are non-subtractible; that is, multiple users can access the same digital resources with no effect on their quantity or quality.

  • - an information system, such as a physical library or online community, that exists to produce, conserve, and preserve information for current and future generations. Wikipedia could be considered to be an information commons to the extent that it produces and preserves information through current versions of articles and histories. Other examples of an information commons include Creative Commons.

  • - a field of information science research that seeks to understand the way people search for and use information in various contexts. It can include information seeking and information retrieval, but it also aims to understand why people seek information and how they use it. The term 'information behavior' was coined by Thomas D. Wilson in 1981 and sparked controversy upon its introduction. The term has now been adopted and Wilson's model of information behavior is widely cited in information behavior literature. In 2000, Wilson defined information behavior as "the totality of human behavior in relation to sources and channels of information". A variety of theories of information behavior seek to understand the processes that surround information seeking. An analysis of the most cited publications on information behavior during the early 21st century shows its theoretical nature. Information behavior research can employ various research methodologies grounded in broader research paradigms from psychology, sociology and education.

  • - often understood as an individual or group's desire to locate and obtain information to satisfy a conscious or unconscious need. Rarely mentioned in general literature about needs, it is a common term in information science. According to Hjørland (1997, it is closely related to the concept of relevance: If something is relevant for a person in relation to a given task, we might say that the person needs the information for that task.

  • - a theory that applies the ideas from optimal foraging theory to understand how human users search for information. The theory is based on the assumption that, when searching for information, humans use "built-in" foraging mechanisms that evolved to help our animal ancestors find food. Importantly, a better understanding of human search behavior can improve the usability of websites or any other user interface.

  • - in computing and information science is the process of obtaining information system resources that are relevant to an information need from a collection of those resources. Searches can be based on full-text or other content-based indexing. Information retrieval is the science of searching for information in a document, searching for documents themselves, and also searching for the metadata that describes data, and for databases of texts, images or sounds. Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called information overload. An IR system is a software system that provides access to books, journals and other documents; it also stores and manages those documents. Web search engines are the most visible IR applications.

  • - defined as the matching of some stated user query against a set of free-text records. These records could be any type of mainly unstructured text, such as newspaper articles, real estate records or paragraphs in a manual. User queries can range from multi-sentence full descriptions of an information need to a few words. Document retrieval is sometimes referred to as, or as a branch of, text retrieval. Text retrieval is a branch of information retrieval where the information is stored primarily in the form of text. Text databases became decentralized thanks to the personal computer. Text retrieval is a critical area of study today, since it is the fundamental basis of all internet search engines.

  • - the structural design of shared information environments; the art and science of organizing and labelling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability; and an emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design, architecture and information science to the digital landscape. Typically, it involves a model or concept of information that is used and applied to activities which require explicit details of complex information systems. These activities include library systems and database development.

  • - the practice of presenting information in a way that fosters an efficient and effective understanding of the information. The term has come to be used for a specific area of graphic design related to displaying information effectively, rather than just attractively or for artistic expression. Information design is closely related to the field of data visualization and is often taught as part of graphic design courses. The broad applications of information design along with its close connections to other fields of design and communication practices have created some overlap in the definitions of communication design, data visualization, and information architecture.

  • - that removes redundant or unwanted information from an information stream using (semi)automated or computerized methods prior to presentation to a human user. Its main goal is the management of the information overload and increment of the semantic signal-to-noise ratio. To do this the user's profile is compared to some reference characteristics. These characteristics may originate from the information item (the content-based approach) or the user's social environment (the collaborative filtering approach). Whereas in information transmission signal processing filters are used against syntax-disrupting noise on the bit-level, the methods employed in information filtering act on the semantic level. The range of machine methods employed builds on the same principles as those for information extraction. A notable application can be found in the field of email spam filters. Thus, it is not only the information explosion that necessitates some form of filters, but also inadvertently or maliciously introduced pseudo-information. On the presentation level, information filtering takes the form of user-preferences-based newsfeeds, etc. Recommender systems and content discovery platforms are active information filtering systems that attempt to present to the user information items (film, television, music, books, news, web pages) the user is interested in. These systems add information items to the information flowing towards the user, as opposed to removing information items from the information flow towards the user. Recommender systems typically use collaborative filtering approaches or a combination of the collaborative filtering and content-based filtering approaches, although content-based recommender systems do exist.

  • - the practice of making data used for scholarly research available to other investigators. Many funding agencies, institutions, and publication venues have policies regarding data sharing because transparency and openness are considered by many to be part of the scientific method. A number of funding agencies and science journals require authors of peer-reviewed papers to share any supplemental information (raw data, statistical methods or source code) necessary to understand, develop or reproduce published research. A great deal of scientific research is not subject to data sharing requirements, and many of these policies have liberal exceptions. In the absence of any binding requirement, data sharing is at the discretion of the scientists themselves. In addition, in certain situations governments and institutions prohibit or severely limit data sharing to protect proprietary interests, national security, and subject/patient/victim confidentiality. Data sharing may also be restricted to protect institutions and scientists from use of data for political purposes.

Data and methods may be requested from an author years after publication. In order to encourage data sharing and prevent the loss or corruption of data, a number of funding agencies and journals established policies on data archiving. Access to publicly archived data is a recent development in the history of science made possible by technological advances in communications and information technology. To take full advantage of modern rapid communication may require consensual agreement on the criteria underlying mutual recognition of respective contributions. Models recognized for improving the timely sharing of data for more effective response to emergent infectious disease threats include the data sharing mechanism introduced by the GISAID Initiative.

  • - or information sharing means that people or other entities pass information from one to another. This could be done electronically or through certain systems. These are terms that can either refer to bidirectional information transfer in telecommunications and computer science or communication seen from a system-theoretic or information-theoretic point of view. As "information" in this context invariably refers to (electronic, data that encodes and represents the information at hand, a broader treatment can be found under data exchange.

Information exchange has a long history in information technology. Traditional information sharing referred to one-to-one exchanges of data between a sender and receiver. Online information sharing gives useful data to businesses for future strategies based on online sharing. These information exchanges are implemented via dozens of open and proprietary protocols, message, and file formats. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is a successful implementation of commercial data exchanges that began in the late 1970s and remains in use today. From the point of view of a computer scientist, the four primary information sharing design patterns are sharing information one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many, and many-to-one. Technologies to meet all four of these design patterns are evolving and include blogs, wikis, really simple syndication, tagging, and chat. Advanced information sharing platforms provide controlled vocabularies, data harmonization, data stewardship policies and guidelines, standards for uniform data as they relate to privacy, security, and data quality.

  • - refers to sharing or disseminating of knowledge and providing inputs to problem solving. In organizational theory, knowledge transfer is the practical problem of transferring knowledge from one part of the organization to another. Like knowledge management, knowledge transfer seeks to organize, create, capture or distribute knowledge and ensure its availability for future users. It is considered to be more than just a communication problem.

  • - a society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. Its main drivers are digital information and communication technologies, which have resulted in an information explosion and are profoundly changing all aspects of social organization, including the economy, education, health, warfare, government and democracy. The people who have the means to partake in this form of society are sometimes called digital citizens, defined by K. Mossberger as “Those who use the Internet regularly and effectively”. This is one of many dozen labels that have been identified to suggest that humans are entering a new phase of society. The markers of this rapid change may be technological, economic, occupational, spatial, cultural, or some combination of all of these. Information society is seen as the successor to industrial society. Closely related concepts are the post-industrial society (Daniel Bell), post-fordism, post-modern society, knowledge society, telematic society, Information Revolution, liquid modernity, and network society (Manuel Castells).

  • - or knowledge-based economy, is an economic system in which the production of goods and services is based principally on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to advancement in technical and scientific innovation. The key element of value is the greater dependence on human capital and intellectual property as the source of innovative ideas, information and practices. Organisations are required to capitalise on this "knowledge" in their production to stimulate and deepen the business development process. There is less reliance on physical input and natural resources. A knowledge-based economy relies on the crucial role of intangible assets within the organisations' settings in facilitating modern economic growth.

  • - This paper proposes a paradigm for managing the dynamic aspects of organizational knowledge creating processes. Its central theme is that organizational knowledge is created through a continuous dialogue between tacit and explicit knowledge. The nature of this dialogue is examined and four patterns of interaction involving tacit and explicit knowledge are identified. It is argued that while new knowledge is developed by individuals, organizations play a critical role in articulating and amplifying that knowledge. A theoretical framework is developed which provides an analytical perspective on the constituent dimensions of knowledge creation. This framework is then applied in two operational models for facilitating the dynamic creation of appropriate organizational knowledge.

  • Concept of Knowledge Maturing - collaborative activity in which individual learning processes are interdependent and dynamically interlinked with each other: the output of one learning process is input to the next. If we have a look at this phenomenon from a macroscopic perspective, we can observe a knowledge flow across different interlinked individual learning processes. The knowledge becomes less contextualized, more explicitly linked, easier to communicate, in short: it matures.

We define knowledge maturing as the goal-oriented development of collective knowledge, or better as goal-oriented learning on a collective level where

  • goal-oriented describes knowledge maturing as a process with a direction. The goal can be an individual goal (e.g., deepen understanding in an area out of curiosity), a team goal (e.g., grasp known errors with respect to a product that the team works on), or an organisational goal (e.g., refine an organisation?s core competency). Goals typically change over time and get aligned in social processes, resulting in a direction as a (mostly a posteriori) interpretation.
  • collective level can refer to different levels of granularity, e.g., a team, an organisation or a com-munity. Knowledge maturing is not the result of an individual's activity, but of an interconnected series of activities of interacting individuals, frequently also within different collectives.
  • knowledge is understood as both cognitive structures bound to individuals? minds (becoming manifest in their behaviour) and as an abstraction of the knowledge of individuals in a collective.

From the perspective of Organization and Representation of Information and Knowledge, bibliographic and conceptual elements of the Dictionary were analyzed. The study was presented at the XXI Encontro de Pesquisadores do Uni-FACEF Centro Universitário Municipal de Franca. Autores: Thiago Ferreira Oliveira, Amanda Mendes Silva, Mariana Macedo e Fernanda Carolina Pegoraro Novaes. Abstract Wikis systems are platforms that aim to facilitate access to information quickly and with well-structured aspects, thus, an analysis of the bibliographic and conceptual elements from the perspective of the Organization, Information and Knowledge Representation is necessary. The Marielle Franco Slum Dictionary - Wikifavelas, is a virtual and collaborative platform, created for the transmission, preservation and production of information, documents representing knowledge about the peripheries and slums of Brazil. It is noted that Information Science as well as Librarianship can effectively contribute to improving recovery, preservation and elaboration of methods that facilitate this system. Parameterization with the Knowledge Organization (OC) and the Knowledge Organization Systems contribute to a fruitful direction on the subject addressed.

  • - The Dictionary is composed of original texts (of about 4000 words, produced by internet users, who may include videos, photos, and poems, in the form of Entry Words. Currenlty some articles are aviable in english for foregin visitors:

  • Dare to edit! – the politics of Wikipedia | Ephemeral Journal - What, then, is left of the authocratic ideal of Wikpedia since it is no longer only the author who governs the community? As argued above, with Wikipedia the temporal and theological characteristics of the author-function have vanished. Because of the multiplicity of voices it became impossible to construct the author as a historical figure. As a consequence it was impossible to ascribe the text to a single author. Instead, the text could only be attributed to the community. Therefore, the authors had a political role central to the encyclopedia. Their function was to deconstruct all possible hierarchies in order to give Wikipedia its full potential. Since everyone became an author, all authors governed the community, and this is where the encyclopedia gained its authority from. The authocracy not only brought our central assumptions of authorship and authority into clear focus, it radically challenged those assumptions, especially the notion of the author-god, the notion of ownership and our poetics of knowledge. But most of all it challenged our notion of authority. This is what the founders of the project were not able to deal with. As a consequence authocracy, almost before it had practically begun to flourish, had to be killed.

  • The Collector’s Fallacy • Zettelkasten Method - "Reading effectively means the text changes our knowledge permanently. Only when we learn from it and begin to work with the ideas it presents. We need to extract what’s inside and write things down. If we read without taking notes, our knowledge increases for a short time only. ... Taking notes thoroughly means you can rely on your notes alone and rarely need to look up a detail in the original text." [3]

  • - or metacommunication, is a secondary communication (including indirect cues) about how a piece of information is meant to be interpreted. It is based on the idea that the same message accompanied by different meta-communication can mean something entirely different, including its opposite, as in irony. The term was brought to prominence by Gregory Bateson to refer to "communication about communication", which he expanded to: "all exchanged cues and propositions about (a) codification and (b) relationship between the communicators". Metacommunication may or may not be congruent, supportive or contradictory of that verbal communication.

  • - shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has also been attributed to bacteria and animals. It can be understood as an emergent property from the synergies among: 1) data-information-knowledge; 2) software-hardware; and 3) experts (those with new insights as well as recognized authorities) that continually learns from feedback to produce just-in-time knowledge for better decisions than these three elements acting alone. Or more narrowly as an emergent property between people and ways of processing information. This notion of collective intelligence is referred to as "symbiotic intelligence" by Norman Lee Johnson. The concept is used in sociology, business, computer science and mass communications: it also appears in science fiction. Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, "It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I'll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities." According to researchers Pierre Lévy and Derrick de Kerckhove, it refers to capacity of networked ICTs (Information communication technologies) to enhance the collective pool of social knowledge by simultaneously expanding the extent of human interactions.

Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. According to Eric S. Raymond (1998) and JC Herz (2005), open source intelligence will eventually generate superior outcomes to knowledge generated by proprietary software developed within corporations (Flew 2008). Media theorist Henry Jenkins sees collective intelligence as an 'alternative source of media power', related to convergence culture. He draws attention to education and the way people are learning to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal learning settings. Henry Jenkins criticizes schools which promote 'autonomous problem solvers and self-contained learners' while remaining hostile to learning through the means of collective intelligence. Both Pierre Lévy (2007) and Henry Jenkins (2008) support the claim that collective intelligence is important for democratization, as it is interlinked with knowledge-based culture and sustained by collective idea sharing, and thus contributes to a better understanding of diverse society.

"the point is to augment reflexivity" [4]

  • - A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (1966), by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, proposes that social groups and individual persons who interact with each other, within a system of social classes, over time create concepts (mental representations, of the actions of each other, and that people become habituated to those concepts, and thus assume reciprocal social roles. When those social roles are available for other members of society to assume and portray, their reciprocal, social interactions are said to be institutionalized behaviours. In that process of the social construction of reality, the meaning of the social role is embedded to society as cultural knowledge. As a work about the sociology of knowledge, influenced by the work of Alfred Schütz, The Social Construction of Reality introduced the term social construction and influenced the establishment of the field of social constructionism. In 1998, the International Sociological Association listed The Social Construction of Reality as the fifth most-important book of 20th-century sociology.

  • - form of information system built with business intelligence tools, designed primarily to support geographic reporting. They overlap with some capabilities of geographic information systems (GIS,, although their primary function is the reporting of statistical data rather than the analysis of geospatial data. LIS also tend to offer some common knowledge management functionality for storage and retrieval of unstructured data such as documents. They deliver functionality to load, store, analyse and present statistical data that has a strong geographic reference

  • Haystack Group - MIT Research on Information Access, Analysis, Management, and Distribution Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Our goal is to make it easier for people to collect, organize, find, visualize, and share their information. We are an interdisciplinary group of researchers blending approaches from human-computer interaction, social computing, databases, web infrastructure, information retrieval, artificial intelligence and the semantic web.

  • - a knowledge base that uses a graph-structured data model or topology to integrate data. Knowledge graphs are often used to store interlinked descriptions of entities – objects, events, situations or abstract concepts – while also encoding the semantics underlying the used terminology.

Since the development of the Semantic Web, knowledge graphs are often associated with linked open data projects, focusing on the connections between concepts and entities. They are also prominently associated with and used by search engines such as Google, Bing, Yext and Yahoo; knowledge-engines and question-answering services such as WolframAlpha, Apple's Siri, and Amazon Alexa; and social networks such as LinkedIn and Facebook.

  • - the creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML, and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing. Although it is methodically similar to information extraction (NLP) and ETL (data warehouse), the main criterion is that the extraction result goes beyond the creation of structured information or the transformation into a relational schema. It requires either the reuse of existing formal knowledge (reusing identifiers or ontologies) or the generation of a schema based on the source data.

The RDB2RDF W3C group is currently standardizing a language for extraction of resource description frameworks (RDF) from relational databases. Another popular example for knowledge extraction is the transformation of Wikipedia into structured data and also the mapping to existing knowledge (see DBpedia and Freebase). After the standardization of knowledge representation languages such as RDF and OWL, much research has been conducted in the area, especially regarding transforming relational databases into RDF, identity resolution, knowledge discovery and ontology learning. The general process uses traditional methods from information extraction and extract, transform, and load (ETL), which transform the data from the sources into structured formats.

  • - the task of automatically extracting structured information from unstructured and/or semi-structured machine-readable documents and other electronically represented sources. In most of the cases this activity concerns processing human language texts by means of natural language processing (NLP,. Recent activities in multimedia document processing like automatic annotation and content extraction out of images/audio/video/documents could be seen as information extraction. Due to the difficulty of the problem, current approaches to IE (as of 2010) focus on narrowly restricted domains

  • - the practice of beginning a message with its key information (the "bottom line",. This provides the reader with the most important information first. By extension, that information is also called a BLUF. It differs from an abstract or executive summary in that it is simpler and more concise, similar to a thesis statement, and it resembles the inverted pyramid practice in journalism. BLUF is a standard in U.S. military communication whose aim is to make military messages precise and powerful. It differs from an older, more-traditional style in which conclusions and recommendations are included at the end, following the arguments and considerations of facts. The BLUF concept is not exclusive to writing since it can also be used in conversations and interviews.

  • - the study of information and communication tools in cultural or institutional contexts. Another definition is the interdisciplinary study of the design, uses and consequences of information technologies that takes into account their interaction with institutional and cultural contexts. A transdisciplinary field, social informatics is part of a larger body of socio-economic research that examines the ways in which the technological artifact and human social context mutually constitute the information and communications technology (ICT, ensemble. Some proponents of social informatics use the relationship of a biological community to its environment as an analogy for the relationship of tools to people who use them. The Center for Social Informatics founded by the late Dr. Rob Kling, an early champion of the field's ideas, defines the field thus:

  • PDF: Creativity is Connecting Things: The Role of Network Topology in Fostering Collective Creativity in Multi-Participant Asynchronous Online Discussions - Creativity derives from the ability to form new meaningful combinations out of available resources. Collective creativity is the product of a collaborative process, consisting of multiple interactions between group members and the shared content, which lead to the emergence of novel shared meanings. This exploratory research addresses the expression of collective creativity in multi-participant asynchronous online discussions, by proposing interactivity and emergence as key features of the collaborative creative process. The ability to connect posts in a non-sequential manner ("cross-linking") is suggested as the basis for the formation of emergent community-structures within the content, which reflect collectively constructed novel combinations. Initial indications for this process are presented by applying a combination of network analysis and qualitative inquiry to data from a multi-participant virtual discussion, held as part of an online academic course. A methodology for extracting emergent themes is described.

Collation and curation

  • - the process of selecting and preparing written, photographic, visual, audible, or cinematic material used by a person or an entity to convey a message or information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation, organisation, and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent, accurate and complete piece of work. The editing process often begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created. Editing can involve creative skills, human relations and a precise set of methods.

  • - the assembly of written information into a standard order. Many systems of collation are based on numerical order or alphabetical order, or extensions and combinations thereof. Collation is a fundamental element of most office filing systems, library catalogs, and reference books. Collation differs from classification in that the classes themselves are not necessarily ordered. However, even if the order of the classes is irrelevant, the identifiers of the classes may be members of an ordered set, allowing a sorting algorithm to arrange the items by class.

  • - refers to ordering data in an increasing or decreasing manner according to some linear relationship among the data items; ordering: arranging items in a sequence ordered by some criterion; categorizing: grouping items with similar properties. Ordering items is the combination of categorizing them based on equivalent order, and ordering the categories themselves.

Categorisation and classification

See Semantic, Data, Open data, Learning

  • - the ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as objects, events, or ideas), organizing and classifying experience by associating them to a more abstract group (that is, a category, class, or type), on the basis of their traits, features, similarities or other criteria that are universal to the group. Categorization is considered one of the most fundamental cognitive abilities, and as such it is studied particularly by psychology and cognitive linguistics.

Categorization is sometimes considered synonymous with classification (cf., Classification synonyms). Categorization and classification allow humans to organize things, objects, and ideas that exist around them and simplify their understanding of the world. Categorization is something that humans and other organisms do: "doing the right thing with the right kind of thing." The activity of categorizing things can be nonverbal or verbal. For humans, both concrete objects and abstract ideas are recognized, differentiated, and understood through categorization. Objects are usually categorized for some adaptive or pragmatic purposes. Categorization is grounded in the features that distinguish the category's members from nonmembers. Categorization is important in learning, prediction, inference, decision making, language, and many forms of organisms' interaction with their environments.

  • - can apply to one or all of: the process of classifying (distinguishing and distributing kinds of "things" into different groups); a resulting set of classes (also called "a classification system", the assignment of elements to pre-established classes. Classifying – in the broad meaning given above – is a fundamental concept and a part of almost all kinds of activities. Classification itself is an interdisciplinary field of study. Important contributing disciplines include philosophy, biology, knowledge organization, psychology, statistics and mathematics.

In the abstract, the resulting structures are a crucial aspect of metadata, often represented as a hierarchical structure and accompanied by descriptive information of the classes or groups. Such a classification scheme is intended to be used for an arrangement or division of individual objects into the classes or groups, and the classes or groups are based on characteristics which the objects (members) have in common. The ISO/IEC 11179 metadata registry standard uses classification schemes as a way to classify administered items, such as data elements, in a metadata registry.

  • - provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing schemes, subject headings, thesauri, taxonomies and other knowledge organization systems. Controlled vocabulary schemes mandate the use of predefined, preferred terms that have been preselected by the designers of the schemes, in contrast to natural language vocabularies, which have no such restriction. In library and information science, controlled vocabulary is a carefully selected list of words and phrases, which are used to tag units of information (document or work, so that they may be more easily retrieved by a search. Controlled vocabularies solve the problems of homographs, synonyms and polysemes by a bijection between concepts and preferred terms. In short, controlled vocabularies reduce ambiguity inherent in normal human languages where the same concept can be given different names and ensure consistency.

  • - encompasses a representation, formal naming, and definition of the categories, properties, and relations between the concepts, data, and entities that substantiate one, many, or all domains of discourse. More simply, an ontology is a way of showing the properties of a subject area and how they are related, by defining a set of concepts and categories that represent the subject.

Every academic discipline or field creates ontologies to limit complexity and organize data into information and knowledge. Each uses ontological assumptions to frame explicit theories, research and applications. New ontologies may improve problem solving within that domain. Translating research papers within every field is a problem made easier when experts from different countries maintain a controlled vocabulary of jargon between each of their languages. For instance, the definition and ontology of economics is a primary concern in Marxist economics, but also in other subfields of economics. An example of economics relying on information science occurs in cases where a simulation or model is intended to enable economic decisions, such as determining what capital assets are at risk and by how much (see risk management).

What ontologies in both information science and philosophy have in common is the attempt to represent entities, ideas and events, with all their interdependent properties and relations, according to a system of categories. In both fields, there is considerable work on problems of ontology engineering (e.g., Quine and Kripke in philosophy, Sowa and Guarino), and debates concerning to what extent normative ontology is possible (e.g., foundationalism and coherentism in philosophy, BFO and Cyc in artificial intelligence).

  • - can involve the practical application of ontological resources to specific domains, such as management, relationships, biomedicine, information science or geography. Alternatively, applied ontology can aim more generally at developing improved methodologies for recording and organizing knowledge. Much work in applied ontology is carried out within the framework of the Semantic Web.

A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification, is a scheme of classification, especially a hierarchical classification, in which things are organized into groups or types. Among other things, a taxonomy can be used to organize and index knowledge (stored as documents, articles, videos, etc.), such as in the form of a library classification system, or a search engine taxonomy, so that users can more easily find the information they are searching for. Many taxonomies are hierarchies (and thus, have an intrinsic tree structure), but not all are.

Originally, taxonomy referred only to the categorisation of organisms or a particular categorisation of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a categorisation of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a categorisation. Taxonomy organizes taxonomic units known as "taxa" (singular "taxon")." Taxonomy is different from meronomy, which deals with the categorisation of parts of a whole.

  • - the field of data management, data classification as a part of the Information Lifecycle Management (ILM, process can be defined as a tool for categorization of data to enable/help organizations to effectively answer the following questions: What data types are available? Where are certain data located? What access levels are implemented? What protection level is implemented and does it adhere to compliance regulations?

  • - has close ties to data clustering, but where data clustering is descriptive, data classification is predictive. In essence data classification consists of using variables with known values to predict the unknown or future values of other variables. It can be used in e.g. direct marketing, insurance fraud detection or medical diagnosis.

The first step in doing a data classification is to cluster the data set used for category training, to create the wanted number of categories. An algorithm, called the classifier, is then used on the categories, creating a descriptive model for each. These models can then be used to categorize new items in the created classification system.

  • - or document categorization is a problem in library science, information science and computer science. The task is to assign a document to one or more classes or categories. This may be done "manually" (or "intellectually") or algorithmically. The intellectual classification of documents has mostly been the province of library science, while the algorithmic classification of documents is mainly in information science and computer science. The problems are overlapping, however, and there is therefore interdisciplinary research on document classification. The documents to be classified may be texts, images, music, etc. Each kind of document possesses its special classification problems. When not otherwise specified, text classification is implied. Documents may be classified according to their subjects or according to other attributes (such as document type, author, printing year etc.). In the rest of this article only subject classification is considered. There are two main philosophies of subject classification of documents: the content-based approach and the request-based approach.

  • - a document cataloging system (formerly known as Spoon). It manages documentation metadata, as specified by the Open Source Metadata Framework (OMF). Rarian is used by the GNOME desktop help browser, Yelp. It has replaced ScrollKeeper, as originally designed. It provides an API.

A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification, is a scheme of classification, especially, a hierarchical classification, in which things are organized into groups or types. Among other things, a taxonomy can be used to organize and index knowledge (stored as documents, articles, videos, etc.), such as in the form of a library classification system, or a search engine taxonomy, so that users can more easily find the information they are searching for. Many taxonomies are hierarchies (and thus, have an intrinsic tree structure), but not all are.

  • - In information science, an upper ontology (also known as a top-level ontology, upper model, or foundation ontology, is an ontology (in the sense used in information science) which consists of very general terms (such as "object", "property", "relation") that are common across all domains. An important function of an upper ontology is to support broad semantic interoperability among a large number of domain-specific ontologies by providing a common starting point for the formulation of definitions. Terms in the domain ontology are ranked under the terms in the upper ontology, e.g., the upper ontology classes are superclasses or supersets of all the classes in the domain ontologies.

A number of upper ontologies have been proposed, each with its own proponents. Library classification systems predate upper ontology systems. Though library classifications organize and categorize knowledge using general concepts that are the same across all knowledge domains, neither system is a replacement for the other.

  • - a keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, multimedia, database record, or computer file). This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system, although they may also be chosen from a controlled vocabulary.: 68

  • - a classification system in which end users apply public tags to online items, typically to make those items easier for themselves or others to find later. Over time, this can give rise to a classification system based on those tags and how often they are applied or searched for, in contrast to a taxonomic classification designed by the owners of the content and specified when it is published. This practice is also known as collaborative tagging, social classification, social indexing, and social tagging.

  • ACOTA (Automatic Collaborative Tagging). It is a Java-based library for suggesting tags in a collaborative and automatic way. It is based on the use of folksonomies to manage the tags and provide advanced services of automatic learning, reasoning, etc.


  • - describes the content of art databases by articulating a conceptual framework for describing and accessing information about works of art, architecture, other material culture, groups and collections of works, and related images. The CDWA includes 532 categories and subcategories. A small subset of categories are considered core in that they represent the minimum information necessary to identify and describe a work. The CDWA includes discussions, basic guidelines for cataloging, and examples.

Personal information management

  • - PIM, practice and the study of the activities people perform in order to acquire, organize, maintain, retrieve and use personal information items such as documents (paper-based and digital), web pages and email messages for everyday use to complete tasks (work-related or not) and fulfill a person’s various roles

  • - PKM, a process of collecting information that a person uses to gather, classify, store, search, retrieve and share knowledge in their daily activities (Grundspenkis 2007, and the way in which these processes support work activities (Wright 2005). It is a response to the idea that knowledge workers need to be responsible for their own growth and learning (Smedley 2009). It is a bottom-up approach to knowledge management (KM) (Pollard 2008).

Although as early as 1998 Davenport wrote on the importance to worker productivity of understanding individual knowledge processes (cited in Zhang 2009), the term personal knowledge management appears to be relatively new. Its origin can be traced in a working paper by Frand & Hixon (1999). PKM integrates personal information management (PIM), focused on individual skills, with knowledge management (KM) in addition to input from a variety of disciplines such as cognitive psychology, management and philosophy (Pauleen 2009). From an organizational perspective, understanding of the field has developed in light of expanding knowledge about human cognitive capabilities and the permeability of organizational boundaries. From a metacognitive perspective, it compares various modalities within human cognition as to their competence and efficacy (Sheridan 2008). It is an underresearched area (Pauleen 2009). More recently, research has been conducted to help understand "the potential role of Web 2.0 technologies for harnessing and managing personal knowledge" (Razmerita, Kirchner & Sudzina 2009). The Great Resignation has expanded the category of knowledge workers and is predicted to increase demand for personal knowledge management in the future (Serenko 2023).


  • PDF: Open Access proceedings Journal of Physics - Abstract. The paper outlines the first steps on the path to identification and systematization of the types of purposeful activity tasks and to the ways to solve them. The authors have been developing a non-traditional interdisciplinary approach and apply it here to the concept of a task as such. This research area shows a good promise, since it enables the development of a framework for a holistic objective interdisciplinary picture of knowledge in any scientific field. The result of the work is the classification of object types and their characteristics, as well as the classification of the latter in the aspect of their relationship to objective reality. This result points out key directions to the systematization of objects, their related task types, and solution methods.


  • - tempered hardboard which is pre-drilled with evenly spaced holes. The holes are used to accept pegs or hooks to support various items, and perforated hardboards are therefore used for purposes such as tool boards in workshops. Peg-Board is an expired trademark used as a brand name by the Masonite Corporation, first used in 1962, which is often used as a generic term for perforated storage boards made of hardboard, wood, metal, or other material.

  • - a type of tool board for organizing a set of tools; the board defines where particular tools should be placed when they are not in use. Shadow boards have the outlines of a work station's tools marked on them, allowing operators to identify quickly which tools are in use or missing.

  • - The term knolling was first used in 1987 by Andrew Kromelow, a janitor at Frank Gehry's furniture fabrication shop. At the time, Gehry was designing chairs for Knoll, a company known for Florence Knoll's angular furniture. Kromelow would arrange any displaced tools at right angles on all surfaces, and called this routine knolling, in that the tools were arranged in right angles—similar to Knoll furniture. The result was an organized surface that allowed the user to see all objects at once.

  • - a thin, rigid board with a clip at the top for holding paper in place. A clipboard is typically used to support paper with one hand while writing on it with the other, especially when other writing surfaces are not available.

Documents and records

See Editors, Documents, Markdown, Media

  • - also spelled hupomnema, is a Greek word with several translations into English including a reminder, a note, a public record, a commentary, an anecdotal record, a draft, a copy, and other variations on those terms.

  • - books, articles and pictures) are classified and searched by subject – as well as by other attributes such as author, genre and document type. This makes "subject" a fundamental term in this field. Library and information specialists assign subject labels to documents to make them findable. There are many ways to do this and in general there is not always consensus about which subject should be assigned to a given document. To optimize subject indexing and searching, we need to have a deeper understanding of what a subject is. The question: "what is to be understood by the statement 'document A belongs to subject category X'?" has been debated in the field for more than 100 years (see below)
  • - subject term, subject heading, or descriptor, in information retrieval, is a term that captures the essence of the topic of a document. Index terms make up a controlled vocabulary for use in bibliographic records. They are an integral part of bibliographic control, which is the function by which libraries collect, organize and disseminate documents. They are used as keywords to retrieve documents in an information system, for instance, a catalog or a search engine. A popular form of keywords on the web are tags which are directly visible and can be assigned by non-experts. Index terms can consist of a word, phrase, or alphanumerical term. They are created by analyzing the document either manually with subject indexing or automatically with automatic indexing or more sophisticated methods of keyword extraction. Index terms can either come from a controlled vocabulary or be freely assigned.Keywords are stored in a search index. Common words like articles (a, an, the) and conjunctions (and, or, but) are not treated as keywords because it's inefficient. Almost every English-language site on the Internet has the article "the", and so it makes no sense to search for it. The most popular search engine, Google removed stop words such as "the" and "a" from its indexes for several years, but then re-introduced them, making certain types of precise search possible again.

  • - the writing of technical content, particularly relating to industrial and other applied sciences, with an emphasis on occupational contexts. The range of audiences for technical writing varies widely. In some cases, it is directed to people with specialized knowledge, such as experts or technicians. In other situations, technical writers help convey complex scientific or niche subjects to end users who need a basic understanding of a concept rather than a full explanation of a subject. Technical writing is the largest part of technical communication.
  • - drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in industry and engineering. To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, and page layout. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and relatively easy to understand. Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO 128.

  • - a form of technical documentation, the goal of which is to maintain computer networks. It contains information about how the network is build, how it should perform, and where to troubleshoot problems. The purpose of network documentation is to keep networks running as smoothly as possible while minimizing downtime when repairs are necessary.


See also Media


See Web systems#Document management

  • - any electronic media content (other than computer programs or system files) that is intended to be used in either an electronic form or as printed output. Originally, any computer data were considered as something internal — the final data output was always on paper. However, the development of computer networks has made it so that in most cases it is much more convenient to distribute electronic documents than printed ones. The improvements in electronic visual display technologies made it possible to view documents on a screen instead of printing them (thus saving paper and the space required to store the printed copies).

Image reference

to sort out



  • PureRef - a stand-alone program for Windows, Mac and Linux that keeps track of your images. Whether you're gathering inspiration, making mood boards or need reference images for your painting or 3D model, PureRef is there so you can focus on creating. No, there are currently no plans to make PureRef open source.
  • - A Python script to automatically generate organised PureRef .pur files from folders of images, and a module you can use to convert .pur files to/from any other file format.


  • - has only the most basic features necessary for it to be useful: moving and scaling images and the viewport and saving and loading "projects". It doesn't support a lot of image types (progressive jpegs for example), only PNGs, most JPEGs, and GIFs (it won't animate them).


  • - a quick clone of pureref. sref is a tool to display a collection of images all in the same graphical window, allowing to pan around, move

and scale images.

Drawing / whiteboard


  • Jarnal - an open-source application for notetaking, sketching, keeping a journal, making a presentation, annotating a document - including pdf - or collaborating using a stylus, mouse or keyboard. It is similar to Microsoft Windows Journal and to the earlier Mimeo whiteboarding and Palm notepad applications. There is also a commercial knockoff of Jarnal called PDF Annotator - for $50 you can enjoy a subset of the capabilities that Jarnal provides for free.


  • WBO - a free and open-source online collaborative whiteboard that allows many users to draw simultaneously on a large virtual board. The board is updated in real time for all connected users, and its state is always persisted. It can be used for many different purposes, including art, entertainment, design and teaching. To collaborate on a drawing in real time with someone, just send them its URL. [10]


  • - the free and open source version of Spacedeck, a web based, real time, collaborative whiteboard application with rich media support. Spacedeck was developed in 6 major releases during Autumn 2011 until the end of 2016 and was originally a commercial SaaS. The developers were Lukas F. Hartmann (mntmn) and Martin Güther (magegu).The online service was shut down on May 1st 2018. We decided to open-source Spacedeck to allow educational and other organizations who currently rely on Spacedeck to migrate to a self-hosted or local version.


  • - a cross platform open source whiteboard / blackboard application with unique features that makes it perfectly suited for classroom or for online lectures. It has a semi infinite canvas, unlimited drawings, unlimited undo and redo, colored pens of different width, screen capture, printout, PDF output and more (see below).


  • OpenBoard - an open source cross-platform teaching software for interactive whiteboard designed primarily for use in schools and universities. It can be used both with interactive whiteboards or in a dual-screen setup with a pen-tablet display and a beamer. Where is it from? OpenBoard was originally forked from Open-Sankoré 2.0, which was itself based on Uniboard. This fork was created to refocus the software on its original core functionalities and values, that is the work of a teacher in a classroom, privileging the ease of use. The evolution of this software will therefore take place in accordance with these core principles. Cross-platform; Supported platforms are Windows (7+), macOS (10.9+) and Linux (tested on 16.04).


  • - brings together Markdown and Whiteboard for all your writing, diagramming, sketching, and drawing needs in one place, making your creative process more efficient and effective. Say goodbye to the hassle of switching between different tools and hello to a more streamlined and collaborative workflow.


  • - an infinite canvas drawing/note-taking app that is focused on performance, small savefiles and simplicity. It's not based on bitmap images like Krita, Gimp or Photoshop; it rather saves brush strokes as a collection of points and renders them at runtime (kind of like SVG). It's primarily designed to be used as a digital notebook and as brainstorming tool. While it can totally be used to make small sketches and diagrams, it is not meant to replace traditional art programs that operate on bitmap images. It





  • Tableaunoir - an online collaborative blackboard tool with fridge magnets available in many languages. "Tableau noir" means blackboard in French. Contrary to plenty of other collaborative boards on the Internet, with Tableaunoir you can create interactive animations via the use of fridge magnets.




  • tldraw - a collaborative digital whiteboard available at Its editor, user interface, and other underlying libraries are open source and available in this repository. They are also distributed on npm. You can use tldraw to create a drop-in whiteboard for your product or as the foundation on which to build your own infinite canvas applications.



  • Gournal - note-taking application written for usage on Tablet-PCs (such as the Toshiba M200). It’s designed for usage with a stylus, not a mouse or keyboard. It does not have handwriting recognition but can be used in co-ordination with xstroke to accept text. Gournal is written in perl using gtk2-perl so you will need gtk2-perl along with the gladexml and gnomecanvas modules of gtk2-perl. The pages are saved as gzipped SVG files (not totally standard yet but working on it)


  • NoteLab - brings the power of digital note taking to Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, and Solaris. Using NoteLab is just like writing with a pen on real paper. However with NoteLab, the pen and paper are electronic, you never run out of ink, and you have all the paper you'll ever need. NoteLab is free software licensed under the GNU GPL. Like Linux and Firefox, NoteLab and its full source code are available at no cost for anyone to view, analyze, scrutinze, and improve. NoteLab saves your notes in the industry standard SVG (Scalable Vector Graphic) format. Thus any program that can understand this open, next-generation graphic format can be used to view NoteLab files. NoteLab can also print your notes or export them to a number of image types including PNG and JPEG. NoteLab allows the user to select en tire words, stretch them, move them, change their color, change their line width, delete them, and bring them back. Simply speaking, NoteLab understands a stroke as a complex shape. It doesn't just look at the page as a collection of ink on a page, but instead as a collection of words in a dynamic environment.


  • Sketchpad - online annotation, editing & design tool


  • Dotgrid - a distractionless vector tool with line styles, corner controls, colours, grid-based tools, PNG and SVG export.The application is free and Open Source, and also available live to be used with your browser, on your Raspberry Pi, or on your mobile device.


  • Ronin - a cross-over between Vim and Photoshop, meant to quickly render simple graphic tasks.Ronin is currently under development, it now includes basic digital painting functionalities.



  • Vignette - an interactive tool that facilitates texture creation in pen-and-ink illustrations in a natural and easy way. Unlike existing systems, Vignette preserves illustrators’ workflow and style: users draw a fraction of a texture and use gestures to automatically fill regions with the texture. Our exploration of natural work-flow and gesture-based interaction was inspired by traditional way of creating illustrations. Vignette makes the process of illustration more enjoyable and that first time users can create rich textures from scratch within minutes.

Recursive Drawing


  • - an infinite canvas drawing/note-taking app that is focused on performance, small savefiles and simplicity. It's not based on bitmap images like Krita, Gimp or Photoshop; it rather saves brush strokes as a collection of points and renders them at runtime . It's primarily designed to be used as a digital notebook and as brainstorming tool. While it can totally be used to make small sketches and diagrams, it is not meant to replace traditional art programs that operate on bitmap images. It is entirely written in the Godot Game Engine. For an overview on how to use Lorien have a look at the manual.


  • Rnote - an open-source vector-based drawing app for sketching, handwritten notes and to annotate documents and pictures. It is targeted at students, teachers and those who own a drawing tablet and provides features like Pdf and picture import and export, an infinite canvas and an adaptive UI for big and small screens. Written in Rust and GTK4.


  • Xournal - an application for notetaking, sketching, keeping a journal using a stylus. It is free software (GNU GPL) and runs on Linux (recent distributions) and other GTK+/Gnome platforms. It is similar to Microsoft Windows Journal or to other alternatives such as Jarnal, Gournal, and NoteLab.



Text editors

See Editors, Vim, IDE


See also Media#Notebooks

  • - sometimes written as notetaking or note taking, is the practice of recording information from different sources and platforms. By taking notes, the writer records the essence of the information, freeing their mind from having to recall everything. Notes are commonly drawn from a transient source, such as an oral discussion at a meeting, or a lecture (notes of a meeting are usually called minutes), in which case the notes may be the only record of the event. Since the advent of writing and literacy, notes traditionally were almost always handwritten (often in notebooks), but the introduction of notetaking software has made digital notetaking possible and widespread. Note-taking is a foundational skill in personal knowledge management.


  • FromScratch - auto saving scratchpad, a little app that you can use as a quick note taking or todo app. Small and simple, all the focus is on the text you type; Saves on-the-fly, no need to manually save; Automatic indenting; Note-folding; Use checkboxes to keep track of your TODOs; Replaces common syntax with symbols, such as arrows; Dark and Light theme; Portable mode supported; Free




  • Globenote - a 100% free and easy to use desktop note taking application. Packed with useful features that can run on any OS (Windows, Linux, Mac OS). You can use it to create sticky notes, to-do lists, personal journals, reminders and other notes all in one application. There are no limits to the number of sticky notes you can create. Notes can have different colors, assigned to different groups and searched using search tool.


  • MyNotex - a free software for GNU/Linux to take notes, to file documents and to manage activities. Notes are gathered under different subjects and are made by a title, a date, a tags (keywords) list and a free-length text. This may be formatted: it is possible to change the font name, size and color of a selected text and of its background, and also to set bold, italic, underline and strike-through; the text may have pictures within it. The software can manage paragraph alignment, bullets, numbered and alphabetic lists with automatic indentation. Each note may have any number of attachments (files of every kind), and has also a spreadsheet-like grid to manage a list of activities which is quite similar to the one used in many software of project management. The various activities of one or all the notes of a file may be shown in a diary view and possibly exported in iCal format. A single file of MyNotex contains various notes filed under different subjects.




  • nimblenote - Simple keyboard-driven note taking Search, create, edit and delete notes all without the mouse. "when it comes to simplicity one could make the case that no other note-taking app is as effective & as straightforward as nimblenote"



  • - Simplenote syncing note-taking application, inspired by Notational Velocity and ResophNotes, but uglier and cross-platformerer.



  • - Project-brainstorm is a multi-purpose note-taking application which excells at free writing, prototyping, serious microblogging, task lists and even cheat sheets. Undeveloped.



  • - a complete and rich note taking app for Android and Linux with sync capabilities Be aware that this is still a beta version, I recommend not using Google Drive for now (ownCloud/NextCloud works perfectly)


  • - No complicated setup steps needed, just tap the screen and type in what you came for and create notes, quick lists, checklist or backup for any idea. With your simple personal notebook you can remember anything fast! Shopping list for groceries, to-do list for your daily agenda and easier note-taking to make setting up meetings a walk in the park ★

Sticky desktop notes

Sticky Notes


  • KNotes - a program that lets you write the computer equivalent of sticky notes. The notes are saved automatically when you exit the program, and they display when you open the program.



See also #Todo lists, #Kanban

  • - Lists made with bullets are called bulleted lists. The HTML element name for a bulleted list is "unordered list", because the list items are not arranged in numerical order (as they would be in a numbered list). Lists made with bullets are called bulleted lists. The HTML element name for a bulleted list is "unordered list", because the list items are not arranged in numerical order (as they would be in a numbered list). Alternatives to bulleted lists are numbered lists and outlines (lettered lists, hierarchical lists). They are used where either the order is important or to label the items for later referencing.


  • boom - lets you access text snippets from the command line. You probably hate typing the same shit over and over again. You probably sit in front of your command line prompt every day. Let's smash those two concepts together in the face.



  • - also called an hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure. It is used to present the main points or topics of a given subject, often used as a rough draft or summary of the content of a document. Preparation of an outline is an intermediate step in the process of writing a scholarly research paper, literature review, thesis or dissertation. A special kind of outline (integrated outline) incorporates scholarly sources into the outline before the writing begins. Writers of fiction and creative nonfiction, such as Jon Franklin, may use outlines to establish plot sequence, character development and dramatic flow of a story, sometimes in conjunction with free writing.

  • Wikipedia's contents: Outlines - a summary of the world's knowledge, in the form of an outline. Each subject in turn links to an outline that summarizes that subject. Together, these outlines also form a multipage site map of Wikipedia.


  • - a computer program that allows text to be organized into discrete sections that are related in a tree structure or hierarchy. Text may be collapsed into a node, or expanded and edited. Outliners are typically used for computer programming, collecting or organizing ideas, as personal information management or for project management. Mind mappers and wikis are related types of software.

See also #Org-mode


  • Outspline - a free and open-source modular outliner whose functionality can be extended with addons. The most important addon is Organism, which adds advanced time management features and turns the application into a personal organizer, perfectly suited for working with todo lists, scheduling tasks and reminding events.


  • MindRaider - personal notebook and outliner. It aims to connect the tradition of outline editors with emerging technologies. MindRaider mission is to help you in organization of your knowledge and associated web, local and real world resources in a way that enables quick navigation, concise representation and inferencing.


  • Leo - a PIM, IDE and outliner that accelerates the work flow of programmers, authors and web designers. Outline nodes may appear in more than one place, allowing multiple organizations of data within a single outline.


  • KeepNote - a note taking application that works on Windows, Linux, and MacOS X. With KeepNote, you can store your class notes, TODO lists, research notes, journal entries, paper outlines, etc in a simple notebook hierarchy with rich-text formatting, images, and more. Using full-text search, you can retrieve any note for later reference.


  • TreeSheets - Free form data organizer. The ultimate replacement for spreadsheets, mind mappers, outliners, PIMs, text editors and small databases. Suitable for any kind of data organization, such as Todo lists, calendars, project management, brainstorming, organizing ideas, planning, requirements gathering, presentation of information, etc. It's like a spreadsheet, immediately familiar, but much more suitable for complex data because it's hierarchical. It's like a mind mapper, but more organized and compact. It's like an outliner, but in more than one dimension. It's like a text editor, but with structure.



  • Fargo - a simple idea outliner, notepad, todo list, project organizer. Fargo files are stored in Dropbox. We only need to access a single sub-folder folder. We do not need access to your entire Dropbox (we don't want the responsibility), or any of your existing files. You can easily disconnect if you don't want to continue using Fargo.


  • Pervane - a bare minimum plain text file based note taking and knowledge base building tool. It doubles as simple file server to render given directories files in web browser. It’s like python’s built-in SimpleHTTPServer but a little bit feature richer like WYSIWYG note taking experience, sidebar with infinite number of nesting, blazing fast text search, file moving, creating from the browser etc.


  • - an outliner for taking notes and managing to-do lists. You can keep notebooks stored in plain-text and have them synchronized with a directory on your mobile device, SD card, WebDAV server or Dropbox.





  • Checkvist - Minimalist keyboard driven online outliner and task manager for teams and individuals. Capture your ideas and notes, create checklists and plans, share with colleagues, and get everything done — together.

Outliner of Giants

  • Outliner of Giants - a feature rich outline processor designed to support the creation and management of large corpuses of information, such as those generated by students, researchers, writers and project managers.



  • RedNotebook - lets you format, tag and search your entries. You can also add pictures, links and customizable templates, spell check your notes, and export to plain text, HTML or LaTeX. RedNotebook is Free Software under the GPL.


  • jrnl - a simple journal application for your command line. Journals are stored as human readable plain text files - you can put them into a Dropbox folder for instant syncing and you can be assured that your journal will still be readable in 2050, when all your fancy iPad journal applications will long be forgotten. journal

Markdown Journal


  • - a note taking application that allows you to quickly and easily organize and find your notes. This version is written using Electron, Angular and Typescript.


Commonplace book

  • - or commonplaces are a way to compile knowledge, usually by writing information into books. They have been kept from antiquity, and were kept particularly during the Renaissance and in the nineteenth century. Such books are essentially scrapbooks filled with items of every kind: recipes, quotes, letters, poems, tables of weights and measures, proverbs, prayers, legal formulas. Commonplaces are used by readers, writers, students, and scholars as an aid for remembering useful concepts or facts. Each one is unique to its creator's particular interests but they almost always include passages found in other texts, sometimes accompanied by the compiler's responses. They became significant in Early Modern Europe.

Lab notebook

  • - or lab book is a primary record of research. Researchers use a lab notebook to document their hypotheses, experiments and initial analysis or interpretation of these experiments. The notebook serves as an organizational tool, a memory aid, and can also have a role in protecting any intellectual property that comes from the research

  • How to Start–and Keep–a Laboratory Notebook: Policy and Practical Guidelines - A laboratory notebook is an important tool that goes well beyond research management and can have important implications for issues ranging from intellectual property management to the prevention of fraud. This chapter discusses the key elements of a laboratory notebook, types of notebooks, what should be included in the notebook, ownership issues, archiving, and security. The chapter provides sample notebook pages that illustrate some of the recommended practices.

  • - also known as electronic laboratory notebook, or ELN, is a computer program designed to replace paper laboratory notebooks. Lab notebooks in general are used by scientists, engineers, and technicians to document research, experiments, and procedures performed in a laboratory. A lab notebook is often maintained to be a legal document and may be used in a court of law as evidence. Similar to an inventor's notebook, the lab notebook is also often referred to in patent prosecution and intellectual property litigation. Electronic lab notebooks offer many benefits to the user as well as organizations; they are easier to search upon, simplify data copying and backups, and support collaboration amongst many users. ELNs can have fine-grained access controls, and can be more secure than their paper counterparts. They also allow the direct incorporation of data from instruments, replacing the practice of printing out data to be stapled into a paper notebook.

See also Development#Notebooks

Bullet Journal

  • - sometimes known as a BuJo, is a method of personal organization developed by designer Ryder Carroll. The system organizes scheduling, reminders, to-do lists, brainstorming, and other organizational tasks into a single notebook. The name "bullet journal" comes from the use of abbreviated bullet points to log information, but it also partially comes from the use of dot journals, which are gridded using dots rather than lines. First shared with the public in 2013, it has become a popular organization method, garnering significant attention on Kickstarter, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, and Pinterest.

Zettel Notes

  • Zettel Notes Documentation - Notes are stored as separate markdown files (no vendor lock-in like other apps). App starts with tutorial file explaining zettelkasten method. After installing, add folder / repository containing your existing notes from the Repositories option in menu.



  • GitJournal - a note taking app focused on privacy and data portability. It stores all its notes in a standardized Markdown + YAML header format (optional). The notes are stored in a Git Repo of your choice - GitHub / Gitlab / Custom-provider. This means you can easily self host or host your notes in one of the many Git providers.


See also Data#Annotation


  • - the act of describing or classifying a document by index terms or other symbols in order to indicate what the document is about, to summarize its content or to increase its findability. In other words, it is about identifying and describing the subject of documents. Indexes are constructed, separately, on three distinct levels: terms in a document such as a book; objects in a collection such as a library; and documents (such as books and articles) within a field of knowledge.Subject indexing is used in information retrieval especially to create bibliographic indexes to retrieve documents on a particular subject. Examples of academic indexing services are Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstracts and PubMed. The index terms were mostly assigned by experts but author keywords are also common.The process of indexing begins with any analysis of the subject of the document. The indexer must then identify terms which appropriately identify the subject either by extracting words directly from the document or assigning words from a controlled vocabulary. The terms in the index are then presented in a systematic order.Indexers must decide how many terms to include and how specific the terms should be. Together this gives a depth of indexing.

  • - the computerized process of scanning large volumes of documents against a controlled vocabulary, taxonomy, thesaurus or ontology and using those controlled terms to quickly and effectively index large electronic document depositories. These keywords or language are applied by training a system on the rules that determine what words to match. There are additional parts to this such as syntax, usage, proximity, and other algorithms based on the system and what is required for indexing. This is taken into account using Boolean statements to gather and capture the indexing information out of the text. As the number of documents exponentially increases with the proliferation of the Internet, automatic indexing will become essential to maintaining the ability to find relevant information in a sea of irrelevant information. Natural language systems are used to train a system based on seven different methods to help with this sea of irrelevant information. These methods are Morphological, Lexical, Syntactic, Numerical, Phraseological, Semantic, and Pragmatic. Each of these look and different parts of speed and terms to build a domain for the specific information that is being covered for indexing. This is used in the automated process of indexing.

  • - or internet indexing, comprises methods for indexing the contents of a website or of the Internet as a whole. Individual websites or intranets may use a back-of-the-book index, while search engines usually use keywords and metadata to provide a more useful vocabulary for Internet or onsite searching. With the increase in the number of periodicals that have articles online, web indexing is also becoming important for periodical websites.

  • - the collecting, parsing, and storing of data to facilitate fast and accurate information retrieval. Index design incorporates interdisciplinary concepts from linguistics, cognitive psychology, mathematics, informatics, and computer science. An alternate name for the process, in the context of search engines designed to find web pages on the Internet, is web indexing.

Index carding

  • - (or system card in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing small amounts of discrete data. A collection of such cards either serves as, or aids the creation of, an index for expedited lookup of information (such as a library catalog or a back-of-the-book index). This system was invented by Carl Linnaeus, around 1760.

The most common size for index cards in North America and UK is 3 by 5 inches (76.2 by 127.0 mm), hence the common name 3-by-5 card. Other sizes widely available include 4 by 6 inches (101.6 by 152.4 mm), 5 by 8 inches (127.0 by 203.2 mm) and ISO-size A7 (74 by 105 mm or 2.9 by 4.1 in). Cards are available in blank, ruled and grid styles in a variety of colors. Special divider cards with protruding tabs and a variety of cases and trays to hold the cards are also sold by stationers and office product companies. They are part of standard stationery...ed by indexing software in the 1980s and 1990s. An often suggested organization method for bibliographical use is to use the smaller 3-inch by 5-inch cards to record the title and citation information of works cited, while using larger cards for recording quotes or other data. Index cards are used for many events and are helpful for planning.

Until the digitization of library catalogs, which began in the 1980s, the primary tool used to locate books was the card catalog, in which every book was described on three cards, filed alphabetically under its title, author, and subject (if non-fiction). Similar catalogs were used by law firms and other entities to organize large quantities of stored documents. However, the adoption of standard cataloging protocols throughout nations with international agreements, along with the rise of the Internet and the conversion of cataloging systems to digital storage and retrieval, has made obsolescent the widespread use of index cards for cataloging.


  • - German for "slip box", plural Zettelkästen, or card file consists of small items of information stored on paper slips or cards that may be linked to each other through subject headings or other metadata such as numbers and tags. It has often been used as a system of note-taking and personal knowledge management for research, study, and writing. In the 1980s, the card file began to be used as metaphor in the interface of some hypertextual personal knowledge base software applications such as NoteCards. In the 1990s, such software inspired the invention of wikis.


  • - was an institution which aimed to gather together all the world's knowledge and classify it according to a system called the Universal Decimal Classification. It was developed at the turn of the 20th century by Belgian lawyers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine. The Mundaneum has been identified as a milestone in the history of data collection and management, and (somewhat more tenuously) as a precursor to the Internet. In the 21st century, the Mundaneum is a non-profit organisation based in Mons, Belgium, that runs an exhibition space, website and archive, which celebrate the legacy of the original Mundaneum.

Edge-notched card

  • - or edge-punched cards are an obsolete technology used to store a small amount of binary or logical data on paper index cards, encoded via the presence or absence of notches in the edges of the cards. The notches allowed efficient sorting and selecting of specific cards matching multiple desired criteria, from a larger number of cards in a paper-based database of information. In the mid-20th century they were also known by commercial names such as Cope-Chat cards, E-Z Sort cards, and McBee Keysort cards.
  • The Technium: One Dead Media - Edge-notched cards were invented in 1896. These are index cards with holes on their edges, which can be selectively slotted to indicate traits or categories, or in our language today, to act as a field. Before the advent of computers were one of the few ways you could sort large databases for more than one term at once. In computer science terms, you could do a “logical OR” operation. This ability of the system to sort and link prompted Douglas Engelbart in 1962 to suggest these cards could impliement part of the Memex vision of hypertext.

Hipster PDA

  • - a paper-based personal organizer, popularized by Merlin Mann in 2004. Originally a tongue-in-cheek reaction to the increasing expense and complexity of personal digital assistants (PDA), the Hipster PDA (said to stand for "Parietal Disgorgement Aid" and often abbreviated to "hPDA") comprises a sheaf of index cards held together with a binder clip. Following widespread coverage in the media and blogs, the hPDA became a popular personal management tool, particularly with followers of David Allen's Getting Things Done methodology.



  • - a software that collects and relates your notes (“zettel”, to represent and enhance your knowledge. It helps with many tasks of personal knowledge management by explicitly supporting the Zettelkasten method. The method is based on creating many individual notes, each with one idea or information, that are related to each other. Since knowledge is typically build up gradually, one major focus is a long-term store of these notes, hence the name “Zettelstore”.

Personal organisers

  • - datebook, date log, daybook, day planner, personal analog assistant, book planner, year planner, or agenda (from Latin agenda – things to do), is a small book or binder that is designed to be portable. It usually contains a diary, calendar, address book, blank paper, and other sections. The organizer is a personal tool and may also include pages with useful information, such as maps and telephone codes. It is related to the separate desktop stationery items that have one or more of the same functions, such as appointment calendars, rolodexes, notebooks, and almanacs. They were sometimes referred to as a filofax, after the UK-based company Filofax that produces a popular range of personal organiser wallets. By the end of the 20th century, paper-and-binder personal organizers started to be replaced by electronic devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal information manager software, and online organizers. This process has accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century with the advent of smartphones, tablet computers, smartwatches and a variety of mobile apps which enhance the potential for personal organisation and productivity

Personal information managers

See also Wiki, Documents, Markdown, Security#Passwords

  • - Sick of hearing there's another totally awesome note taking app that you've got to check out? Tired of browsing multiple sources to keep up with the latest features in your note taking app of choice? was built to improve transparency in the blossoming note taking space. With the unprecedented pace of innovation and cross-pollination happening in the note taking space, there has never been a better time to explore new note apps. Learn more about why NoteApps. Our site is driven by the passion of the note taking community. Our dataset is constantly growing and improving. The more engaged our community, the more useful this site becomes.


See also Emacs

  • Summary (The Org Manual) - Org Mode is an authoring tool and a TODO lists manager for GNU Emacs. It relies on a lightweight plain-text markup language used in files with the ‘.org’ extension. As an authoring tool, Org helps you write structured documents and provides exporting facilities. Org files can also be used for literate programming and reproducible research. As a TODO lists manager, Org helps you organize your tasks in a flexible way, from daily needs to detailed project-planning, allowing logging, multiple views on your tasks, exporting your agendas, etc. Org mode is implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created with a built-in table editor. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails, Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects. Org develops organizational tasks around notes files that contain lists or information about projects as plain text. Project planning and task management make use of metadata which is part of an outline node. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and create dynamic agenda views that also integrate the Emacs calendar and diary. Org can be used to implement many different project planning schemes, such as David Allen’s GTD system. Org files can serve as a single source authoring system with export to many different formats such as HTML, LaTeX, Open Document, and Markdown. New export backends can be derived from existing ones, or defined from scratch. Org files can include source code blocks, which makes Org uniquely suited for authoring technical documents with code examples. Org source code blocks are fully functional; they can be evaluated in place and their results can be captured in the file. This makes it possible to create a single file reproducible research compendium.

  • Worg - the Org-Mode Community!

  • - a Roam replica built on top of the all-powerful Org-mode. Org-roam is a solution for effortless non-hierarchical note-taking with Org-mode. With Org-roam, notes flow naturally, making note-taking fun and easy. Org-roam should also work as a plug-and-play solution for anyone already using Org-mode for their personal wiki. Org-roam aims to implement the core features of Roam, leveraging the mature ecosystem around Org-mode where possible. Eventually, we hope to further introduce features enabled by the Emacs ecosystem. [26]

  • Babel - Org's ability to execute source code within Org documents. If you are not familiar with Org please take a moment to read the Org homepage before continuing. Babel started life as Org-babel, an extension to Org. It was integrated into the Org core at version 7.0. The author of Babel is Eric Schulte. The secondary author is Dan Davison.

Hamster system

  • - Boost productivity and reduce stress by organizing your documents, workflow and personal budget with an ultra-simple system loosely inspired in GTD, Todo.txt, OBTF (One Big Text File), Bullet journal (notes on paper), spreadsheets, index cards, inbox zero and desktop zero.


Kontact Suite

  • Kontact Suite - The Powerful PIM Solution. Handle your email, calendar, contacts and other personal data with Kontact. Kontact groups everything together in one place and helps you manage your communications, organize your day and work with your colleagues. Become more productive with Kontact.

Standard Notes









  • Logseq - a knowledge management and collaboration platform. It focuses on privacy, longevity, and user control. Logseq offers a range of powerful tools for knowledge management, collaboration, PDF annotation, and task management with support for multiple file formats, including Markdown and Org-mode, and various features for organizing and structuring your notes. Logseq's Whiteboard feature lets you organize your knowledge and ideas using a spatial canvas with shapes, drawings, website embeds, and connectors. You can visually group and link your notes and external media (such as videos and images), enabling visual thinkers to compose, remix, annotate, and connect content from their knowledge base and emerging thoughts in a new way. In addition to its core features, Logseq has a growing ecosystem of plugins and themes that enable a wide range of workflows and customization options. Mobile apps are also available, providing access to most of the features of the desktop application. Whether you're a student, a professional, or anyone who values a clear and organized approach to managing your ideas and notes, Logseq is an excellent choice for anyone looking to improve their productivity and streamline their workflow.



  • AFFiNE - All In One KnowledgeOS, a next-gen knowledge base that brings planning, sorting and creating all together.Privacy first, open-source, customizable and ready to use - a free replacement for Notion & Miro.


  • Joplin - a free, open source note taking and to-do application, which can handle a large number of notes organised into notebooks. The notes are searchable, can be copied, tagged and modified either from the applications directly or from your own text editor. The notes are in Markdown format. Notes exported from Evernote via .enex files can be imported into Joplin, including the formatted content (which is converted to Markdown), resources (images, attachments, etc.) and complete metadata (geolocation, updated time, created time, etc.). Plain Markdown files can also be imported.The notes can be synchronised with various cloud services including Nextcloud, Dropbox, OneDrive, WebDAV or the file system (for example with a network directory). When synchronising the notes, notebooks, tags and other metadata are saved to plain text files which can be easily inspected, backed up and moved around.The application is available for Windows, Linux, macOS, Android and iOS (the terminal app also works on FreeBSD). A Web Clipper, to save web pages and screenshots from your browser, is also available for Firefox and Chrome. [28]


  • Tomboy is a desktop note-taking application for Linux, Unix, Windows, and Mac OS X. Simple and easy to use, but with potential to help you organize the ideas and information you deal with every day.



  • tiddlyroam - open source external brain, allows you to quickly create your own wiki. You can add fragments of thoughts and findings whenever they come to you. TiddlyRoam will link them and help you spot the patterns.The project aims to provide a free and open source alternative to the popular Roam.


"LDAP and SAML are included in the enterprise edition and will not be included in the open source codebase"


  • MindForger - Thinking Notebook and Markdown Editor, provides IDE-style features for notes - they can be easily cloned, promoted, demoted, moved, extracted, refactored within one or across different Markdown files. MindForger connects conventional outline editor features with emerging technologies to make you more productive.



  • Notesnook - a free (as in speech) & open-source note-taking app focused on user privacy & ease of use. To ensure zero knowledge principles, Notesnook encrypts everything on your device using XChaCha20-Poly1305 & Argon2.Notesnook is our proof that privacy does not (always) have to come at the cost of convenience. We aim to provide users peace of mind & 100% confidence that their notes are safe and secure. The decision to go fully open source is one of the most crucial steps towards that.This repository contains all the code required to build & use the Notesnook web, desktop & mobile clients.


  • SilverBullet - an extensible, open source personal knowledge platform. At its core it’s a clean markdown-based writing/note taking application that stores your pages (notes) as plain markdown files in a folder referred to as a space. Pages can be cross-linked using the link to other page syntax. This makes it a simple tool for Personal Knowledge Management. However, once you leverage its various extensions (called plugs) it can feel more like a knowledge platform, allowing you to annotate, combine and query your accumulated knowledge in creative ways specific to you.


  • AFFiNE - a next-gen knowledge base that brings planning, sorting and creating all together. Privacy first, open-source, customizable and ready to use.] - One hyper-fused platform for wildly creative minds. A privacy-focussed, local-first, open-source, and ready-to-use alternative for Notion & Miro.




  • Neuron Zettelkasten - Neuron is a future-proof open-source app for managing your plain-text notes in Zettelkasten style, as well as for publishing them as a static site on the web. Neuron is now in maintenance-mode. It will continue to receive bug fixes, but all new feature work now happens on the successor project, called Emanote. Emanote improves neuron in various ways. Its development is nearly done, and you may start using it today on your neuron notebook. Your notes should work for most part; see migration notes here on where differences lie.


  • Foam - personal knowledge management and sharing system inspired by Roam Research, built on Visual Studio Code and GitHub. You can use Foam for organising your research, keeping re-discoverable notes, writing long-form content and, optionally, publishing it to the web. Foam is free, open source, and extremely extensible to suit your personal workflow. You own the information you create with Foam, and you’re free to share it, and collaborate on it with anyone you want.

Agora / Anagora

  • - This Agora is a Knowledge Commons. If you don't know what the above means (yet), don't fret: it just means it is a space that a community can build by pooling together resources, information, intentions. The Agora tries to integrate user contributions into a useful social (higher level) construct while preserving individual voices. When you visit an Agora location, you visit a node in a shared graph -- which depending on usage can mean a topic, a pattern, or just an arbitrarily named location. There you will find all resources that the Agora thinks have a claim to be in that node, either directly by name or indirectly by association. By default all relevant resources will be shown one after the other, but more sophisticated interactions are possible.
  • In Flancia there is an Agora - You can think of the Agora as a convention based social network; an optional, user-controlled annotation layer that can be applied over any internet platform which supports user-generated content. I think one of the best possible uses for such a network would be to use it to pro-socially maintain a distributed knowledge graph tailored specifically to the goal of solving problems: those of its users and society at large.


  • Emanote - enables you to create beautiful websites – such as personal webpage, blog, wiki, Zettelkasten, notebook, knowledge-base, documentation, etc. from future-proof plain-text notes and arbitrary data – with live preview that updates in real-time. It aims to be next-gen neuron with powerful features.
    • - eminates a structured view of your plain-text notes. Create beautiful websites -- such as personal webpage, blog, wiki, Zettelkasten, notebook, knowledge-base, documentation, etc. from future-proof plain-text notes and arbitrary data -- with live preview that updates in real-time.




  • Dendron - an open-source, local-first, markdown-based, note-taking tool built on top of VSCode. Like most such tools, Dendron supports all the usual features you would expect like tagging, backlinks, a graph view, split panes, and so forth. But it doesn’t stop there - whereas most tools (try to make it) easy to get notes in, they tend to make it hard to get them back out later, and it only gets worse as you add more notes. Dendron helps you get notes back out and works better the more notes you have. [30] - no longer actively developed since 2022


  • Contextualise - an effective tool particularly suited for organising information-heavy projects and activities consisting of unstructured and widely diverse data and information resources — think of investigative journalism, personal and professional research projects, world building (for books, movies or computer games, and many kinds of hobbies. Contextualise's main dependency is TopicDB, an open source topic maps-based graph store. Topic maps provide a way to describe complex relationships between abstract concepts and real-world (information) resources.


  • - Dive into a more interactive learning experience with Knowledge's new Chat feature! Engage in dynamic conversations with your Projects and Sources, leveraging the power of Large Language Models. Ask questions, explore concepts, and deepen your understanding, all within an intuitive chat interface.

The Chat feature is designed to transform the way you interact with your data, offering a more engaging and exploratory approach to learning. Whether you're looking to better comprehend a complex topic or simply exploring new ideas, the Chat feature is your personal knowledge companion.


  • Seafile - an open source cloud storage system with features on privacy protection and teamwork. Collections of files are called libraries, and each library can be synced separately. A library can also be encrypted with a user chosen password. Seafile also allows users to create groups and easily sharing files into groups.



Software clients


  • Simplenote - All your notes, synced on all your devices. Get Simplenote now for iOS, Android, Mac, Windows, Linux, or in your browser. - $


  • Notion – The all-in-one workspace for your notes, tasks, wikis, and databases - $

  • - Takes a export .zip and enhances it by: Removing all Notion IDs from the end of folders and files Adds Unicode Emoji to start of folder/file names if it was in your Notion notes Retruncates note titles to 200 characters instead of 50 Applies Notion's modification time to the file data itself Moves root md files into the folder with their name, giving them a name like ! instead so they sort to the top.


  • Roam – A note taking tool for networked thought. - [33] - $



  • Juggl - the next generation of PKM-focused graph views! It is completely customizable and extendable, with many advanced features out of the
    • - An interactive, stylable and expandable graph view for Obsidian. Juggl is designed as an advanced 'local' graph view, where you can juggle all your thoughts with ease.

Memex Garden


  • Memex - Organise, annotate and discuss the web. By yourself, with your peers & enhanced by AI


  • Coda - For knowledge management, team wikis. If your information lives everywhere, your team can’t get anywhere. Coda is the all-in-one doc that structures your company’s knowledge and gives your team the wiki it needs to work smarter. $

Bookmarks / social bookmarking

  • - In the context of the World Wide Web, a bookmark is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that is stored for later retrieval in any of various storage formats. All modern web browsers include bookmark features. Bookmarks are called favorites or Internet shortcuts in Internet Explorer and Microsoft Edge, and by virtue of that browser's large market share, these terms have been synonymous with bookmark since the First Browser War. Bookmarks are normally accessed through a menu in the user's web browser, and folders are commonly used for organization. In addition to bookmarking methods within most browsers, many external applications offer bookmarks management.
  • - any software program or feature designed to store, organize, and display web bookmarks. The bookmarks feature included in each major web browser is a rudimentary bookmark manager. More capable bookmark managers are available online as web apps, mobile apps, or browser extensions, and may display bookmarks as text links or graphical tiles (often depicting icons). Social bookmarking websites are bookmark managers. Start page browser extensions, new tab page browser extensions, and some browser start pages, also have bookmark presentation and organization features, which are typically tile-based. Some more general programs, such as certain note taking apps, have bookmark management functionality built-in.

  • - an online service which allows users to add, annotate, edit, and share bookmarks of web documents. Many online bookmark management services have launched since 1996; Delicious, founded in 2003, popularized the terms "social bookmarking" and "tagging". Tagging is a significant feature of social bookmarking systems, allowing users to organize their bookmarks and develop shared vocabularies known as folksonomies.

  • - a centralized online service that allows users to store and share Internet bookmarks. Such a website typically offers a blend of social and organizational tools, such as annotation, categorization, folksonomy-based tagging, social cataloging and commenting. The website may also interface with other kinds of services, such as citation management software and social networking sites.

  • - Enterprise bookmarking is a method of tagging and linking any information using an expanded set of tags to capture knowledge about data. It collects and indexes these tags in a web-infrastructure knowledge base server residing behind the firewall. Users can share knowledge tags with specified people or groups, shared only inside specific networks, typically within an organization. Enterprise bookmarking is a knowledge management discipline that embraces Enterprise 2.0 methodologies to capture specific knowledge and information that organizations consider proprietary and are not shared on the public Internet.


  • - previously known as Read It Later, is a social bookmarking service for storing, sharing and discovering web bookmarks. Released in 2007, the service was originally only for desktop and laptop computers and is now available for macOS, Windows, iOS, Android, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, Kobo eReaders, and web browsers.

  • Omnivore - the free, open source, read-it-later app for serious readers. Distraction free. Privacy focused. Open source. Designed for knowledge workers and lifelong learners. Save articles, newsletters, and documents and read them later — focused and distraction free. Add notes and highlights. Organize your reading list the way you want and sync it across all your devices.


  • Shaarli - The personal, minimalist, super-fast, database free, bookmarking service. Do you want to share the links you discover? Shaarli is a minimalist link sharing service that you can install on your own server. It is designed to be personal (single-user), fast and handy.
  • - open source suite of software applications for social bookmarking and collecting online news content for use on the web. Multiple web front-ends exist based on Django (through Google AppEngine), Rails, and J2EE. Users and remote agents are allowed to submit interesting articles. There are additional remote agent libraries for back-end text mining operations. The system is broken up by the back-end specification and front-end specification.

    • - a powerful bookmark manager and a personal textual mini-web. For those who prefer the GUI, bukuserver exposes a browsable front-end on a local web host server. [35]
  • - a simple bookmark service that you can host yourself. It supports managing bookmarks, categorizing them with tags and has a search function. It provides a bookmarklet for quickly adding new bookmarks while browsing the web. It also supports import / export of bookmarks in the Netscape HTML format. [36]
  • - a simple and open-source self-hosted bookmark service. It is lightweight, uses minimal dependencies, and is easy to install via Docker. Due to the low system requirements, this application is ideal for deployment on the RaspberryPI.


See also Learning#Citation management

  • - a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally, the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not).

  • - is providing detailed reference in a scientific publication, typically a paper or book, to previous published (or occasionally private) communications which have a bearing on the subject of the new publication. The purpose of citations in original work is to allow readers of the paper to refer to cited work to assist them in judging the new work, source background information vital for future development, and acknowledge the contributions of earlier workers. Citations in, say, a review paper bring together many sources, often recent, in one place. To a considerable extent the quality of work, in the absence of other criteria, is judged on the number of citations received, adjusting for the volume of work in the relevant topic. While this is not necessarily a reliable measure, counting citations is trivially easy; judging the merit of complex work can be very difficult. Previous work may be cited regarding experimental procedures, apparatus, goals, previous theoretical results upon which the new work builds, theses, and so on. Typically such citations establish the general framework of influences and the mindset of research, and especially as "part of what science" it is, and to help determine who conducts the peer review.

  • - a citation style that uses numbers within the text that refer to numbered entries in the reference list. It is popular in the physical sciences and is one of two referencing systems normally used in medicine, the other being the author–date, or "Harvard", system. Vancouver style is used by MEDLINE and PubMed.

  • - a citation system in which in-text citations are made using parentheses. They are usually accompanied by a full, alphabetized list of citations in an end section, usually titled "references", "reference list", "works cited", or "end-text citations". Parenthetical referencing can be used in lieu of footnote citations (the Vancouver system). Parenthetical referencing normally uses one of these two citation styles:Author–date (also known as Harvard referencing): primarily used in the natural sciences and social sciences, and recommended by the American Chemical Society and the American Psychological Association (APA) (see APA style); Author–title or author–page: primarily used in the arts and the humanities, and recommended by the Modern Language Association (MLA) (see MLA Handbook).

  • - a string of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document or at the end of a chapter, volume, or the whole text. The note can provide an author's comments on the main text or citations of a reference work in support of the text.

Footnotes are notes at the foot of the page while endnotes are collected under a separate heading at the end of a chapter, volume, or entire work. Unlike footnotes, endnotes have the advantage of not affecting the layout of the main text, but may cause inconvenience to readers who have to move back and forth between the main text and the endnotes.

  • - citation management software, or bibliographic management software is software that stores a database of bibliographic records and produces bibliographic citations (references) for those records, needed in scholarly research. Once a record has been stored, it can be used time and again in generating bibliographies, such as lists of references in scholarly books and articles. Modern reference management applications can usually be integrated with word processors so that a reference list in one of the many different bibliographic formats required by publishers and scholarly journals is produced automatically as an article is written, reducing the risk that a cited source is not included in the reference list. They will also have a facility for importing bibliographic records from bibliographic databases. Reference management software does not do the same job as a bibliographic database that tries to store records of all publications published within a given scope such as a particular academic discipline or group of disciplines. Such bibliographic databases are large and have to be housed on major server installations. Reference management software collects a much smaller database, of the publications that have been used or are likely to be used by a particular researcher or group of researchers, and such a database can easily be stored on an individual's personal computer. Many reference management applications enable users to search bibliographic records in online bibliographic databases and library catalogs. An early communications protocol used to access library catalogs, and still in service at many libraries, is Z39.50, which predated the invention of the World Wide Web. Although Z39.50 is still in use, today most bibliographic databases are available as web sites that allow exporting selected bibliographic records in various bibliographic data formats that are imported by reference management software.


  • - as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Ancient Greek: -λογία, romanized: -logía). English author and bibliographer John Carter describes bibliography as a word having two senses: one, a list of books for further study or of works consulted by an author (or enumerative bibliography); the other one, applicable for collectors, is "the study of books as physical objects" and "the systematic description of books as objects" (or descriptive bibliography).

  • - an entry in a bibliographic index (or a library catalog) which represents and describes a specific resource. A bibliographic record contains the data elements necessary to help users identify and retrieve that resource, as well as additional supporting information, presented in a formalized bibliographic format. Additional information may support particular database functions such as search, or browse (e.g., by keywords), or may provide fuller presentation of the content item (e.g., the article's abstract). Bibliographic records are usually retrievable from bibliographic indexes (e.g., contemporary bibliographic databases) by author, title, index term, or keyword. Bibliographic records can also be referred to as surrogate records or metadata. Bibliographic records can represent a wide variety of published contents, including traditional paper, digitized, or born-digital publications. The process of creation, exchange, and preservation of bibliographic records are parts of a larger process, called bibliographic control.

  • - a bibliography intended to help find a publication. Citations are usually listed by author and subject in separate sections, or in a single alphabetical sequence under a system of authorized headings collectively known as controlled vocabulary, developed over time by the indexing service. Indexes of this kind are issued in print periodical form (issued in monthly or quarterly paperback supplements, cumulated annually), online, or both. Since the 1970s they are typically generated as output from bibliographic databases (whereas earlier they were manually compiled using index cards). "From many points of view an index is synonymous with a catalogue, the principles of analysis used being identical, but whereas an index entry merely locates a subject, a catalogue entry includes descriptive specification of a document concerned with the subject".

  • - a database of bibliographic records. This is an organised online collection of references to published written works like journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents and books. In contrast to library catalogue entries, a majority of the records in bibliographic databases describe articles and conference papers rather than complete monographs, and they generally contain very rich subject descriptions in the form of keywords, subject classification terms, or abstracts. A bibliographic database may cover a wide range of topics or one academic field like computer science. A significant number of bibliographic databases are marketed under a trade name by licensing agreement from vendors, or directly from their makers: the indexing and abstracting services. Many bibliographic databases have evolved into digital libraries, providing the full text of the organised contents:for instance CORE also organises and mirrors scholarly articles and Our Research develops a search engine for open access content in Unpaywall. Others merge with non-bibliographic and scholarly databases to create more complete disciplinary search engine systems, such as Chemical Abstracts or Entrez.

  • - the use of statistical methods to analyse books, articles and other publications, especially in scientific contents. Bibliometric methods are frequently used in the field of library and information science. Bibliometrics is closely associated with scientometrics, the analysis of scientific metrics and indicators, to the point that both fields largely overlap.

  • - DOI, is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify various objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). DOIs are an implementation of the Handle System; they also fit within the URI system (Uniform Resource Identifier). They are widely used to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports, data sets, and official publications. DOIs have also been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

A DOI aims to resolve to its target, the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL where the object is located. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from ISBNs or ISRCs which are identifiers only. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata.

LexML Brazil and Italy (Civil law countries, alrea dy officially recognize the URN LEX standard draft v0.9, as a namespace for sources of law.

  • - ISBN, is a numeric commercial book identifier that is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase or receive ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007.[c] The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.

The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the 9-digit SBN code can be converted to a 10-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN Agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers musical scores.

  • - ISSN, is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSNs are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.

  • - a bibliography that gives a summary of each of the entries. The purpose of annotations is to provide the reader with a summary and an evaluation of each source. Each summary should be a concise exposition of the source's central idea(s) and give the reader a general idea of the source's content.

  • - or biblio-bibliography) is a bibliography of bibliographies. Bibliographies serve the finding of relevant documents. Metabibliographies serve the finding of the relevant bibliographies in which the relevant documents may be found. One might quote Patrick Wilson: "For if knowledge is power, power over knowledge is power to increase one's power; and if the stock of writings is thought of mainly as it represents a stock of knowledge, it is natural to propose treating it as a "resource" to be subjected to rational control, management and utilization.". Metabibliographies are valuable for building reference collections, but usually of less interest to the average user, who rely on bibliographies selected by others.

  • - a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. A form of citation index is first found in 12th-century Hebrew religious literature.

  • - a style guide that provides the modern method of legal citation in the United Kingdom; the style itself is also referred to as OSCOLA. First developed by Peter Birks of the University of Oxford Faculty of Law, and now in its 4th edition, it has been adopted by most law schools and many legal publishers in the United Kingdom. An online supplement (developed for the third edition) is available for the citation of international legal cases, not covered in the main guide.

  • EndNote - reference management tool - $
    • - a commercial reference management software package, used to manage bibliographies and references when writing essays, reports and articles. EndNote was written by Richard Niles, and ownership changed hands several times since it was launched in 1989 by Niles & Associates: in 2000 it was acquired by Institute for Scientific Information’s ResearchSoft Division, part of Thomson Corporation, and in 2016 by Clarivate (then named Clarivate Analytics).

  • - a web-based commercial reference management software package. It is produced by Ex Libris, a ProQuest company. RefWorks LLC was founded in 2001 as a partnership between Earl B. Beutler (development and customer service) and Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (sales and marketing) from 2002 until being acquired by ProQuest in 2008.

  • PubMed - comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

  • - the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in documents. It uses the directed graph of citations — links from one document to another document — to reveal properties of the documents. A typical aim would be to identify the most important documents in a collection. A classic example is that of the citations between academic articles and books. For another example, judges of law support their judgements by referring back to judgements made in earlier cases (see citation analysis in a legal context). An additional example is provided by patents which contain prior art, citation of earlier patents relevant to the current claim. Documents can be associated with many other features in addition to citations, such as authors, publishers, journals as well as their actual texts. The general analysis of collections of documents is known as bibliometrics and citation analysis is a key part of that field. For example, bibliographic coupling and co-citation are association measures based on citation analysis (shared citations or shared references). The citations in a collection of documents can also be represented in forms such as a citation graph, as pointed out by Derek J. de Solla Price in his 1965 article "Networks of Scientific Papers". This means that citation analysis draws on aspects of social network analysis and network science.
  • - a conceptual entity–relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogues and bibliographic databases from a user’s perspective. It represents a more holistic approach to retrieval and access as the relationships between the entities provide links to navigate through the hierarchy of relationships. The model is significant because it is separate from specific cataloguing standards such as Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR), Resource Description and Access (RDA) and International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).


  • ZoteroBib - helps you build a bibliography instantly from any computer or device, with MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard citations, without creating an account or installing any software. It’s brought to you by the team behind Zotero, the powerful open-source research tool recommended by thousands of universities worldwide, so you can trust it to help you seamlessly add sources and produce perfect bibliographies. If you need to reuse sources across multiple projects or build a shared research library, we recommend using Zotero instead.

  • Zotero - a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources.



  • BibTeX - a tool and a file format which are used to describe and process lists of references, mostly in conjunction with LaTeX documents.
  • - eference management software for formatting lists of references. The BibTeX tool is typically used together with the LaTeX document preparation system. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as B I B T E X {\displaystyle {\mathrm {B{\scriptstyle {IB}}\!T\!_{\displaystyle E}\!X} }} {\mathrm {B{\scriptstyle {IB}}\!T\!_{\displaystyle E}\!X} }. The name is a portmanteau of the word bibliography and the name of the TeX typesetting software.The purpose of BibTeX is to make it easy to cite sources in a consistent manner, by separating bibliographic information from the presentation of this information, similarly to the separation of content and presentation/style supported by LaTeX itself.


  • - a standardized tag format developed by Research Information Systems, Incorporated (the format name refers to the company) to enable citation programs to exchange data. It is supported by a number of reference managers. Many digital libraries, like IEEE Xplore, Scopus, the ACM Portal, Scopemed, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Rayyan QCRI, Ejmanager and online library catalogs can export citations in this format. Major reference/citation manager applications, like Zotero, Citavi, Mendeley, and EndNote can export and import citations in this format.


  • - the generic name for programs that produce formatted bibliographies and citations based on the metadata of the cited objects and the formatting instructions provided by Citation Style Language (CSL) styles. The first CiteProc implementation used XSLT 2.0, but implementations have been written for other programming languages, including JavaScript, Java, Haskell, PHP, Python, and Ruby. CiteProc, CSL, and Cite Schema make up the Citation Style Language project, a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike licensed effort "to provide a common framework for formatting bibliographies and citations across markup languages and document standards. In an ideal world, one could use the same CSL files to format DocBook, TEI, OpenOffice, WordML ... or even LaTeX documents." Different implementations of CiteProc are able to use different bibliographic databases; many can use MODS XML.


  • BibSonomy - The easy way to manage scientific publications and bookmarks BibSonomy helps you to manage your publications and bookmarks, to collaborate with your colleagues and to find new interesting material for your research.
  • - social bookmark and publication sharing system. It is developed and operated by the Data Science Chair at the University of Würzburg, Germany, the Information Processing and Analytics Group at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany, the Knowledge & Data Engineering Group at the University of Kassel, Germany, and the L3S Research Center at Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.

  • - a simple, free and open-source note-keeping tool to help you manage the tons of little information bits you need to keep track of each day.


  • Papers - helps you collect and curate the research material that you're passionate about. This award winning reference manager will improve the way you find, organize, read, cite and share.


  • Polar - a powerful offline browser for Mac, Windows, and Linux for managing all your web content, books, and notes. Polar keeps all your content in one place, supports tagging, annotation, highlighting and keeps track of your reading progress. [39] [40]




  • JabRef - open source bibliography reference manager. The native file format used by JabRef is BibTeX, the standard LaTeX bibliography format. JabRef is a desktop application and runs on the Java VM (version 8), and works equally well on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X.BibTeX is an application and a bibliography file format written by Oren Patashnik and Leslie Lamport for the LaTeX document preparation system. General information can be found on the CTAN BibTeX package information page. JabRef also supports BibLaTeX.Bibliographies generated by LaTeX and BibTeX from a BibTeX file can be formatted to suit any reference list specifications through the use of different BibTeX and BibLaTeX style files.





  • - a collection of books, and possibly other materials and media, that is accessible for use by its members and members of allied institutions. Libraries provide physical (hard copies, or digital (soft copies) materials, and may be a physical location, a virtual space, or both. A library's collection normally includes printed materials which may be borrowed, and usually also includes a reference section of publications which may only be utilized inside the premises. Resources such as commercial releases of films, television programmes, other video recordings, radio, music and audio recordings may be available in many formats. These include DVDs, Blu-rays, CDs, cassettes, or other applicable formats such as microform. They may also provide access to information, music or other content held on bibliographic databases. Libraries can vary widely in size and may be organised and maintained by a public body such as a government, an institution (such as a school or museum), a corporation, or a private individual. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are trained experts in finding, selecting, circulating and organising information while interpreting information needs and navigating and analysing large amounts of information with a variety of resources.

  • - a library, most often a lending library, that is accessible by the general public and is usually funded from public sources, such as taxes. It is operated by librarians and library paraprofessionals, who are also civil servants. There are five fundamental characteristics shared by public libraries: they are generally supported by taxes (usually local, though any level of government can and may contribute); they are governed by a board to serve the public interest; they are open to all, and every community member can access the collection; they are entirely voluntary, no one is ever forced to use the services provided and they provide library and information services without charge.

  • - OPL, is a library led by a single person or a single professional librarian without any professional library peers. These libraries represent the vast majorities of libraries in the world. They may be found in public and governmental settings, in companies and any organisations, in academic and research and as private initiatives for many subjects. Very often they are specialized towards a specific subject of collection and thus part of the special libraries scene. In 1972 the U.S. Special Libraries Association (SLA) invited at their annual conference to a discussion on the issue of such a library type under the heading "The One Man Library" led by Guy St. Clair by then librarian at the University Club of New York of New York City. Thanks to the long time engagement and dedication of Guy St. Clair after the initial meeting, the One Person Library became a global movement proliferating to other countries throughout the world.

  • - or a school library media center, is a library within a school where students, staff, and often, parents of a public or private school have access to a variety of resources. The goal of the school library media center is to ensure that all members of the school community have equitable access "to books and reading, to information, and to information technology." A school library media center "uses all types of media... is automated, and utilizes the Internet [as well as books] for information gathering." School libraries are distinct from public libraries because they serve as "learner-oriented laboratories which support, extend, and individualize the school's curriculum... A school library serves as the center and coordinating agency for all material used in the school."

  • - a library that is attached to a higher education institution and serves two complementary purposes: to support the curriculum and the research of the university faculty and students. It is unknown how many academic libraries there are worldwide. An academic and research portal maintained by UNESCO links to 3,785 libraries. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, there are an estimated 3,700 academic libraries in the United States. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves. Previously before the electronic appliances became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles. Modern academic libraries generally also provide access to electronic resources.

Academic libraries must determine a focus for collection development since comprehensive collections are not feasible. Librarians do this by identifying the needs of the faculty, student body, the mission and academic programs of the college or university. When there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries, these are often referred to as niche collections. These collections are often the basis of a special collection department and they may include original papers, artwork, and artifacts written or created by a single author or about a specific subject.

  • - library that contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects. A research library will generally include an in-depth selection of materials on a particular topic or set of topics and contain primary sources as well as secondary sources. Research libraries are established to meet research needs and, as such, are stocked with authentic materials with quality content. Research libraries are typically attached to academic or research institutions that specialize in that topic and serve members of that institution. Large university libraries are considered research libraries, and often contain many specialized branch research libraries. The libraries provide research materials for students and staff of these organizations to use and can also publish and carry literature produced by these institutions and make them available to others. Research libraries could also be accessible to members of the public who wish to gain in-depth knowledge on that particular topic. Research libraries face a unique challenge of making research materials accessible and available to patrons. They also need to ensure there are no copyright-related issues with their materials, ensure that as many materials as possible are open access, and ensure all their materials are reliably sourced.

  • - a library that provides specialized information resources on a particular subject, serves a specialized and limited clientele, and delivers specialized services to that clientele. Special libraries include corporate libraries, government libraries, law libraries, medical libraries, museum libraries, news libraries. Special libraries also exist within academic institutions. These libraries are included as special libraries because they are often funded separately from the rest of the university and they serve a targeted group of users.

  • - a type of library designed to support the study, research, and dissemination of information related to transportation. A transportation library provides resources related to policy, regulations, operations, and other aspects of transportation. Users of transportation libraries include engineers, city planners, contractors, academic researchers, and the general public. Transportation libraries are located at the federal, state, and local levels of government, as well as at universities and research institutes. Major transportation libraries can be found in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Australia, and Japan.

  • - contains music-related materials for patron use. Collections may also include non-print materials, such as digitized music scores or audio recordings. Use of such materials may be limited to specific patron groups, especially in private academic institutions. Music library print collections include dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes and directories, printed music, music serials, bibliographies, and other music literature.

  • - a library that houses a collection of photographic slides, either as a part of a larger library or photo archive, or standing alone within a larger organization, such as an academic department of a college or university, a museum, or a corporation. Typically, a "slide library" contains slides depicting artwork, architecture, or cultural objects, and is typically used for the study, teaching, and documentation of art history, architectural history, and visual culture. Other academic disciplines, such as biology and other sciences, also maintain image collections akin to slide libraries. Corporations may also have image libraries to maintain and document their publications and history. Increasingly, these types of libraries are known as "Visual Resources Collections," as they may be responsible for all "visual" materials for the study of a subject and include still and moving images in a variety of physical and virtual formats.
  • - also known as VRA, is an international organization for image media professionals. VRA was founded in 1982 by slide librarians (visual resources curators) who were members of the College Art Association (CAA), the South Eastern Art Conference (SECAC), the Art Libraries Society of North America (ARLIS/NA), and the Mid-America College Art Association (MACAA). The association is concerned with creating, describing, and distributing digital images and other media; educating image professionals; and developing standards. The Visual Resources Association Foundation, a 501 C-3 organization created by the VRA, supports research and education in visual resources, and provides educational, literary, and scientific outreach to the archival and library community and the general public. The association is a multi-disciplinary organization whose purpose is furthering research and education in the field of image management in educational, cultural heritage, and commercial environments. The VRA develops standards, offers educational programs, and publishes a variety of material. It offers a forum for preservation of and access to digital and analog images of visual culture; cataloging and classification standards and practices; integration of technology-based instruction and research; intellectual property policy; and other topics of interest to the field. It works with the broader information management and educational communities to support the primacy of visual information in documenting and understanding the cultural experience.

  • - an interdisciplinary field of study that deals generally with organization, access, collection, and protection/regulation of information, whether in physical or digital forms. In spite of various trends to merge the two fields, some consider the two original disciplines, library science and information science, to be separate. However, it is common today to use the terms synonymously or to drop the term "library" and to speak about information departments or I-schools. There have also been attempts to revive the concept of documentation and to speak of Library, information and documentation studies (or science).

  • - a system of organization of knowledge by which sources are arranged and ordered systematically. Library classifications are a notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows items to be stored in that order. Library classification systems group related materials together, typically arranged as a hierarchical tree structure. A different kind of classification system, called a faceted classification system, is also widely used, which allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in many ways.

  • - or cataloguing (UK) is the process of creating metadata representing information resources, such as books, sound recordings, moving images, etc. Cataloging provides information such as author's names, titles, and subject terms that describe resources, typically through the creation of bibliographic records. The records serve as surrogates for the stored information resources. Since the 1970s these metadata are in machine-readable form and are indexed by information retrieval tools, such as bibliographic databases or search engines. While typically the cataloging process results in the production of library catalogs, it also produces other types of discovery tools for documents and collections. Bibliographic control provides the philosophical basis of cataloging, defining the rules that sufficiently describes information resources, to enable users find and select the most appropriate resource. A cataloger is an individual responsible for the processes of description, subject analysis, classification, and authority control of library materials. Catalogers serve as the "foundation of all library service, as they are the ones who organize information in such a way as to make it easily accessible".[

  • - ILS, also known as a library management system, LMS, is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed. An ILS usually is constituted of a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most ILSes separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interface. Examples of modules might include: acquisitions (ordering, receiving, and invoicing materials); cataloging (classifying and indexing materials); circulation (lending materials to patrons and receiving them back); serials (tracking magazine, journals, and newspaper holdings); online public access catalog or OPAC (public user interface). Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity.

  • - the practices and techniques used by librarians and library staff to track the selection, acquisition, licensing, access, maintenance, usage, evaluation, retention, and de-selection of a library's electronic information resources. These resources include, but are not limited to, electronic journals, electronic books, streaming media, databases, datasets, CD-ROMs, and computer software.

Electronic resources, particularly electronic journals and ebooks, can be viewed as an integral part of library collections. Recent studies have shown that not only are libraries acquiring significant amounts of digital content, but also that this content is both replacing and eclipsing traditional media. Scholarly communication, particularly how libraries deliver and consume information, has changed as a result of the Web. With the majority of library catalogs and electronic collections now accessible online, either remotely or via public terminals in libraries, patron preference also tends toward electronic journal usage. The most-cited reasons for preferring electronic journals include ease of access, ease of printing, and ease of searching.

Following the advent of the Digital Revolution, libraries began incorporating electronic information resources into their collections and services. The inclusion of these resources was driven by the core values of library science, as expressed by Raganathan's five laws of library science, especially the belief that electronic technologies made access to information more direct, convenient, and timely. By the end of 1990s, however, it became clear that the techniques used by librarians to manage physical resources did not transfer well to the electronic medium. In January 2000, the Digital Library Federation (DLF, conducted an informal survey aimed at identifying the major challenges facing research libraries regarding their use of information technologies. The survey revealed that digital collection development was considered the greatest source of anxiety and uncertainty among librarians, and that knowledge regarding the handling of electronic resources was rarely shared outside individual libraries. As a result, the Digital Library Federation created the Collection Practices Initiative and commissioned three reports with the goal of documenting effective practices in electronic resource management.

In his 2001 report entitled Selection and Presentation of Commercially Available Electronic Resources, Timothy Jewell of the University of Washington discussed the home-grown and ad hoc management techniques academic libraries were employing to handle the acquisition, licensing, and activation of electronic resources. He concluded that "existing library management systems and software lack important features and functionality" to track electronic resources and that "coordinated efforts to define needs and establish standards may prove to be of broad benefit." Writing in The Scholarly Kitchen in 2019, Joseph Esposito noted that in a meeting with the heads of a number of academic libraries of various sizes, there was unanimous expression of frustration with electronic resource management systems.

  • Library Success - A Best Practices Wiki, created to be a one-stop shop for great ideas and information for all types of librarians. All over the world, librarians are developing successful programs and doing innovative things with technology that no one outside of their library knows about. There are lots of great blogs out there sharing information about the profession, but there is no one place where all of this information is collected and organized.

  • Open Library - an open, editable library catalog, building towards a web page for every book ever published. Just like Wikipedia, you can contribute new information or corrections to the catalog. You can browse by subject, author or lists members have created.

  • - a free virtual library resource center for educators and students, librarians and their patrons, families, businesses and just about anyone exploring the Web for valuable research information.

  • - usually publishes academic journals and often provides a broader range of publishing services as well. This can include publishing other formats such as scholarly monographs and conference proceedings. It generally has a preference for open access publishing

  • - an American nonprofit cooperative organization "that provides shared technology services, original research, and community programs for its membership and the library community at large". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, then became the Online Computer Library Center as it expanded. In 2017, the name was formally changed to OCLC, Inc. OCLC and thousands of its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries pay (around $217.8 million annually in total as of 2021, for the many different services it offers. OCLC also maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system.

  • - also called an online library, an internet library, a digital repository, a library without walls, or a digital collection is an online database of digital objects that can include text, still images, audio, video, digital documents, or other digital media formats or a library accessible through the internet. Objects can consist of digitized content like print or photographs, as well as originally produced digital content like word processor files or social media posts. In addition to storing content, digital libraries provide means for organizing, searching, and retrieving the content contained in the collection. Digital libraries can vary immensely in size and scope, and can be maintained by individuals or organizations. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. These information retrieval systems are able to exchange information with each other through interoperability and sustainability.

  • - a great resource for locating unique, trustworthy materials that you often can’t find anywhere except in a library. And by connecting thousands of libraries’ collections in one place, makes it easy for you to browse the world’s libraries from one easy search box. During the past 50+ years, thousands of libraries have entered their information about millions of books, magazines, movies, songs, maps, genealogical records, research theses and so much more into WorldCat. And not just the physical items you could find when you visit a library, but many kinds of digital content like open-source e-books, articles, downloadable audiobooks, and photos. You can also find article citations with links to full text, authoritative research materials, one-of-a-kind documents and photos of local or historic significance, and digital versions of rare items that aren’t generally available to the public. is supported by OCLC, a nonprofit global library organization that provides shared technology services, original research, and community programs so libraries can better fuel learning, research, and innovation.
    • - a union catalog that itemizes the collections of tens of thousands of institutions (mostly libraries), in many countries, that are current or past members of the OCLC global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC, Inc. Many of the OCLC member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. The database includes other information sources in addition to member library collections. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services (such as resource sharing and collection management). WorldCat is used by librarians for cataloging and research and by the general public.

  • BookOps-Worldcat Documentation - Python wrapper around OCLC's Worldcat Metadata API which supports changes released in the version 1.1 (May 2020) of the web service. The package features methods that utilize search functionality of the API as well as read-write endpoints. The Bookops-Worldcat package simplifies some of the OCLC API boilerplate, and ideally lowers the technological threshold for cataloging departments that may not have sufficient programming support to access and utilize those web services. Python language, with its gentle learning curve, has the potential to be a perfect vehicle towards this goal.

  • EDINA - provides online services and resources for UK Higher and Further Education. The Data Library assists staff and students in the discovery, access, use and management of datasets for research and teaching. Together they are a division of Information Services.

  • - abbreviated ILL, and sometimes called document delivery, document supply, interlending, interlibrary services, interloan, or resource sharing, is a service that enables patrons of one library to borrow physical materials and receive electronic documents that are held by another library. The service expands library patrons' access to resources beyond their local library's holdings, serving as "an integral element of collection development" for libraries.

  • SubjectsPlus - Take Control of your Library Data. A LAMP/WAMP application that allows you to manage a number of interrelated parts of a library website: Research Guides (i.e., subject, course, etc., Database A-Z List, Staff List, FAQs, Suggestion Box, Videos (i.e., produced in-library). It was originally developed at the Ithaca College Library, and primary development is now taking place at the University of Miami Libraries. It is made available under the GNU GPL.


  • - were an international library cataloging standard. First published in 1967 and edited by C. Sumner Spalding, a second edition (AACR2) edited by Michael Gorman and Paul W. Winkler was issued in 1978, with subsequent revisions (AACR2R) appearing in 1988 and 1998; all updates ceased in 2005. Published jointly by the American Library Association, the Canadian Library Association, and the UK Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, the rules were designed for the construction of library catalogs and similar bibliographic tools. The rules cover the physical description of library resources, as well as the provision of name and title access points.


  • - machine-readable cataloging, is a standard set of digital formats for the machine-readable description of items catalogued by libraries, such as books, DVDs, and digital resources. Computerized library catalogs and library management software need to structure their catalog records as per an industry-wide standard, which is MARC, so that bibliographic information can be shared freely between computers. The structure of bibliographic records almost universally follows the MARC standard. Other standards work in conjunction with MARC, for example, Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR)/Resource Description and Access (RDA) provide guidelines on formulating bibliographic data into the MARC record structure, while the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) provides guidelines for displaying MARC records in a standard, human-readable form. The MARC 21 family of standards now includes formats for authority records, holdings records, classification schedules, and community information, in addition to the format for bibliographic records.

  • - a metadata standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, expressed using the XML schema language of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The standard is maintained as part of the MARC standards of the Library of Congress, and is being developed as an initiative of the Digital Library Federation (DLF).
  • - the practices and techniques used by librarians and library staff to track the selection, acquisition, licensing, access, maintenance, usage, evaluation, retention, and de-selection of a library's electronic information resources. These resources include, but are not limited to, electronic journals, electronic books, streaming media, databases, datasets, CD-ROMs, and computer software.


  • - MODS, is an XML-based bibliographic description schema developed by the United States Library of Congress' Network Development and Standards Office. MODS was designed as a compromise between the complexity of the MARC format used by libraries and the extreme simplicity of Dublin Core metadata.

The MODS record has been designed to carry key data elements from the MARC record but does not define all of the MARC fields and does not use the field and subfield tagging from the MARC standard. There are data elements in MODS that are not compatible with the MARC record so there is some loss translating from MARC to MODS and from MODS to MARC. There is no commitment on the part of the Library of Congress to maintain compatibility between the two metadata formats beyond what is convenient to the community of MODS users. The Library of Congress maintains crosswalks in XSLT format for mapping from MARC to MODS, and from MODS to MARC.

  • - MADS, is an XML schema developed by the United States Library of Congress' Network Development and Standards Office that provides an authority element set to complement the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS). April 2004: Preliminary version for review; December 2004: Draft for review; April 2005: Version 1.0 published; June 2011: Version 2.0 published; September 2016: Version 2.1 published


  • EAD: Encoded Archival Description - an XML .standard for encoding archival finding aids, maintained by the Technical Subcommittee for Encoded Archival Standards of the Society of American Archivists, in partnership with the Library of Congress.
    • - a standard for encoding descriptive information regarding archival records. EAD originated at the 1993 Society of American Archivists annual meeting in New Orleans and was headed by Daniel Pitti at the University of California, Berkeley. The project's goal was to create a data standard for describing archives, similar to the MARC standards for describing bibliographic materials. The initial EAD Version 1.0 was released in the fall of 1998. Such a standard enables archives, museums, libraries, and manuscript repositories to list and describe their holdings in a manner that would be machine-readable and therefore easy to search, maintain and exchange. Since its inception, many archives and special collections have adopted it.


  • - Bibliographic Framework, is a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community.

BIBFRAME is expressed in RDF and based on three categories of abstraction (work, instance, item), with three additional classes (agent, subject, event, that relate to the core categories. While the work entity in BIBFRAME may be "considered as the union of the disjoint work and expression entities" in IFLA's Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) entity relationship model, BIBFRAME's instance entity is analogous to the FRBR manifestation entity. This represents an apparent break with FRBR and the FRBR-based Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging code. However, the original BIBFRAME model argues that the new model "can reflect the FRBR relationships in terms of a graph rather than as hierarchical relationships, after applying a reductionist technique." Since both FRBR and BIBFRAME have been expressed in RDF, interoperability between the two models is technically possible.


  • Describing Archives: A Content Standard - rules to ensure the creation of consistent, appropriate, and self-explanatory descriptions of archival material. The rules may be used for describing archival and manuscript materials at all levels of description, regardless of form or medium. They may also be applied to the description of intentionally assembled collections and to discrete items. While the rules apply to all levels of description and forms of material, some repositories may wish to describe particular media at item level or at a level even more detailed than the item, such as sequence, shot, and so on. These rules do not govern such detailed levels of description because of the varying nature of institutional requirements in this area. Incorporating all possible rules for various types of media would result in a very large volume that would require regular monitoring of a number of specialized standards and frequent revisions of DACS as other standards changed. Appendix B offers more detailed guidance in its lists of specialized standards for various types of material.


See Infographics, UI, Design, Mapping

  • - data viz or info viz, is the practice of designing and creating easy-to-communicate and easy-to-understand graphic or visual representations of a large amount of complex quantitative and qualitative data and information with the help of static, dynamic or interactive visual items. Typically based on data and information collected from a certain domain of expertise, these visualizations are intended for a broader audience to help them visually explore and discover, quickly understand, interpret and gain important insights into otherwise difficult-to-identify structures, relationships, correlations, local and global patterns, trends, variations, constancy, clusters, outliers and unusual groupings within data (exploratory visualization). When intended for the general public (mass communication) to convey a concise version of known, specific information in a clear and engaging manner (presentational or explanatory visualization), it is typically called information graphics.

Data visualization is concerned with visually presenting sets of primarily quantitative raw data in a schematic form. The visual formats used in data visualization include tables, charts and graphs (e.g. pie charts, bar charts, line charts, area charts, cone charts, pyramid charts, donut charts, histograms, spectrograms, cohort charts, waterfall charts, funnel charts, bullet graphs, etc.), diagrams, plots (e.g. scatter plots, distribution plots, box-and-whisker plots), geospatial maps (such as proportional symbol maps, choropleth maps, isopleth maps and heat maps), figures, correlation matrices, percentage gauges, etc., which sometimes can be combined in a dashboard.

Information visualization, on the other hand, deals with multiple, large-scale and complicated datasets which contain quantitative (numerical) data as well as qualitative (non-numerical, i.e. verbal or graphical) and primarily abstract information and its goal is to add value to raw data, improve the viewers' comprehension, reinforce their cognition and help them derive insights and make decisions as they navigate and interact with the computer-supported graphical display. Visual tools used in information visualization include maps (such as tree maps), animations, infographics, Sankey diagrams, flow charts, network diagrams, semantic networks, entity-relationship diagrams, venn diagrams, timelines, mind maps, etc.

  • - any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message. Visualization through visual imagery has been an effective way to communicate both abstract and concrete ideas since the dawn of humanity. Examples from history include cave paintings, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Greek geometry, and Leonardo da Vinci's revolutionary methods of technical drawing for engineering and scientific purposes. Visualization today has ever-expanding applications in science, education, engineering (e.g., product visualization), interactive multimedia, medicine, etc. Typical of a visualization application is the field of computer graphics. The invention of computer graphics (and 3D computer graphics) may be the most important development in visualization since the invention of central perspective in the Renaissance period. The development of animation also helped advance visualization.


  • - also commonly referred to as visual notetaking, is the creative and graphic process through which an individual can record their thoughts with the use of illustrations, symbols, structures, and texts. By combining graphics with the traditional method of using text, the result is information that is captured and communicated visually and artistically. Sketchnoting can be used in a variety of settings and scenarios, such as at conferences, work meetings, classes in school, sporting events, and more. Some elements associated with sketchnoting techniques include using text, emphasized text, basic shapes, containers, connectors, icons and symbols, and sketches and illustrations.


  • - a symbolic representation of information using visualization techniques. Diagrams have been used since prehistoric times on walls of caves, but became more prevalent during the Enlightenment. Sometimes, the technique uses a three-dimensional visualization which is then projected onto a two-dimensional surface. The word graph is sometimes used as a synonym for diagram.

  • - also known as a knowledge map, concept map, story map, cognitive organizer, advance organizer, or concept diagram is a pedagogical tool that uses visual symbols to express knowledge and concepts through relationships between them. The main purpose of a graphic organizer is to provide a visual aid to facilitate learning and instruction.

  • - as the name suggests is communication using graphic elements. These elements include symbols such as glyphs and icons, images such as drawings and photographs, and can include the passive contributions of substrate, colour and surroundings. It is the process of creating, producing, and distributing material incorporating words and images to convey data, concepts, and emotions. The field of graphics communications encompasses all phases of the graphic communications processes from origination of the idea (design, layout, and typography, through reproduction, finishing and distribution of two- or three-dimensional products or electronic transmission.

  • - a diagram used to visually organize information into a hierarchy, showing relationships among pieces of the whole. It is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those major ideas. Mind maps can also be drawn by hand, either as "notes" during a lecture, meeting or planning session, for example, or as higher quality pictures when more time is available. Mind maps are considered to be a type of spider diagram.

  • - a standard for the representation and interchange of knowledge, with an emphasis on the findability of information. Topic maps were originally developed in the late 1990s as a way to represent back-of-the-book index structures so that multiple indexes from different sources could be merged. However, the developers quickly realized that with a little additional generalization, they could create a meta-model with potentially far wider application. The ISO/IEC standard is formally known as ISO/IEC 13250:2003.

  • - or conceptual diagram is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts. Concept maps may be used by instructional designers, engineers, technical writers, and others to organize and structure knowledge. A concept map typically represents ideas and information as boxes or circles, which it connects with labeled arrows, often in a downward-branching hierarchical structure but also in free-form maps. The relationship between concepts can be articulated in linking phrases such as "causes", "requires", "such as" or "contributes to". The technique for visualizing these relationships among different concepts is called concept mapping. Concept maps have been used to define the ontology of computer systems, for example with the object-role modeling or Unified Modeling Language formalism.

  • - a structured methodology for organizing the ideas of a group on any topic of interest and representing those ideas visually in a series of interrelated maps. It is a type of integrative mixed method, combining qualitative and quantitative approaches to data collection and analysis. Group concept mapping allows for a collaborative group process with groups of any size, including a broad and diverse array of participants. Since its development in the late 1980s by William M.K. Trochim at Cornell University, it has been applied to various fields and contexts, including community and public health, social work, health care, human services, and biomedical research and evaluation.

  • - also called logic tree, is a graphical breakdown of a question that dissects it into its different components vertically and that progresses into details as it reads to the right.

  • - or argument diagram is a visual representation of the structure of an argument. An argument map typically includes all the key components of the argument, traditionally called the conclusion and the premises, also called contention and reasons. Argument maps can also show co-premises, objections, counterarguments, rebuttals, and lemmas. There are different styles of argument map but they are often functionally equivalent and represent an argument's individual claims and the relationships between them. Argument maps are commonly used in the context of teaching and applying critical thinking. The purpose of mapping is to uncover the logical structure of arguments, identify unstated assumptions, evaluate the support an argument offers for a conclusion, and aid understanding of debates. Argument maps are often designed to support deliberation of issues, ideas and arguments in wicked problems.

  • - can be defined as a network consisting of links or arcs between nodes or factors, such that a link between C and E means, in some sense, that someone believes or claims C has or had some causal influence on E.


  • - used to create diagrams of relationships between concepts, ideas, or other pieces of information. It has been suggested that the mind mapping technique can improve learning and study efficiency up to 15% over conventional note-taking. Many software packages and websites allow creating or otherwise supporting mind maps. See also: DOT (graph description language), GraphML, OML, OPML, and XOXO (microformat). Using a standard file format allows interchange of files between various programs. Many programs listed below support the OPML file format and the XML file format used by FreeMind.

  • FreeMind is a premier free mind-mapping software written in Java. The recent development has hopefully turned it into high productivity tool. We are proud that the operation and navigation of FreeMind is faster than that of MindManager because of one-click "fold / unfold" and "follow link" operations.

  • SharedMind is a collaborative version of FreeMind mind mapping software.

  • XMind is the most professional and popular mind mapping tool. Free version is open source.

  • Semantik - a mind-mapping application for KDE that helps creating documents such as reports or presentations. Mind-maps are edited either as flat trees (linear view on the left) or in two dimensions (center). Each node on the map can be associated with tables, text, pictures or diagrams (botton level). Maps are then converted to "flat" documents such as presentations or reports using document generators. This enables the rapid creation of technical documentation in the LaTeX, OpenOffice or Html format.

  • - a javascript component that will visualize your markdown documents as mindmaps. It is useful for better navigation and overview of the content. You can see it in action online here. It is also used in an extension for Atom editor.

Document management

  • - usually a computerized system used to store, share, track and manage files or documents. Some systems include history tracking where a log of the various versions created and modified by different users is recorded. The term has some overlap with the concepts of content management systems. It is often viewed as a component of enterprise content management (ECM) systems and related to digital asset management, document imaging, workflow systems and records management systems.


  • OpenKM - allows businesses to control the production, storage, management and distribution of electronic documents, yielding greater effectiveness and the ability to reuse information and to control the flow of the documents. OpenKM integrates all essential documents management, collaboration and an advanced search functionality into one easy to use solution. The system also includes administration tools to define the roles of various users, access control, user quota, level of document security, detailed logs of activity and automations setup. OpenKM builds a highly valuable repository of corporate information assets to facilitate knowledge creation and improve business decision making, boosting workgroups and enterprise productivity through shared practices, greater, better customer relations, faster sales cycles, improved product time-to-market, and better-informed decision making.
  • OpenKM Knowledge Center - On this site, you can find detailed information about the configuration of the different modules and features of OpenKM. The site is open to the general public, but you need to have an OpenKM instance with paid support to access restricted folders.


Mayan EDMS

  • Mayan EDMS - an electronic vault for your documents. With Mayan EDMS you will never lose another document to floods, fire, theft, sabotage, fungus or decomposition. Its advanced search and categorization capabilities will help you reduce the time to find the information you need. It is free open source and integrates with your existing equipment, that means low to no initial investment, and even lower total cost of ownership, reducing operational costs has never been this easy. Being open source its code is freely available, allowing you to see how it is handling your documents if you ever need to, you will be glad you choose Mayan EDMS on your next audit. Initially released in 2011 and with thousands of installations worldwide, Mayan EDMS is a mature and time tested software you can rely on.

Pydio Cells

  • Pydio Cells - an open-core, self-hosted Document Sharing and Collaboration platform (DSC) specifically designed for organizations that need advanced document sharing and collaboration without security trade-offs or compliance issues.
    • - nextgen file sharing platform for organizations. It is a full rewrite of the Pydio project using the Go language following a micro-service architecture.


  • TagSpaces - a free, no vendor lock-in, open source application for organizing, annotating and managing local files with the help of tags. It features advanced note taking functionalities and some capabilities of to-do apps. The application is available for Windows, Linux, Mac OS and Android. We provide a web clipper extension for Firefox, Edge and Chrome for easy collecting of online content in the form of local files.


  • Omeka - a free, flexible, and open source web-publishing platform for the display of library, museum, archives, and scholarly collections and exhibitions. Its “five-minute setup” makes launching an online exhibition as easy as launching a blog.

  • - A flexible web publishing platform for the display of library, museum and scholarly collections, archives and exhibitions.
  • - a web publication system for universities, galleries, libraries, archives, and museums. It consists of a local network of independently curated exhibits sharing a collaboratively built pool of items, media, and their metadata.


  • openDias - an Open Source offering, to bring a professional document scanning and storage utility for the home user. OpenDias (Document Imaging Archive System) provides document storage and a document work-flow application to the home or small business user. Store all your letters, bills, statements, etc. in a convenient, safe, and easily retrievable way. Image documents using a scanner (SANE device), or import PDF, ODF or plain images. Use OCR on these documents to extract the raw text. Then assign a title, a date, tags and other user data for easy indexing, and later searching, browsing, updating or printing.

to sort


to split into two

See also Documents, Data, Semantic, Learning, Open data, Scraping

  • - an accumulation of historical records or materials – in any medium – or the physical facility in which they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization. Professional archivists and historians generally understand archives to be records that have been naturally and necessarily generated as a product of regular legal, commercial, administrative, or social activities. They have been metaphorically defined as "the secretions of an organism", and are distinguished from documents that have been consciously written or created to communicate a particular message to posterity.

  • - or archival studies, is the study and theory of building and curating archives, which are collections of documents, recordings, photographs and various other materials in physical or digital formats. To build and curate an archive, one must acquire and evaluate the materials, and be able to access them later. To this end, archival science seeks to improve methods for appraising, storing, preserving, and processing (arranging and describing, collections of materials. An archival record preserves data that is not intended to change. In order to be of value to society, archives must be trustworthy. Therefore, an archivist has a responsibility to authenticate archival materials, such as historical documents, and to ensure their reliability, integrity, and usability. Archival records must be what they claim to be; accurately represent the activity they were created for; present a coherent picture through an array of content; and be in usable condition in an accessible location. An archive curator is called an archivist; the curation of an archive is called archive administration.

Traditionally, archival science has involved the study of methods for preserving items in climate-controlled storage facilities. It is also the study of cataloguing and accession, of retrieval and safe handling. The advent of digital documents along with the development of electronic databases has caused the field to re-evaluate its means and ends. While generally associated with museums and libraries, the field also can pertain to individuals who maintain private collections or business archives. Archival Science is taught in colleges and universities, usually under the umbrella of Information Science or paired with a History program.

  • - the act of surveying, arranging, describing, and performing basic preservation activities on the recorded material of an individual, family, or organization after they are permanently transferred to an archive. A person engaging in this activity is known as an archival processor, archival technician, or archivist.
  • - a process usually conducted by members of the record-holding institution (often professional archivists, in which a body of records is examined to determine its value for that institution. It also involves determining how long this value will last. The activity is one of the central tasks of an archivist, to determine the archival value of specific records. When it occurs prior to acquisition, the appraisal process involves assessing records for inclusion in the archives. In connection with an institution's collecting policy, appraisal "represents a doorway into the archives through which all records must pass". Some considerations when conducting appraisal include how to meet the record-granting body's organizational needs, how to uphold requirements of organizational accountability (be they legal, institutional, or determined by archival ethics), and how to meet the expectations of the record-using community.

  • - an acronym for galleries, libraries, archives, and museums, and refers to cultural institutions with a mission to provide access to knowledge. GLAMs collect and maintain cultural heritage materials in the public interest. As collecting institutions, GLAMs preserve and make accessible primary sources valuable for researchers. Versions of the acronym include GLAMR, which specifies records management, and the earlier form LAM, which did not specify "galleries" (whether seen as a subset of museums, or else potentially confused with commercial establishments where art is bought and sold). Another form also is GLAMA, which specifies academia, or alternatively GLEAM ("Education").

  • - an identified group of potential consumers who should be able to understand a particular set of information. These consumers may consist of multiple communities, are designated by the archive, and may change over time. Organizations determine their designated communities and establish standards and guidelines that create a mutually beneficial relationship. A designated community can be defined by its occupation, status, or geographic location. The term designated community is closely aligned with the concept of Open Archival Information System (OAIS). Each one gives the other a central purpose. The OAIS is a repository of information specified for its designated community. The designated community is the reason the OAIS maintains the information it collects.

  • - in the context of archival science, is an organization tool, a document containing detailed, indexed, and processed metadata and other information about a specific collection of records within an archive. Finding aids often consist of a documentary inventory and description of the materials, their source, and their structure. The finding aid for a fonds is usually compiled by the collection's entity of origin, provenance, or by an archivist during archival processing, and may be considered the archival science equivalent of a library catalog or a museum collection catalog. The finding aid serves the purpose of locating specific information within the collection. The finding aid can also help the archival repository manage their materials and resources. The history of finding aids mirrors the history of information. Ancient Sumerians had their own systems of indexes to locate bureaucratic and administrative records. Finding aids in the 19th and 20th centuries were paper documents, such as lists or index cards. In the 21st century, they can be created in electronic formats like spreadsheets or databases. The standard machine-readable format for manuscript collection finding aids, widely used in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Australia and elsewhere, is Encoded Archival Description.

  • - General International Standard Archival Description, defines the elements that should be included in an archival finding aid. It was approved by the International Council on Archives (ICA/CIA) as an international framework standard to register archival documents produced by corporations, persons and families.

  • - OAIS, is an archive, consisting of an organization of people and systems, that has accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it available for a Designated Community. The OAIS model can be applied to various archives, e.g., open access, closed, restricted, "dark", or proprietary. The term OAIS also refers, by extension, to the ISO OAIS Reference Model for an OAIS.

  • - a concept in archival theory referring to the relationship that each archival record has with the other records produced as part of the same transaction or activity and located within the same grouping. These bonds are a core component of each individual record and are necessary for transforming a document into a record, as a document will only acquire meaning (and become a record, through its interrelationships with other records.

  • - a list of archives from around the world. An archive is an establishment that collects, stores and preserves knowledge in several formats: books, manuscripts, journals, newspapers, magazines, sound and music recordings, videos, play-scripts, patents, databases, maps, stamps, prints, drawings and more. The International Council on Archives comprises 1400 members in 199 countries.

  • - are archives created or accumulated, described, and/or preserved by individuals and community groups who desire to document their cultural heritage based on shared experiences, interests, and/or identities, sometimes without the traditional intervention of formally trained archivists, historians, and librarians. Instead, the engaged community members determine the scope and contents of the community archive, often with a focus on a significant shared event, such as the Ferguson unrest (2014). Community archives are created in response to needs defined by the members of a community, who may also exert control over how materials are used.

  • Accidental Archivism - In the digital media ecology, archives are changing. Artists, curators, critics and scholars assume the role of accidental archivists. They shape cinema’s futures by salvaging precarious repositories and making them matter in new ways. In the process, the cinema’s public, a democratic body seemingly scattered about platforms and niches in a post-pandemic world, re-emerges as a political force. Accidental Archivism brings together programmatic statements and proposals to explore an artistic space between archiving and activism, a space where remnants of the past become the building blocks of new ways of making, showing, teaching and thinking cinema.

  • - the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document online in order to provide open access to it. The term usually refers to the self-archiving of peer-reviewed research journal and conference articles, as well as theses and book chapters, deposited in the author's own institutional repository or open archive for the purpose of maximizing its accessibility, usage and citation impact. The term green open access has become common in recent years, distinguishing this approach from gold open access, where the journal itself makes the articles publicly available without charge to the reader.

  • - a branch of archival science and genealogy, focusing on the capture and preservation of an individual's personal papers and other documentary output, generally by the individuals concerned. It is often related to family history, when family historians are engaged in capturing their own living history to leave as a legacy for future generations. This branch of family history is allied to the growth in activities such as photograph and record scanning which seeks to preserve materials beyond their original life.

Modern personal archiving is often concerned with digital preservation, especially with collating individual's content from social media websites and ensuring the long-term preservation of this. This often deals with migration of digital content, as a means of preservation, rather than the tradition tasks of conservation of paper-based records.

  • - the Canadian archival descriptive standard. It provides a set of rules based on traditional archival principles, whose purpose is to provide a consistent and commonly shared descriptive foundation for describing archival materials within a given fonds

  • - the long-term storage of scholarly research data, including the natural sciences, social sciences, and life sciences. The various academic journals have differing policies regarding how much of their data and methods researchers are required to store in a public archive, and what is actually archived varies widely between different disciplines. Similarly, the major grant-giving institutions have varying attitudes towards public archival of data. In general, the tradition of science has been for publications to contain sufficient information to allow fellow researchers to replicate and therefore test the research. In recent years this approach has become increasingly strained as research in some areas depends on large datasets which cannot easily be replicated independently.

  • - the selection, preservation, maintenance, collection, and archiving of digital assets. Digital curation establishes, maintains, and adds value to repositories of digital data for present and future use. This is often accomplished by archivists, librarians, scientists, historians, and scholars. Enterprises are starting to use digital curation to improve the quality of information and data within their operational and strategic processes. Successful digital curation will mitigate digital obsolescence, keeping the information accessible to users indefinitely. Digital curation includes digital asset management, data curation, digital preservation, and electronic records management.

  • - a preservation term, is the intrinsic value of a digital object, rather than the informational content of the object. Though standards are lacking, born-digital objects and digital representations of physical objects may have a value attributed to them as artifacts.

  • - the process of collecting portions of the World Wide Web to ensure the information is preserved in an archive for future researchers, historians, and the public. Web archivists typically employ web crawlers for automated capture due to the massive size and amount of information on the Web. The largest web archiving organization based on a bulk crawling approach is the Wayback Machine, which strives to maintain an archive of the entire Web. The growing portion of human culture created and recorded on the web makes it inevitable that more and more libraries and archives will have to face the challenges of web archiving. National libraries, national archives and various consortia of organizations are also involved in archiving culturally important Web content. Commercial web archiving software and services are also available to organizations who need to archive their own web content for corporate heritage, regulatory, or legal purposes.

  • - an on-demand archive site, designed to digitally preserve scientific and educationally important material on the web by taking snapshots of Internet contents as they existed at the time when a blogger or a scholar cited or quoted from it. The preservation service enabled verifiability of claims supported by the cited sources even when the original web pages are being revised, removed, or disappear for other reasons, an effect known as link rot. The site no longer accepts new archive requests, old archive snapshots can still be viewed.


  • Archive of Our Own - A fan-created, fan-run, nonprofit, noncommercial archive for transformative fanworks, like fanfiction, fanart, fan videos, and podfic
    • - The OTW-Archive software is an open-source web application intended for hosting archives of fanworks, including fanfic, fanart, and fan vids. Its development is sponsored and managed by the Organization for Transformative Works, a nonprofit organization by and for fans. Development of the OTW-Archive software is an ongoing labor of love. You can see it in action on the Archive of Our Own, aka AO3, a multifandom archive also run by the OTW.




  • The Dataverse Project - an open source web application to share, preserve, cite, explore, and analyze research data. It facilitates making data available to others, and allows you to replicate others' work more easily. Researchers, journals, data authors, publishers, data distributors, and affiliated institutions all receive academic credit and web visibility. A Dataverse repository is the software installation, which then hosts multiple virtual archives called Dataverse collections. Each Dataverse collection contains datasets, and each dataset contains descriptive metadata and data files (including documentation and code that accompany the data). As an organizing method, Dataverse collections may also contain other Dataverse collections. The central insight behind the Dataverse Project is to automate much of the job of the professional archivist, and to provide services for and to distribute credit to the data creator. Before the Dataverse Project, researchers were forced to choose between receiving credit for their data, by controlling distribution themselves but without long term preservation guarantees, or having long term preservation guarantees, by sending it to a professional archive but without receiving much credit. The Dataverse Project breaks this bad choice: we put a Dataverse collection (a virtual archive) on your website that has your website's look, feel, branding, and URL, along with an academic citation for the data that gives you full credit and web visibility. Yet, that page of your website is served up by a Dataverse repository, with institutional backing, and long term preservation guarantees. See Gary King. 2007. “An Introduction to the Dataverse Network as an Infrastructure for Data Sharing.” Sociological Methods and Research, 36, Pp. 173–199. Please use this paper to cite the Dataverse Project.
  • - an open source web application to share, preserve, cite, explore and analyze research data. Researchers, data authors, publishers, data distributors, and affiliated institutions all receive appropriate credit via a data citation with a persistent identifier (e.g., DOI, or handle). A Dataverse repository hosts multiple dataverses. Each dataverse contains dataset(s) or other dataverses, and each dataset contains descriptive metadata and data files (including documentation and code that accompany the data).

  • - A collection of data file previewers that conform to the Dataverse external tools interface, originally developed by the Qualitative Data Repository. Earlier versions of Dataverse (v4.11+, make previewers available through the external tools button on Dataset pages (left). Newer versions (v4.18+) also use previewers for embedded display on Datafile pages (right). Even more recent versions (5.2+) can distinguish 'preview' and 'explore' tools and display them in different ways/separate places.


  • Islandora - an open-source software framework designed to help institutions and organizations and their audiences collaboratively manage, and discover digital assets using a best-practices framework. Islandora was originally developed by the University of Prince Edward Island's Robertson Library, but is now implemented and contributed to by an ever-growing international community.


  • Fedora - Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture, was originally developed by researchers at Cornell University as an architecture for storing, managing, and accessing digital content in the form of digital objects inspired by the Kahn and Wilensky Framework. Fedora defines a set of abstractions for expressing digital objects, asserting relationships among digital objects, and linking "behaviors" (i.e., services) to digital objects.

  • - a digital asset management (DAM) content repository architecture upon which institutional repositories, digital archives, and digital library systems might be built. Fedora is the underlying architecture for a digital repository, and is not a complete management, indexing, discovery, and delivery application. It is a modular architecture built on the principle that interoperability and extensibility are best achieved by the integration of data, interfaces, and mechanisms (i.e., executable programs) as clearly defined modules.


  • LOCKSS - engineers and maintains open-source software for distributed digital preservation. We have been serving libraries and memory organizations for over two decades.

  • Global LOCKSS Network | LOCKSS Program - the original and most populous LOCKSS network, providing distributed preservation and local post-cancellation and perpetual access for subscription electronic journals and books, as well as a mechanism for building local collections of web-based scholarly open access publications.

  • CLOCKSS File Transfer Guidelines | LOCKSS Documentation Portal - This document provides guidelines to enable content providers to support file transfer preservation through CLOCKSS, including guidelines for data, metadata, and transmission, as well as descriptions of the evaluation, setup, and production processes. Ideally we can work with your existing practice, which will be reviewed during the evaluation phase.

  • Post-Cancellation and Perpetual Access | LOCKSS Program - The post-cancellation access problem can thus be stated as, “how can libraries retain access to the past content for which they have paid, after budgetary pressures mean that they can no longer afford to subscribe to future content?”

BBC Redux

  • Scalar is a new authoring and publishing platform now in development from the Alliance for Networking Visual Culture that’s designed to make it easy for authors to write long-form, born-digital, media-rich scholarship online. Scalar enables users to assemble media from multiple sources and juxtapose them with their own writing in a variety of ways, with minimal technical expertise required.


  • Sourcery - Manage requests for document scans and other researcher requests from a simple, intuitive dashboard. Fulfill requests on any device connected to the internet with the device's camera or by uploading a pdf, jpg, png, or other file.


  • - a set of hierarchical file system conventions designed to support disk-based storage and network transfer of arbitrary digital content. A "bag" consists of a "payload" (the arbitrary content, and "tags," which are metadata files intended to document the storage and transfer of the bag. A required tag file contains a manifest listing every file in the payload together with its corresponding checksum. The name, BagIt, is inspired by the "enclose and deposit" method, sometimes referred to as "bag it and tag it."


  • CMIS: An open API for managing content | ECM Architect - There is a lot of repository software out there. Most large companies have more than one up-and-running in their organization, and every one of them has their own API. It’s rare that these systems exist in a vacuum. They often need to feed and consume business processes and that takes code. So if you are an enterprise developer, and you are trying to integrate some of your systems with your ECM repositories, you’ve got multiple API’s you need to learn. Or, if you are a software vendor, and you are trying to build a solution that requires a rich content repository as a back-end, you either have to choose a specific back-end to support or you have to write adapters to support a handful of repositories. The solution to this problem is called Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS). It’s an industry-wide specification managed by OASIS. It describes a domain language, a query language, and multiple protocols for working with a content repository. With CMIS, developers write against the CMIS API instead of learning each repository’s proprietary API, and their applications will work with any CMIS-compliant repository.


  • Apache Chemistry - OpenCMIS Overview - is a collection of Java libraries, frameworks and tools around the CMIS 1.0 and CMIS 1.1 specifications. The goal of OpenCMIS is to make CMIS simple for Java client and server developers. It hides the binding details and provides APIs and SPIs on different abstraction levels. It also includes test tools for content repository developers and client application developers. Undeveloped.
  • - a subproject of the Apache Chemistry project of the Apache Software Foundation (ASF). It is an Open Source collection of Java libraries, frameworks and tools around the CMIS specification for document interoperability. The goal of OpenCMIS is to make CMIS simple for client and server Java developers. It hides the binding details and provides APIs and SPIs on different abstraction levels. It also includes test tools for content repository developers and client application developers. The OpenCMIS products are: A server-side Java library; A client-side Java library; A client-side Android library; CMIS Workbench: a CMIS heavy client, that allows all CMIS operations, and allows to run the TCK unit tests; OpenCMIS Server Webapps: a CMIS server and web user interface; OpenCMIS JCR Repository: A wrapper to use JCR repositories via CMIS; OpenCMIS Bridge;



  • sp-dev-docs/docs/general-development/ at main · SharePoint/sp-dev-docs - SharePoint Server compliance with version 1.0 of the OASIS Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) standard enables integration between SharePoint Server content repositories and other enterprise content management (ECM) repositories in an enterprise. CMIS enables information to be shared across Internet protocols among and between document systems, publishers, and repositories, within the enterprise, and between companies—all in a vendor-neutral format. The CMIS standard supports basic document management operations such as create, read, update, delete, check in, and check out. The standard supports managing versions of documents and their metadata. CMIS is available on any on-premises SharePoint site after the Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) Producer feature is activated in the Manage Site Features section of Site Settings. In SharePoint, the SharePoint CMIS Producer is available but turned off by default on all on-premises sites. CMIS provides interoperability between the APIs that support it, but it is not a replacement for native APIs. The objects that CMIS supports intersect with objects that SharePoint Server developers commonly interact with, including documents and folders. But, developers writing applications that support CMIS will likely have to continue writing custom SharePoint Server code. CMIS can save 60-70 percent of development time for solutions that implement it—consider it yet another tool in the development toolbox.


  • - PHP CMIS Client is a port of OpenCMIS (Java, to PHP. Interfaces are mostly the same so most OpenCMIS examples should be also usable for this PHP CMIS Library.

Oodo CMIS Connector




Knowledge domain mapping

See also Semantic

  • Serendip-o-matic - connects your sources to digital materials located in libraries, museums, and archives around the world. By first examining your research interests, and then identifying related content in locations such as the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA), Europeana, and Flickr Commons, our serendipity engine helps you discover photographs, documents, maps and other primary sources. Whether you begin with text from an article, a Wikipedia page, or a full Zotero collection, Serendip-o-matic's special algorithm extracts key terms and returns a surprising reflection of your interests. Because the tool is designed mostly for inspiration, search results aren't meant to be exhaustive, but rather suggestive, pointing you to materials you might not have discovered. At the very least, the magical input-output process helps you step back and look at your work from a new perspective. Give it a whirl. Your sources may surprise you. [43]


  • - online productivity suite or cloud office suite is an office suite offered in the form of a web application, accessed online using a web browser. This allows people to work together worldwide and at any time, thereby leading to web-based collaboration and virtual teamwork. Some online office suites can be installed either on-premise or online and some are offered only as online as a software as a service. Some versions can be free of charge, some have a subscription fee. Some online office suites can run as progressive web applications which no longer require an online connection to function. Online office suites exist as both open-source and proprietary software.

Collabora Online

  • Collabora - a powerful online office suite which you can integrate into your own infrastructure or access via one of our trusted hosting Partners. Your digital sovereignty is our priority. We provide you with all the tools to keep your data secure, without compromising on features.
  • - an open source online office suite built on LibreOffice Technology, enabling Web based collaborative real-time editing of word processing documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and vector graphics. Optional apps are available for desktops, laptops, tablets, smartphones and Chromebooks. Collabora Online is developed by Collabora Productivity, a division of Collabora, who are a commercial partner with LibreOffice's parent organisation The Document Foundation (TDF). The TDF states that a majority of the LibreOffice software development is done by its commercial partners, Collabora, Red Hat, CIB, and Allotropia.


  • - formerly TeamLab, stylized as ONLYOFFICE (also branded as P7-Office in Russia), is a free software office suite and ecosystem of collaborative applications developed by Ascensio System SIA, a subsidiary of "New Communication Technologies", a company from Russia, but headquartered in Riga, Latvia. It features online document editors, platform for document management, corporate communication, mail and project management tools. OnlyOffice is delivered either as SaaS or as an installation for deployment on a private network. Access to the system is provided through a private online portal.

Feng Office

  • - main features include project management, document management, contact management, e-mail and time management. Text documents and presentations can be created and edited online. Files can be uploaded, organized and shared, independent of file formats. Organization of the information in Feng Office Community Edition is done using workspaces and tags. The application presents the information stored using different interfaces such as lists, dashboards and calendar views.


  • - or groupware is application software designed to help people working on a common task to attain their goals. One of the earliest definitions of groupware is "intentional group processes plus software to support them." Regarding available interaction, collaborative software may be divided into real-time collaborative editing platforms that allow multiple users to engage in live, simultaneous, and reversible editing of a single file (usually a document); and version control (also known as revision control and source control) platforms, which allow users to make parallel edits to a file, while preserving every saved edit by users as multiple files that are variants of the original file. Collaborative software is a broad concept that overlaps considerably with computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). According to Carstensen and Schmidt (1999), groupware is part of CSCW. The authors claim that CSCW, and thereby groupware, addresses "how collaborative activities and their coordination can be supported by means of computer systems." The use of collaborative software in the work space creates a collaborative working environment (CWE). Collaborative software relates to the notion of collaborative work systems, which are conceived as any form of human organization that emerges any time that collaboration takes place, whether it is formal or informal, intentional or unintentional. Whereas the groupware or collaborative software pertains to the technological elements of computer-supported cooperative work, collaborative work systems become a useful analytical tool to understand the behavioral and organizational variables that are associated to the broader concept of CSCW.

  • - supports people, such as e-professionals, in their individual and cooperative work. Research in CWE involves focusing on organizational, technical, and social issues. The concept of CWE is derived from the idea of virtual work-spaces, and is related to the concept of remote work. It extends the traditional concept of the professional to include any type of knowledge worker who intensively uses information and communications technology (ICT) environments and tools in their working practices. Typically, a group of e-professionals conduct their collaborative work through the use of collaborative working environments (CWE). CWE refers to online collaboration (such as virtual teams, mass collaboration, and massively distributed collaboration); online communities of practice (such as the open source community); and open innovation principles.

  • - the study of how people utilize technology collaboratively, often towards a shared goal. CSCW addresses how computer systems can support collaborative activity and coordination. More specifically, the field of CSCW seeks to analyze and draw connections between currently understood human psychological and social behaviors and available collaborative tools, or groupware. Often the goal of CSCW is to help promote and utilize technology in a collaborative way, and help create new tools to succeed in that goal. These parallels allow CSCW research to inform future design patterns or assist in the development of entirely new tools.

  • - consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of activity, enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information. It can be depicted as a sequence of operations, the work of a person or group, the work of an organization of staff, or one or more simple or complex mechanisms. From a more abstract or higher-level perspective, workflow may be considered a view or representation of real work. The flow being described may refer to a document, service, or product that is being transferred from one step to another. Workflows may be viewed as one fundamental building block to be combined with other parts of an organization's structure such as information technology, teams, projects and hierarchies.

  • - the convergence of social software with service management (workflow) software. As the definition implies, collaborative workflow is derived from both workflow software and social software such as chat, instant messaging, and document collaboration.

  • - a mental or thinking process applied by an individual in the context of achieving a goal or set of goals. As a cognitive activity, it produces thought. When applied in an organizational strategic management process, strategic thinking involves the generation and application of unique business insights and opportunities intended to create competitive advantage for a firm or organization. It can be done individually, as well as collaboratively among key people who can positively alter an organization's future. Group strategic thinking may create more value by enabling a proactive and creative dialogue, where individuals gain other people's perspectives on critical and complex issues. This is regarded as a benefit in highly competitive and fast-changing business landscapes.

Furthermore, it may also extend to control mechanisms for guiding the implementation of the strategy. Strategic planning became prominent in corporations during the 1960s and remains an important aspect of strategic management. It is executed by strategic planners or strategists, who involve many parties and research sources in their analysis of the organization and its relationship to the environment in which it competes.


  • Zimbra Collaboration - an enterprise-class email, calendar and collaboration solution built for the cloud, both public and private. With a redesigned browser-based interface, Zimbra offers the most innovative messaging experience available today, connecting end users to the information and activity in their personal clouds.


  • Kopano - 100% Open source collaboration tools: email, calendaring, Mattermost chat, webRTC video meetings, document collaboration with LibreOffice Online, integration with file storage services and more. Formerly Zarafa.

Group Office



  • SOGo - Share your calendars, address books and mails in your community with a completely free and open source solution. SOGo is a fully supported and trusted groupware server with a focus on scalability and open standards. SOGo is released under the GNU GPL/LGPL v2 and above. SOGo provides a rich AJAX-based Web interface and supports multiple native clients through the use of standard protocols such as CalDAV, CardDAV and GroupDAV, as well as Microsoft ActiveSync. SOGo is the missing component of your infrastructure; it sits in the middle of your servers to offer your users a uniform and complete interface to access their information. It has been deployed in production environments where thousands of users are involved.


  • TaskJuggler - a modern and powerful, Free and Open Source Software project management tool. Its new approach to project planning and tracking is more flexible and superior to the commonly used Gantt chart editing tools. TaskJuggler is project management software for serious project managers. It covers the complete spectrum of project management tasks from the first idea to the completion of the project. It assists you during project scoping, resource assignment, cost and revenue planning, risk and communication management. TaskJuggler provides an optimizing scheduler that computes your project time lines and resource assignments based on the project outline and the constraints that you have provided. The built-in resource balancer and consistency checker offload you from having to worry about irrelevant details and ring the alarm if the project gets out of hand. The flexible as-many-details-as-necessary approach allows you to plan your project as you go, making it also ideal for new management strategies such as Extreme Programming and Agile Project Management.


  • The Trac Project - an enhanced wiki and issue tracking system for software development projects. Trac uses a minimalistic approach to web-based software project management. Our mission is to help developers write great software while staying out of the way. Trac should impose as little as possible on a team's established development process and policies. It provides an interface to ​Subversion and ​Git (or other version control systems), an integrated Wiki and convenient reporting facilities. Trac allows wiki markup in issue descriptions and commit messages, creating links and seamless references between bugs, tasks, changesets, files and wiki pages. A timeline shows all current and past project events in order, making the acquisition of an overview of the project and tracking progress very easy. The roadmap shows the road ahead, listing the upcoming milestones.


  • Redmine - flexible project management web application. Written using the Ruby on Rails framework, it is cross-platform and cross-database. Redmine is open source and released under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2 (GPL).
  • - a free and open source, web-based project management and issue tracking tool. It allows users to manage multiple projects and associated subprojects. It features per project wikis and forums, time tracking, and flexible, role-based access control. It includes a calendar and Gantt charts to aid visual representation of projects and their deadlines. Redmine integrates with various version control systems and includes a repository browser and diff viewer. The design of Redmine is significantly influenced by Trac, a software package with some similar features. Redmine is written using the Ruby on Rails framework. It is cross-platform and cross-database and supports 49 languages.


  • ChiliProject - a web based project management system. It supports your team throughout the complete project life cycle, from setting up and discussing a project plan, over tracking issues and reporting work progress to collaboratively sharing knowledge. ChiliProject is not maintained anymore. Please be advised that there will be no more updates.




See also Being#Intersubjectivity

  • - a list of frequently asked questions (FAQs) and answers on a particular topic, also known as Questions and Answers (Q&A) or Frequently Answered Questions. The format is often used in articles, websites, email lists, and online forums where common questions tend to recur, for example through posts or queries by new users related to common knowledge gaps. The purpose of an FAQ is generally to provide information on frequent questions or concerns; however, the format is a useful means of organizing information, and text consisting of questions and their answers may thus be called an FAQ regardless of whether the questions are actually frequently asked. Since the acronym FAQ originated in textual media, its pronunciation varies. FAQ is most commonly pronounced as an initialism, "F-A-Q", but may also be pronounced as an acronym, "FAQ". Web page designers often label a single list of questions as an "FAQ", such as on Google Search, while using "FAQs" to denote multiple lists of questions such as on United States Treasury sites. Use of "FAQ" to refer to a single frequently asked question, in and of itself, is less common.

  • - a fundamental concept in the effort to understand and describe, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the nature of the relationship between an organization and its employees. An "engaged employee" is defined as one who is fully absorbed by and enthusiastic about their work and so takes positive action to further the organization's reputation and interests. An engaged employee has a positive attitude towards the organization and its values. In contrast, a disengaged employee may range from someone doing the bare minimum at work (aka 'coasting'), up to an employee who is actively damaging the company's work output and reputation. An organization with "high" employee engagement might therefore be expected to outperform those with "low" employee engagement. Employee engagement first appeared as a concept in management theory in the 1990s, becoming widespread in management practice in the 2000s, but it remains contested. It stands in an unspecified relationship to earlier constructs such as morale and job satisfaction. Despite academic critiques, employee engagement practices are well established in the management of human resources and of internal communications.

  • - a business communication connection between an external stakeholder (consumer) and an organization (company or brand) through various channels of correspondence. This connection can be a reaction, interaction, effect or overall customer experience, which takes place online and offline. The term can also be used to define customer-to-customer correspondence regarding a communication, product, service or brand. However, the latter dissemination originates from a business-to-consumer interaction resonated at a subconscious level.Online customer engagement is qualitatively different from offline engagement as the nature of the customer’s interactions with a brand, company and other customers differ on the internet. Discussion forums or blogs, for example, are spaces where people can communicate and socialise in ways that cannot be replicated by any offline interactive medium. Online customer engagement is a social phenomenon that became mainstream with the wide adoption of the internet in the late 1990s, which has expanded the technical developments in broadband speed, connectivity and social media. These factors enable customer behaviour to regularly engage in online communities revolving, directly or indirectly, around product categories and other consumption topics. This process leads to a customer’s positive engagement with the company or offering, as well as the behaviours associated with different degrees of customer engagement.


  • - a type of job aid used in repetitive tasks to reduce failure by compensating for potential limits of human memory and attention. Checklists are used both to ensure that safety-critical system preparations are carried out completely and in the correct order, and in less critical applications to ensure that no step is left out of a procedure. they help to ensure consistency and completeness in carrying out a task. A basic example is the "to do list". A more advanced checklist would be a schedule, which lays out tasks to be done according to time of day or other factors, or a pre-flight checklist for an airliner, which should ensure a safe take-off. A primary function of a checklist is documentation of the task and auditing against the documentation. Use of a well designed checklist can reduce any tendency to avoid, omit or neglect important steps in any task. For efficiency and acceptance, the checklist should easily readable, include only necessary checks, and be as short as reasonably practicable.

Todo lists

"the BEST to-do list is the one you use"

  • GoblinTools - a collection of small, simple, single-task tools, mostly designed to help neurodivergent people with tasks they find overwhelming or difficult. Most tools will use AI technologies in the back-end to achieve their goals. Currently this includes OpenAI's models. As the tools and backend improve, the intent is to move to an open source alternative. The AI models used are general purpose models, and so the accuracy of their output can vary. Nothing returned by any of the tools should be taken as a statement of truth, only guesswork. Please use your own knowledge and experience to judge whether the result you get is valid. is offered free and available to all. It will stay free without ads or paywalls. Mobile apps of the tools are offered at a low price (on Android and iOS), which will help cover the running and maintenance costs so the website can stay completely free. Keeping the tools freely available in a convenient form is a foundational principle to us.

  • Comigo - Your AI Companion for ADHD. Helping the 300M people with ADHD thrive in our increasingly distracting world [50]


  • Todo.txt is a plain text file. To take advantage of structured task metadata like priority, projects, context, creation and completion date, there are a few simple but flexible file format rules. Philosophically, the Todo.txt file format has two goals: The file contents should be human-readable without requiring any tools other than a plain text viewer or editor; A user can manipulate the file contents in a plain text editor in sensible, expected ways. For example, a text editor that can sort lines alphabetically should be able to sort your task list in a meaningful way.


  • DevTodo - a small command line application for maintaining lists of tasks. It stores tasks hierarchically, with each task given one of five priority levels. Data is stored as JSON.

Emacs Org mode

See Emacs



  • Todoist - A To-Do List to Organize Your Work & Life. Become focused, organized, and calm with Todoist. The world’s #1 task manager and to-do list app.

  • - an application service provider for Web-based task- and time-management. It allows users to manage tasks from a computer or smartphone, both online and offline. Created in 2004 by a two-person Australian company, it now has international contributors.

  • Pinup - Sticky notes, corkboards, collaboration

  • Deed - lets you keep track of things you plan to do - your deeds.

Getting Things Done

"You will have to make the following lists:

  • In
  • Next actions (probably several – more on that later)
  • Waiting for
  • Projects
  • Some day/maybe

"These lists will be reviewed regularly and form the backbone of the GTD system. Their workings are described below. In addition to the lists you will need a calendar which lets you write down date and time sensitive tasks and events."


  • Getting (Unremarkable) Things Done: The Problem With David Allen’s Universalism - "Allen preaches task universalism: when you get down to concrete actions, all work is created equal. Deep work cannot be reduced to clear next actions. It is, instead, a philosophy that must be cultivated. If you read Robert Greene’s Mastery, for example, you’ll encounter story after story of remarkable people who didn’t carefully organize tasks, but instead marshaled their energy toward the obsessive (and often messy) pursuit of something new."




  • Kanbanik is a free and open source kanban board which can be used for personal kanban as well as for managing of small teams. Kanbanik is a Scala web application with a rich GWT frontend optimized for Google Chrome. For simple install & try there is a runtime for Windows and for Linux available which contains jetty, mongoDB and scripts to run the application with no additional configuration required.
  • TaskBoard - Kanban-inspired app for keeping track of things that need to get done. The goal of TaskBoard is to provide a simple and clean interface to a functional and minimal application for keeping track of tasks. It's not trying to be the next Trello or LeanKit.
  • - A Kanban CLI tool. Create boards, add cards to them or remove them. Built in Python using Typer, it stores cards as JSON data, trivially exportable and usable in other platforms if desired. [57]
  • - Tasks, boards & notes for the command-line habitat. By utilizing a simple and minimal usage syntax, that requires a flat learning curve, taskbook enables you to effectively manage your tasks and notes across multiple boards from within your terminal. All data are written atomically to the storage in order to prevent corruptions, and are never shared with any third party entities. Deleted items are automatically archived and can be inspected or restored at any moment. [58]
  • Plane - open-source software development tool to manage issues, sprints, and product roadmaps with peace of mind lotus_position_woman. Plane is still in its early days, not everything will be perfect yet, and hiccups may happen. Please let us know of any suggestions, ideas, or bugs that you encounter on our Discord or GitHub issues, and we will use your feedback to improve on our upcoming releases. [60]



Example boards:

  • Chrome Web Store: Slim Lists for Trello - Shows you more lists in Trello by reducing the width of lists in Trello by up to 50%
google-chrome-stable --app=
  # launch trello in chrome in kiosk mode. assign this to a keyboard shortcut.

Pivotal Tracker
  • pv - a command-line tool that views and edits the Pivotal Tracker stories that have been assigned to you in the My Work pane. It's scoped to just your work, and pv was definitely designed from the perspective of developers working on a project, not project managers who are managing those developers. My opinion is that Pivotal Tracker's UI was designed primarily for people like that, so this shell tool is simply a different way of seeing that, geared more towards developers who don't need to see the scope of the whole project every time they want to check up on their stories.

to sort

  • Holly - Task tracking for nerds. Holly is TODO lists with an interface for the tech-savvy. If you aren't into code and text editors this will make you cry.

  • DropTask - Visual Task Management for Individuals and Teams

  • TaskFreak - Original is a simple but efficient web based task manager written in PHP. Getting Things Done based.

RTM, etc.


  • Wekan - The open-source Trello-like kanban.

  • Kanboard - a project management software that use the Kanban methodology

  • OpenProject - a web-based project management software. Its key features are: Project planning and scheduling Product roadmap and release planning Task management and team collaboration Agile and Scrum Time tracking, cost reporting, and budgeting Bug tracking Wikis Forums Meeting agendas and meeting minutes


To sort

uncons, bar/foo camps, cons, etc.

  • Socialism and the Blockchain - Steve Huckle and Martin White. "Bitcoin (BTC) is often cited as Libertarian. However, the technology underpinning Bitcoin, blockchain, has properties that make it ideally suited to Socialist paradigms. Current literature supports the Libertarian viewpoint by focusing on the ability of Bitcoin to bypass central authority and provide anonymity; rarely is there an examination of blockchain technology’s capacity for decentralised transparency and auditability in support of a Socialist model. This paper conducts a review of the blockchain, Libertarianism, and Socialist philosophies. It then explores Socialist models of public ownership and looks at the unique cooperative properties of blockchain that make the technology ideal for supporting Socialist societies. In summary, this paper argues that blockchain technologies are not just a Libertarian tool, they also enhance Socialist forms of governance."

  • Colony - a new kind of blockchain based organization. It could be a community project, a company, or a non-profit — your imagination is the only limit.Every colony has its own token. You earn tokens by doing work. The more tokens you hold, the more of the colony you own.Tokens let you stake your ownership on your good judgement when proposing tasks, or claiming someone should be paid.


  • Tracim - Threads, files and pages with status and full history. All in the same place. Tracim is a tool designed to help you and your team to a better collaboration. It's officially supported in Arabic, English, French, German and Portuguese.



to redo

See also Editors, Learning, Wiki, Politics, Living, Being

  • - occurs when two or more people or organizations work together to realize or achieve a goal. Collaboration is very similar to cooperation. Most collaboration requires leadership, although the form of leadership can be social within a decentralized and egalitarian group. Teams that work collaboratively can obtain greater resources, recognition and reward when facing competition for finite resources.

Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of behavior and communication. These various methods specifically aim to increase the success of teams as they engage in collaborative problem solving. Collaboration is also present in opposing goals exhibiting the notion of adversarial collaboration, though this is not a common case for using the word.

  • - In developmental psychology and moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, uncoerced decision. Autonomous organizations or institutions are independent or self-governing. Autonomy can also be defined from a human resources perspective, where it denotes a (relatively high) level of discretion granted to an employee in his or her work. In such cases, autonomy is known to generally increase job satisfaction. Self-actualized individuals are thought to operate autonomously of external expectations. In a medical context, respect for a patient's personal autonomy is considered one of many fundamental ethical principles in medicine.

  • - intent to benefit others, is a social behavior that "benefit[s] other people or society as a whole", "such as helping, sharing, donating, co-operating, and volunteering". Obeying the rules and conforming to socially accepted behaviors (such as stopping at a "Stop" sign or paying for groceries) are also regarded as prosocial behaviors. These actions may be motivated by empathy and by concern about the welfare and rights of others, as well as for egoistic or practical concerns, such as one's social status or reputation, hope for direct or indirect reciprocity, or adherence to one's perceived system of fairness.

  • - refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their condition and achieve a common objective. It is a term that has formulations and theories in many areas of the social sciences including psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science and economics.

  • - are processes, behaviors, and conversations that relate to the collaboration between individuals. These methods specifically aim to increase the success of teams as they engage in collaborative problem solving. Forms, rubrics, charts and graphs are useful in these situations to objectively document personal traits with the goal of improving performance in current and future projects.

  • - Citizen Participation or Public Participation in social science refers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions—and ideally exert influence—regarding political, economic, management or other social decisions. Participatory decision-making can take place along any realm of human social activity, including economic (i.e. participatory economics,, political (i.e. participatory democracy or parpolity), management (i.e. participatory management), cultural (i.e. polyculturalism) or familial (i.e. feminism). For well-informed participation to occur, it is argued that some version of transparency, e.g. radical transparency, is necessary but not sufficient. It has also been argued that those most affected by a decision should have the most say while those that are least affected should have the least say in a topic.

  • - persons or entities who have an interest in a given project. According to the Project Management Institute (PMI), the term project stakeholder refers to "an individual, group, or organization, who may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project, program, or portfolio. ISO 21500 uses a similar definition.

  • - any "system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which is made available to contributors and noncontributors alike." It is prominently observed in open source software, but can also be found in many other instances, such as in Internet forums, mailing lists and online communities. Open collaboration is also thought to be the operating principle underlining a gamut of diverse ventures, example including bitcoin, TEDx, and Wikipedia. Juliet Schor noted that "a clear definition of technology-mediated open collaboration might be difficult to pin down".

Riehle et al. define open collaboration as collaboration based on three principles of egalitarianism, meritocracy, and self-organization. Levine and Piretula define open collaboration as "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." This definition captures multiple instances, all joined by similar principles. For example, all of the elements — goods of economic value, open access to contribute and consume, interaction and exchange, purposeful yet loosely coordinated work — are present in an open source software project, in Wikipedia, or in a user forum or community. They can also be present in a commercial website that is based on user-generated content. In all of these instances of open collaboration, anyone can contribute and anyone can freely partake in the fruits of sharing, which are produced by interacting participants who are loosely coordinated. Open collaboration is the principle underlying peer production,: 48  and mass collaboration. It was observed initially in open source software, and has been popularized by Richard Stallman's GNU Manifesto. Since then it can also be found in many other instances, such as in Internet forums, mailing lists, Internet communities, and many instances of open content, such as creative commons. It also explains some instances of crowdsourcing, collaborative consumption, and open innovation.

  • - a field of practices directed toward the creation or enhancement of community among individuals within a regional area (such as a neighborhood) or with a common need or interest. It is often encompassed under the fields of community organizing, community organization, community work, and community development. A wide variety of practices can be utilized for community building, ranging from simple events like potlucks and small book clubs, to larger–scale efforts such as mass festivals and building construction projects that involve local participants rather than outside contractors. Activists and community workers engaged in community building efforts in industrialized nations see the apparent loss of community in these societies as a key cause of social disintegration and the emergence of many harmful behaviors. They may see building community as a means to address perceived social inequality and injustice, individual and collective well-being, and the negative impacts of otherwise disconnected and/or marginalized individuals.

  • Ephemeral Journal - an independent open access journal founded in 2001. ephemera provides its content free of charge, and charges its readers only with free thought. Theory: ephemera encourages contributions that explicitly engage with theoretical and conceptual understandings of organizational issues, organizational processes and organizational life. This does not preclude empirical studies or commentaries on contemporary issues, but such contributions consider how theory and practice intersect in these cases. We especially publish articles that apply or develop theoretical insights that are not part of the established canon of organization studies. ephemera counters the current hegemonization of social theory and operates at the borders of organization studies in that it continuously seeks to question what organization studies is and what it can become. Politics: ephemera encourages the amplification of the political problematics of organization within academic debate, which today is being actively de-politicized by the current organization of thought within and without universities and business schools. We welcome papers that engage the political in a variety of ways as required by the organizational forms being interrogated in a given instance. Organization: Articles published in ephemera are concerned with theoretical and political aspects of organizations, organization and organizing. We refrain from imposing a narrow definition of organization, which would unnecessarily halt debate. Eager to avoid the charge of ‘anything goes’ however, we do invite our authors to state how their contributions connect to questions of organization and organizing, both theoretical and practical.

  • Co-Production of Public Services and Outcomes - Open Research Online - This book examines user and community co-production of public services and outcomes, currently one of the most discussed topics in the field of public management and policy. It considers co-production in a wide range of public services, with particular emphasis on health, social care and community safety, illustrated through international case studies in many of the chapters. This book draws on both quantitative and qualitative empirical research studies on co-production, and on the Governance International database of more than 70 international co-production case studies, most of which have been republished by the OECD. Academically rigorous and systematically evidence-based, the book incorporates many insights which have arisen from the extensive range of research projects and executive training programmes in co-production undertaken by the author. Written in a style which is easy and enjoyable to read, the book gives readers, both academics and practitioners, the opportunity to develop a creative understanding of the essence and implications of co-production.This book examines user and community co-production of public services and outcomes, currently one of the most discussed topics in the field of public management and policy. It considers co-production in a wide range of public services, with particular emphasis on health, social care and community safety, illustrated through international case studies in many of the chapters. This book draws on both quantitative and qualitative empirical research studies on co-production, and on the Governance International database of more than 70 international co-production case studies, most of which have been republished by the OECD. Academically rigorous and systematically evidence-based, the book incorporates many insights which have arisen from the extensive range of research projects and executive training programmes in co-production undertaken by the author. Written in a style which is easy and enjoyable to read, the book gives readers, both academics and practitioners, the opportunity to develop a creative understanding of the essence and implications of co-production.

  • What is ephemera? | Ephemeral Journal - an independent open access journal founded in 2001. ephemera provides its content free of charge, and charges its readers only with free thought. Theory ephemera encourages contributions that explicitly engage with theoretical and conceptual understandings of organizational issues, organizational processes and organizational life. This does not preclude empirical studies or commentaries on contemporary issues, but such contributions consider how theory and practice intersect in these cases. We especially publish articles that apply or develop theoretical insights that are not part of the established canon of organization studies. ephemera counters the current hegemonization of social theory and operates at the borders of organization studies in that it continuously seeks to question what organization studies is and what it can become. Politics ephemera encourages the amplification of the political problematics of organization within academic debate, which today is being actively de-politicized by the current organization of thought within and without universities and business schools. We welcome papers that engage the political in a variety of ways as required by the organizational forms being interrogated in a given instance. Organization Articles published in ephemera are concerned with theoretical and political aspects of organizations, organization and organizing. We refrain from imposing a narrow definition of organization, which would unnecessarily halt debate. Eager to avoid the charge of ‘anything goes’ however, we do invite our authors to state how their contributions connect to questions of organization and organizing, both theoretical and practical.


  • - defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity. Regardless, social groups come in a myriad of sizes and varieties. For example, a society can be viewed as a large social group. The system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group or between social groups is known as group dynamics.

  • - a group of people who "share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly". The concept was first proposed by cognitive anthropologist Jean Lave and educational theorist Etienne Wenger in their 1991 book Situated Learning (Lave & Wenger 1991). Wenger then significantly expanded on the concept in his 1998 book Communities of Practice (Wenger 1998).

A CoP can evolve naturally because of the members' common interest in a particular domain or area, or it can be created deliberately with the goal of gaining knowledge related to a specific field. It is through the process of sharing information and experiences with the group that members learn from each other, and have an opportunity to develop personally and professionally (Lave & Wenger 1991). CoPs can exist in physical settings, for example, a lunchroom at work, a field setting, a factory floor, or elsewhere in the environment, but members of CoPs do not have to be co-located. They form a "virtual community of practice" (VCoP, (Dubé, Bourhis & Jacob 2005) when they collaborate online, such as within discussion boards, newsgroups, or the various chats on social media, such as #musochat centered on contemporary classical music performance (Sheridan 2015). A "mobile community of practice" (MCoP) (Kietzmann et al. 2013) is when members communicate with one another via mobile phones and participate in community work on the go.

Communities of practice are not new phenomena: this type of learning has existed for as long as people have been learning and sharing their experiences through storytelling. The idea is rooted in American pragmatism, especially C. S. Peirce's concept of the "community of inquiry" (Shields 2003), but also John Dewey's principle of learning through occupation (Wallace 2007).

  • - OCoP), also known as a virtual community of practice (VCoP), is a community of practice (CoP, that is developed on, and is maintained using the Internet. To qualify as an OCoP, the characteristics of a community of practice (CoP) as described by Lave and Wenger must be met. To this end, an OCoP must include active members who are practitioners, or "experts," in the specific domain of interest. Members must participate in a process of collective learning within their domain. Additionally, social structures must be created within the community to assist in knowledge creation and sharing. Knowledge must be shared and meaning negotiated within an appropriate context. Community members must learn through both instruction-based learning and group discourse. Finally, multiple dimensions must facilitate the long-term management of support as well as enable immediate synchronous interactions.

To some, a VCoP is a misnomer as the original concept of a CoP was based around situated learning in a co-located setting. However, with increasing globalization and the continued growth of the Internet many now claim that virtual CoPs do exist (e.g. Dubé, Bourhis & Jacob, 2005; Murillo, 2006; Zarb, 2006; Hara & Hew, 2007; Murillo, 2008). For example, some claim that a wiki (such as Wikipedia) is a virtual CoP (Bryant, Forte & Bruckman, 2005), others argue that the essence of a community is that it is place-based – a community of place.

  • - a social norm of responding to a positive action with another positive action, rewarding kind actions. As a social construct, reciprocity means that in response to friendly actions, people are frequently much nicer and much more cooperative than predicted by the self-interest model; conversely, in response to hostile actions they are frequently much more nasty and even brutal.

  • - the relationship between colleagues. A colleague is a fellow member of the same profession. Colleagues are those explicitly united in a common purpose and respect each other's abilities to work toward that purpose. A colleague is an associate in a profession or in a civil or ecclesiastical office. In a narrower sense, members of the faculty of a university or college are each other's colleagues.

  • - an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means "organ"
  • - the establishment of effective authority-relationships among selected works, persons and workplaces in order for the group to work together efficiently, or the process of dividing work into sections and departments, which often improves efficiency.


  • - a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics). The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behavior, tracking the spread of diseases in society, creating effective therapy techniques, and following the emergence and popularity of new ideas and technologies. Group dynamics are at the core of understanding racism, sexism, and other forms of social prejudice and discrimination. These applications of the field are studied in psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, epidemiology, education, social work, business, and communication studies.

  • - the perception of a social unit as a "group" (Blanchard et al, 2020; Campbell, 1958; Lickel et al, 2000). For example, one may pass by a bus stop and perceive a group of people waiting for a bus but the same people sitting around a table together at a cafe, sharing pastries, and interacting would be much "groupier." Entitativity is the variance of a person's perception of not very much a group (the bus stop) to very much a group (the cafe). Entitativity is necessary for people to experience outcomes (e.g., satisfaction) and enact group processes (e.g., conflict resolution). For example, bus stop satisfaction is not as common of a concern for social and organizational psychologists as social group or workgroup satisfaction. Entitativity is highest for intimacy groups, such as the family, lower for task groups, lower yet for social categories (e.g., people of the same religion), and lowest for transitory groups, such as people waiting at the same bus stop (Lickel et al., 2000). Lickel and colleagues further examined ratings of group entitativity to determine that sports fans, families, and rock bands have the highest entitativity; juries, student study groups, and coworkers have a moderate amount of entitativity; and citizens of a country, professional groups, and people waiting for a bus stop have the lowest levels of entitativity.

  • - also called group cohesion or social cohesion, arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole. Although cohesion is a multi-faceted process, it can be broken down into four main components: social relations, task relations, perceived unity, and emotions. Members of strongly cohesive groups are more inclined to participate readily and to stay with the group.

A primary group is typically a small social group whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships in which one exchanges implicit items, such as love, caring, concern, support, etc. These groups are often long-lasting and marked by members' concern for one another, where the goal is actually the relationship themselves rather than achieving another purpose. In general, they are also psychologically comforting to the individuals involved, providing a source of support. As such, primary groups or lack thereof play an important role in the development of personal identity, and can be understood as tight circles composed of people such as family, long-term romances, crisis-support group, church group, etc.

The concept of the primary group was first introduced in 1909 by sociologist Charles Cooley, a member of the famed Chicago school of sociology, through a book titled Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind. Although Cooley had initially proposed the term to denote the first intimate group of an individual's childhood, the classification would later extend to include other intimate relations.

Additionally, three sub-groups of primary groups can be also identified: Kin (relatives), Close friends, Neighbours Secondary groups (social groups)

  • - both a social group and a primary group of people who have similar interests (homophily), age, background, or social status. The members of this group are likely to influence the person's beliefs and behaviour.

  • - or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, common-interest association,: 266  association, or society) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. Common examples include trade associations, trade unions, learned societies, professional associations, and environmental groups.

All such associations reflect freedom of association in ultimate terms (members may choose whether to join or leave), although membership is not necessarily voluntary in the sense that one's employment may effectively require it via occupational closure. For example, in order for particular associations to function effectively, they might need to be mandatory or at least strongly encouraged, as is true of trade unions. Because of this, some people prefer the term common-interest association to describe groups which form out of a common interest, although this term is not widely used or understood.

Voluntary associations may be incorporated or unincorporated; for example, in the US, unions gained additional powers by incorporating. In the UK, the terms voluntary association or voluntary organisation cover every type of group from a small local residents' association to large associations (often registered charities) with multimillion-pound turnover that run large-scale business operations (often providing some kind of public service as subcontractors to government departments or local authorities). Voluntary association is also used to refer to political reforms, especially in the context of urbanization, granting individuals greater freedoms to associate in civil society as they wished, or not at all.

  • - or working party, is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals. The groups are domain-specific and focus on discussion or activity around a specific subject area. The term can sometimes refer to an interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers working on new activities that would be difficult to sustain under traditional funding mechanisms (e.g., federal agencies).The lifespan of a working group can last anywhere between a few months and several years.

  • - also known as interest groups, special interest groups, lobbying groups, pressure groups, or public associations use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and ultimately policy. They play an important role in the development of political and social systems.Motives for action may be based on political, religious, moral, or commercial positions. Groups use varied methods to try to achieve their aims, including lobbying, media campaigns, awareness raising publicity stunts, polls, research, and policy briefings. Some groups are supported or backed by powerful business or political interests and exert considerable influence on the political process, while others have few or no such resources. Some have developed into important social, political institutions or social movements. Some powerful advocacy groups have been accused of manipulating the democratic system for narrow commercial gain and in some instances have been found guilty of corruption, fraud, bribery, and other serious crimes; Some groups, generally ones with less financial resources, may use direct action and civil disobedience and in some cases are accused of being a threat to the social order or 'domestic extremists'. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action

  • - a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social or political one. This may be to carry out a social change, or to resist or undo one. It is a type of group action and may involve individuals, organizations, or both. Social movements have been described as "organizational structures and strategies that may empower oppressed populations to mount effective challenges and resist the more powerful and advantaged elites". They represent a method of social change from the bottom within nations.

  • - are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of individuals and/or organizations focused on specific political or social issues, in other words, on carrying out, resisting or undoing a social change.

  • - a way of producing goods and services that relies on self-organizing communities of individuals. In such communities, the labor of many people is coordinated towards a shared outcome.

  • - a term coined by Harvard Law School professor Yochai Benkler. It describes a model of socio-economic production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively; usually over the Internet. Commons-based projects generally have less rigid hierarchical structures than those under more traditional business models.

  • PDF: Cooperation in a Peer Production Economy - Experimental Evidence from Wikipedia - "The impressive success of peer production – a large-scale collaborative model of production primarily based on voluntary contributions – is difficult to explain through the assumptions of standard economic theory. The aim of this paper is to study the prosocial foundations of cooperation in this new peer production economy. We provide the first field test of existing economic theories of prosocial motives for contributing to real-world public goods. We use an online experiment coupled with observational data to elicit social preferences within a diverse sample of 850 Wikipedia contributors, and seek to use to those measures to predict subjects’ field contributions to the Wikipedia project. We find that subjects’ field contributions to Wikipedia are strongly related to their level of reciprocity in a conditional Public Goods game and in a Trust game and to their revealed preference for social image within the Wikipedia community, but not to their level of altruism either in a standard or in a directed Dictator game. Our results have important theoretical and practical implications, as we show that reciprocity and social image are both strong motives for sustaining cooperation in peer production environments, while altruism is not."

  • Wittgenstein's Systemization and Wiki's - Philosophy on LiveJournal — LiveJournal - I got hold of a copy of Wittgenstein's 'Protractacus', as von Wright calls a preliminary edition of the Tractacus, and am stupified at the simplicity of Wittgenstein's systemization of writing. von Wright used Wittgenstein's marginal numbers to index and cross-reference deletions and additions between the two editions so that we, the reader, can spend more time thinking about why statements changed rather than searching for what changed. The only limitation I see with Wittgenstein's system is that its linear. Which other writing or information systems have philosophers used? Besides the ubiquitous, loosely numbered Chapter:Section ones? My roommate suggested VoodooTab or any similar Wiki to structure one's writing, and I like this idea despite the recent criticism of Wikipedia below by i_am_lane which is another, banal criticism in a long line of criticisms of the socio-cultural implications of knowledge that ignore a structure that is analytically pragmatic for the sheer volume of information currently processed, i.e. Wiki's are an achievement of what was intended to be a WWW (and if people doubt that Wikipedia article, then just go to the source). Eitherway, one should remember that we are communicating here on LJ because of the social implications of these original, systematic intentions.

  • Complex Adaptive Processes on a Wiki? - The Cynefin Co - But what, now you’ve established you have complexity and shifting circumstances? You need to equip your firm to continually adapt. Your processes can’t be occasionally revamped. They have to be continually evolved, by rule. That’s going to take work, and not by outside process experts, but continuously, by the knowledge workers who enact the process who notice the exceptions, and who’s buy-in to alternative you are going to need anyway to get the changes enacted. Wiki-like edit-open processes are scary to Quality Management professionals. How can random changes by random people deliver stable outcomes? Open contribution to a running process is contrary to the Quality Assurance mantra to get to the “prevention of defects”. The problem with wikis has always been the collapse of two essentially different operations: Save and Publish. You edit and save a page. What happens? You publish to the world. No approval. No chance to ensure it marries up with process changes made elsewhere, compare to compliance or governance regulations, to get it buy-in from stakeholders or to get legal approval. As a rule Wikis omit Content Management and Workflow capabilities and, because they don’t deal with Approved Records, they also lack Records Management and Records Retention facilities.

  • - refers to an organization's ability to be efficient in its management of today's business and also adaptable for coping with tomorrow's changing demand. Just as being ambidextrous means being able to use both the left and right hand equally, organizational ambidexterity requires the organizations to use both exploration and exploitation techniques to be successful.

  • - pronounced "meece", is a grouping principle for separating a set of items into subsets that are mutually exclusive (ME) and collectively exhaustive (CE). It was developed in the late 1960s by Barbara Minto at McKinsey & Company and is underlying her Minto Pyramid Principle, but is based on ideas going back as far as Aristotle.


  • - the belief that one will not be punished or humiliated for speaking up with ideas, questions, concerns, or mistakes. In teams, it refers to team members believing that they can take risks without being shamed by other team members. In psychologically safe teams, team members feel accepted and respected. It is also the most studied enabling condition in group dynamics and team learning research. Psychological safety benefits organizations and teams in many different ways. There are multiple empirically supported consequences of a team being psychologically safe. Most of the research on the effects of psychological safety has focused on benefits, but there are some drawbacks that have been studied.

  • - postulates that people follow a series of predictable steps to seek help for their inadequacies, it is a series of well-ordered and purposeful cognitive and behavioral steps, each leading to specific types of solutions. Help-seeking theory falls into two categories where some consider similarity in the process' (e.g. Cepeda-Benito & Short, 1998) while others consider it as dependent upon the problem (e.g. Di Fabio & Bernaud, 2008). In general help-seeking behaviors are dependent upon three categories, attitudes (beliefs and willingness) towards help-seeking, intention to seek help, and actual help-seeking behavior. Help-seeking was, «in the early studies of socialization and personality development», often viewed as an indicator of dependency and therefore took «on connotations of immaturity, passivity, and even incompetence». Now, there is general agreement that adaptive help-seeking is an important and effective self-regulated learning strategy.

  • - refers to voluntary actions intended to help others, with reward regarded or disregarded. It is a type of prosocial behavior (voluntary action intended to help or benefit another individual or group of individuals, such as sharing, comforting, rescuing and helping).

Altruism is distinguished from helping behavior in this way: Altruism refers to prosocial behaviors that are carried out without expectation of obtaining external reward (concrete reward or social reward) or internal reward (self-reward). An example of altruism would be anonymously donating to charity.

  • - the perception and actuality that one is cared for, has assistance available from other people, and most popularly, that one is part of a supportive social network. These supportive resources can be emotional (e.g., nurturance), informational (e.g., advice), or companionship (e.g., sense of belonging); tangible (e.g., financial assistance) or intangible (e.g., personal advice). Social support can be measured as the perception that one has assistance available, the actual received assistance, or the degree to which a person is integrated in a social network. Support can come from many sources, such as family, friends, pets, neighbors, coworkers, organizations, etc. Government-provided social support may be referred to as public aid in some nations. Social support is studied across a wide range of disciplines including psychology, communications, medicine, sociology, nursing, public health, education, rehabilitation, and social work. Social support has been linked to many benefits for both physical and mental health, but "social support" (e.g., gossiping about friends) is not always beneficial.

  • - an academic discipline and practice-based profession concerned with meeting the basic needs of individuals, families, groups, communities, and society as a whole to enhance their individual and collective well-being. Social work practice draws from areas, such as psychology, sociology, health, political science, community development, law, and economics to engage with systems and policies, conduct assessments, develop interventions, and enhance social functioning and responsibility. The ultimate goals of social work include the improvement of people's lives, alleviation of biopsychosocial concerns, empowerment of individuals and communities, and the achievement of social justice.

Social work practice is often divided into three levels. Micro-work involves working directly with individuals and families, such as providing individual counseling/therapy or assisting a family in accessing services. Mezzo-work involves working with groups and communities, such as conducting group therapy or providing services for community agencies. Macro-work involves fostering change on a larger scale through advocacy, social policy, research development, non-profit and public service administration, or working with government agencies. Starting in the 1960s, a few universities began social work management programmes, to prepare students for the management of social and human service organizations, in addition to classical social work education.

  • - the support of families with a member with a disability, which may include a child, an adult, or even the parent in the family. In the United States, family support includes "unpaid" or "informal" support by neighbors, families, and friends, "paid services" through specialist agencies providing an array of services termed "family support services", school or parent services for special needs such as respite care, specialized child care or peer companions, or cash subsidies, tax deductions or other financial subsidies.

  • - occurs when people provide knowledge, experience, emotional, social or practical help to each other. It commonly refers to an initiative consisting of trained supporters (although it can be provided by peers without training), and can take a number of forms such as peer mentoring, reflective listening (reflecting content and/or feelings), or counseling. Peer support is also used to refer to initiatives where colleagues, members of self-help organizations and others meet, in person or online, as equals to give each other connection and support on a reciprocal basis.

  • - a type of social support in which supportive exchanges are not visible to recipients. There are two possible situations that can qualify as acts of invisible support. The first possibility entails a situation where "recipients are completely unaware of the supportive transaction between themselves and support-givers". For example, a spouse may choose to spontaneously take care of housework without mentioning it to the other couple-member. Invisible support also occurs when "recipients are aware of an act that takes place but do not interpret the act as a supportive exchange". In this case, a friend or family member may subtly provide advice in an indirect manner as a means to preserve the recipient's self-esteem or to defer his or her attention from a stressful situation. Invisible support can be viewed on both ends of an exchange, in which the recipient is unaware of the support received and the provider enacts support in a skillful, subtle way.

  • - members provide each other with various types of help, usually nonprofessional and nonmaterial, for a particular shared, usually burdensome, characteristic. Members with the same issues can come together for sharing coping strategies, to feel more empowered and for a sense of community. The help may take the form of providing and evaluating relevant information, relating personal experiences, listening to and accepting others' experiences, providing sympathetic understanding and establishing social networks. A support group may also work to inform the public or engage in advocacy.

  • - are voluntary associations of people who share a common desire to overcome mental illness or otherwise increase their level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing. Despite the different approaches, many of the psychosocial processes in the groups are the same. Self-help groups have had varying relationships with mental health professionals. Due to the nature of these groups, self-help groups can help defray the costs of mental health treatment and implementation into the existing mental health system could help provide treatment to a greater number of the mentally ill population.

  • - or group therapy is a form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group. The term can legitimately refer to any form of psychotherapy when delivered in a group format, including art therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy, but it is usually applied to psychodynamic group therapy where the group context and group process is explicitly utilized as a mechanism of change by developing, exploring and examining interpersonal relationships within the group. The broader concept of group therapy can be taken to include any helping process that takes place in a group, including support groups, skills training groups (such as anger management, mindfulness, relaxation training or social skills training), and psychoeducation groups. The differences between psychodynamic groups, activity groups, support groups, problem-solving and psychoeducational groups have been discussed by psychiatrist Charles Montgomery. Other, more specialized forms of group therapy would include non-verbal expressive therapies such as art therapy, dance therapy, or music therapy.

  • - international mutual aid programs supporting recovery from substance addictions, behavioral addictions and compulsions. Developed in the 1930s, the first twelve-step program, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), founded by Bill Wilson and Bob Smith, aided its membership to overcome alcoholism. Since that time dozens of other organizations have been derived from AA's approach to address problems as varied as drug addiction, compulsive gambling, sex, and overeating. All twelve-step programs utilize a version of AA's suggested twelve steps first published in the 1939 book Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism.

Affinity group

  • - a group formed around a shared interest or common goal, to which individuals formally or informally belong. Affinity groups are generally precluded from being under the aegis of any governmental agency, and their purposes must be primarily non-commercial. Examples of affinity groups include private social clubs, fraternities, writing or reading circles, hobby clubs, and groups engaged in political activism.

Some affinity groups are organized in a non-hierarchical manner, often using consensus decision making, and are frequently made up of trusted friends. They provide a method of organization that is flexible and decentralized. Other affinity groups may have a hierarchy to provide management of the group's long-term interests, or if the group is large enough to require the delegation of responsibilities to other members or staff.

Affinity groups can be based on a common social identity or ideology (e.g., anarchism, conservatism), a shared concern for a given issue (e.g., anti-nuclear, anti-abortion) or a common activity, role, interest or skill (e.g., legal support, medical aid, software engineering). Affinity groups may have either open or closed membership, although the latter is far more common. Some charge membership dues or expect members to share the cost of the group's expenses.

Affinity groups engaged in political activism date to 19th century Spain. It was a favourite way of organization by Spanish anarchists (grupos de afinidad), and had their base in the tertulias or in the local groups

  • Affinity groups: an introduction | - An affinity group is a small group of 5 to 20 people who work together autonomously on direct actions or other projects. You can form an affinity group with your friends, people from your community, workplace, or organisation. Affinity groups challenge top-down decision-making and organising, and empower those involved to take creative direct action. Affinity groups allow people to "be" the action they want to see by giving complete freedom and decision-making power to the affinity group. Affinity groups by nature are decentralised and non-hierarchical, two important principles of anarchist organising and action. The affinity group model was first used by anarchists in Spain in the late 19th and early 20th century, and was re-introduced to radical direct action by anti-nuclear activists during the 1970s, who used decentralised non-violent direct action to blockade roads, occupy spaces and disrupt "business as usual" for the nuclear and war makers of the US. Affinity groups have a long and interesting past, owing much to the anarchists and workers of Spain and the anarchists and radicals today who use affinity groups, non-hierarchical structures, and consensus decision making in direct action and organising.

Community organizing

  • - a process where people who live in proximity to each other or share some common problem come together into an organization that acts in their shared self-interest. Unlike those who promote more-consensual community building, community organizers generally assume that social change necessarily involves conflict and social struggle in order to generate collective power for the powerless. Community organizing has as a core goal the generation of durable power for an organization representing the community, allowing it to influence key decision-makers on a range of issues over time. In the ideal, for example, this can get community-organizing groups a place at the table before important decisions are made. Community organizers work with and develop new local leaders, facilitating coalitions and assisting in the development of campaigns. A central goal of organizing is the development of a robust, organized, local democracy bringing community members together across differences to fight together for the interests of the community.

  • The Community Organising Framework - Community Organisers - It’s often hard to know where to start when you want to get people to join you in action. But we always start the same way. With listening. You may have a clear idea about what’s wrong and what needs to change, but do others see things the same way? Community organising always starts with face-to-face conversations. The conversations aren’t just chats, they are about really listening to what people feel and think. We may start with our friends, our families, our neighbours, our members, the people we work with or for. But then we need to go beyond the people we know. We reach out to people we never meet or talk to, through knocking on their doors, standing at school gates, going into community centres, visiting mosques and churches and working men’s clubs. We don’t believe anyone is hard to reach. We just need to go to where people are. We believe that everyone has something to offer.

  • - or Community Based Organization refers to organization aimed at making desired improvements to a community's social health, well-being, and overall functioning. Community organization occurs in geographically, psychosocially, culturally, spiritually, and digitally bounded communities. Community organization includes community work, community projects, community development, community empowerment, community building, and community mobilization. It is a commonly used model for organizing community within community projects, neighborhoods, organizations, voluntary associations, localities, and social networks, which may operate as ways to mobilize around geography, shared space, shared experience, interest, need, and/or concern.

  • Abeyance - Taylor - Major Reference Works - Wiley Online Library - Abeyance depicts a holding pattern in which a social movement manages to sustain itself and mount a challenge to authorities in a hostile political and cultural environment, thereby providing continuity from one stage of mobilization to another. Abeyance carries with it the connotation of movement decline, failure, and demobilization relative to peaks of mobilization. When a movement declines, it does not necessary disappear. Rather, pockets of movement activity may continue to exist and can serve as starting points of a new cycle of the same or a new movement at a later point in time. During periods of abeyance, movements sustain themselves but develop distinct repertoires of contention that are different from the mobilizing structures and tactical repertoires of movements in a stage of mass mobilization. A social movement in abeyance may provide linkages to new rounds of mobilization through activist networks, an established repertoire of goals and tactics, and by constructing a collective identity that can serve as a symbolic resource for subsequent mobilization.


  • - a list of meeting activities in the order in which they are to be taken up, beginning with the call to order and ending with adjournment. It usually includes one or more specific items of business to be acted upon. It may, but is not required to, include specific times for one or more activities. An agenda may also be called a docket, schedule, or calendar. It may also contain a listing of an order of business.

  • - also known as minutes of meeting (abbreviation MoM,, protocols or, informally, notes, are the instant written record of a meeting or hearing. They typically describe the events of the meeting and may include a list of attendees, a statement of the activities considered by the participants, and related responses or decisions for the activities.



  • - the use of a combination of graphics such as diagrams, pictures, symbols, and writing to lead people toward a goal in meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences. The graphics are usually drawn by hand, by a person called a graphic facilitator who may create the graphics in real time during the event and may work alone or together with another person called a facilitator who aids the discussion. : 9 

The article "A Graphic Facilitation Retrospective", written by David Sibbet in 2001, told the story of early pioneers of graphic facilitation who were inspired by architects (with understanding of large imagery), designers, computer engineers (who started to cluster information in a new way), art and psychology. Sibbet described that what at a glance "just" looked like graphics was much more: "It was also dance, and story telling, since the facilitator was constantly in physical motion, miming the group and its communication with movement, as well as commenting on the displays, suggesting processes and the like. ": 3  An early paper in the field of graphic facilitation was "Explicit Group Memory" by Geoff Ball, who claimed that a shared picture is the best way to support group learning or, more importantly, a lasting memory in the group. : 1 

Graphic recording combines the skills of a note-taker and an artist to visually represent information communicated orally in a group of people, but usually without much interaction between the person doing the graphic recording and the other people. : 9  Graphic recording is used to create visual summaries of meeting dialogue or conference speakers' presentations. Key skills of graphic recording include listening to people, thinking about what information is most important in what they have said, organizing the information in a way that can be communicated graphically, and drawing graphics that are visually and emotionally appealing.

Quaker method

  • - a form of group decision-making and discernment used by Quakers, or 'members of the Religious Society of Friends', to organise their religious affairs (rather than to run commercial businesses in a Quakerly manner). It is primarily carried out in meetings for worship for business, which are regular gatherings where minutes are drafted, to record collective decisions.

The practice is based upon the core Quaker belief that there is "that of God in every one", and therefore every person has unmediated opportunity to experience the will of God. Subsequently, the practice aims to collectively discern the will of God through silent reflection, inspired statements (vocal ministry) and a capturing of the resultant "sense of the meeting".

The strong spiritual basis marks the Quaker business method as a mystical form of decision-making, in contrast to purely rational practices such as parliamentary procedure. Quakers describe their practice as one of "unity", in comparison to majority, unanimity or consensus.

Although minor differences exist between how different Quaker organizations conduct their meetings for business, the practice has not fundamentally changed since its conception in the late-17th century, shortly after Quakerism began. The secular practices of consensus decision-making in activist movements and consent within Sociocracy were directly inspired by Quaker practice in the 20th century.

Consensus process

  • - or consensus process (often abbreviated to consensus) are group decision-making processes in which participants develop and decide on proposals with the aim, or requirement, of acceptance by all. The focus on establishing agreement of at least the majority or the supermajority and avoiding unproductive opinion differentiates consensus from unanimity, which requires all participants to support a decision.

  • Resources by Seeds for Change - Our guides are designed to help you be more effective and genuinely inclusive in your campaign or project. The ideas, examples and tips in our guides are based on working with many different groups and projects, both as campaigners and as trainers. You may have very different experiences to ours - we'd really welcome your feedback so we can edit the guides to reflect a diverse range of campaigns and contexts.


  • - consciously sought to develop tools and strategies that could be employed to bring about revolutionary change through nonviolent means. The three-part focus of MNS included training for activists, nonviolent direct action and community. The main location for MNS activity was in West Philadelphia. Other locations included Atlanta, Boston, Minneapolis, Ohio, San Francisco, Seattle, Toronto, Tucson, Western Massachusetts and more. During the 1970s and early 1980s Philadelphia was the base for weekend, two-week and nine-month programs that trained US and international activists in direct action organizing, group process, consensus decision-making, liberation/oppression issues and more. Activist training also happened in other locations and through traveling trainers programs.


  • - straw polls as not voting, just focusing attention. hard issues are still heard, maybe bracketed.

Hand signals

  • - a group of hand signals used by Occupy Wall Street protesters to negotiate a consensus. The signals have been equated with other hand languages used by soldiers, cliques, or even Wall Street traders. Hand signals are used instead of conventional audible signals, like applause, shouts, or booing, because they do not interrupt the speaker using the human microphone, a system where the front of the crowd repeats the speaker so that the content can be heard at the back of the crowd. Between sharing of information on Facebook, Twitter, and other news reports, the hand signals have become common at other Occupy movement protest locations. Some protesters go to neighboring groups to assist in teaching the hand signals along with other general cooperation. There are YouTube videos showing the hand signals, though the signals are not universal at all locations.

  • Chatbots Facilitating Consensus-Building in Asynchronous Co-Design - Consensus-building is an essential process for the success of co-design projects. To build consensus, stakeholders need to discuss conflicting needs and viewpoints, converge their ideas toward shared interests, and grow their willingness to commit to group decisions. However, managing group discussions is challenging in large co-design projects with multiple stakeholders. In this paper, we investigate the interaction design of a chatbot that can mediate consensus-building conversationally. By interacting with individual stakeholders, the chatbot collects ideas to satisfy conflicting needs and engages stakeholders to consider others' viewpoints, without having stakeholders directly interact with each other. Results from an empirical study in an educational setting (N = 12) suggest that the approach can increase stakeholders' commitment to group decisions and maintain the effect even on the group decisions that conflict with personal interests. We conclude that chatbots can facilitate consensus-building in small-to-medium-sized projects, but more work is needed to scale up to larger projects.Conversation designAn example of chatbot-facilitated consensus-building in co-design that involves no direct communication between stakeholders. In the system, the chatbot stages the discussion (A) and presents conflicts (B). It then invites users to make aninitial suggestion (C), perform self-assessment (D), review others' suggestions that are similar to (E) and in conflict with the user's own (F), take others' perspective (G), and make the final suggestion (H).

Formal consensus

  • - refers to a specific organizational structure which formalizes both the relationships between members of an organization and the processes through which they interact to create an environment in which consensus decision-making can occur in a specific, consistent, and efficient manner. While many diverse consensus decision-making techniques exist, formal consensus emphasizes the concept that the particular process by which a decision is made is equally significant to gaining consensus as the content of any proposal or discussion.

Rough consensus

  • - a term used in consensus decision-making to indicate the "sense of the group" concerning a particular matter under consideration. It has been defined as the "dominant view" of a group as determined by its chairperson. The term was used by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in describing its procedures for working groups (WGs). The means to establish rough consensus was described by the IETF as follows:

Working groups make decisions through a "rough consensus" process. IETF consensus does not require that all participants agree although this is, of course, preferred. In general, the dominant view of the working group shall prevail. (However, "dominance" is not to be determined on the basis of volume or persistence, but rather a more general sense of agreement). Consensus can be determined by a show of hands, humming, or any other means on which the WG agrees (by rough consensus, of course). Note that 51% of the working group does not qualify as "rough consensus" and 99% is better than rough. It is up to the Chair to determine if rough consensus has been reached (IETF Working Group Guidelines and Procedures). The phrase is often extended into the saying "rough consensus and running code", to make it clear that the IETF is interested in practical, working systems that can be quickly implemented. There is some debate as to whether running code leads to rough consensus or vice versa. There is also caution about whether percentages are a good measure for rough consensus. The IETF published a subsequent document pointing out that supporting percentage is less important for determining "rough consensus" than ensuring opposing views are addressed

  • RFC 2418: IETF Working Group Guidelines and Procedures - The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has responsibility for developing and reviewing specifications intended as Internet Standards. IETF activities are organized into working groups (WGs). This document describes the guidelines and procedures for formation and operation of IETF working groups. It also describes the formal relationship between IETF participants WG and the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) and the basic duties of IETF participants, including WG Chairs, WG participants, and IETF Area Directors.

  • IETF | The Tao of IETF: A Novice's Guide to the Internet Engineering Task Force - This document introduces you to the "ways of the IETF": it will convey the might and magic of networking people and packets in the Internet's most prominent standards body. In this document we describe the inner workings of IETF meetings and Working Groups, discuss organizations related to the IETF, and introduce the standards process. This is not a formal IETF process document but an informal and informational overview.

  • - When closing a discussion, the discussion closer may recognize that despite the participants not reaching a consensus, there is evidence of a rough consensus enough to make a decision and to close the discussion. Traditionally, this has been most prominently done by administrators in deletion discussions. See Wikipedia:Deletion guidelines for administrators#Rough consensus, shortcut WP:ROUGH CONSENSUS. However, experienced non-admin closers are also respected for rough consensus calls, and rough consensus is also used to close a number of non-deletion discussions, such as requested moves, formal requests for comment, and many others.

Nominal group technique

  • - a group process involving problem identification, solution generation, and decision making. It can be used in groups of many sizes, who want to make their decision quickly, as by a vote, but want everyone's opinions taken into account . The method of tallying is the difference. First, every member of the group gives their view of the solution, with a short explanation. Then, duplicate solutions are eliminated from the list of all solutions, and the members proceed to rank the solutions, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.

Some facilitators will encourage the sharing and discussion of reasons for the choices made by each group member, thereby identifying common ground, and a plurality of ideas and approaches. This diversity often allows the creation of a hybrid idea , often found to be even better than those ideas being initially considered.

In the basic method, the numbers each solution receives are totaled, and the solution with the highest total ranking is selected as the final decision. There are variations on how this technique is used. For example, it can identify strengths versus areas in need of development, rather than be used as a decision-making voting alternative. Also, options do not always have to be ranked, but may be evaluated more subjectively.

  • Consensus Methods: Nominal Group Technique | SpringerLink - Nominal group technique uses structured small group discussion to achieve consensus among participants and has been used for priority setting in healthcare and research. A facilitator asks participants to individually identify and contribute ideas to generate a list. The group discusses, elaborates, clarifies, and adds new ideas as appropriate. Each participant independently prioritizes the ideas, for example, by voting, rating, or ranking. The facilitator may summarize the scores to ascertain the overall group priorities. This method is useful for generating a diverse range of views and ideas in a structured manner, prevents participants from dominating the discussion, and promotes input from all members.

  • - A spokescouncil is a collection of affinity groups and clusters (a collection of affinity groups), who meet together for a common purpose, often civil disobedience. "Spokes" is short for "spokesperson", selected by each affinity group or cluster to represent them in the spokescouncil. The council usually makes decisions via a consensus decision making process.


  • - also known as Systemic Consensus is a consensus-oriented group decision-making principle and method developed by Erich Visotschnig and Siegfried Schrotta. The principle is that minimizing participant resistance should be the highest concern when making decisions. The method asks participants to score all proposals—including the status quo—according to how much they oppose them, and selects the proposal with the lowest score.

Training and facilitaton services

  • Tripod – Training for Creative Social Action, based in Edinburgh

Delphi / ETE

  • - or Delphi technique (/ˈdɛlfaɪ/ DEL-fy; also known as Estimate-Talk-Estimate or ETE) is a structured communication technique or method, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts. The technique can also be adapted for use in face-to-face meetings, and is then called mini-Delphi. Delphi has been widely used for business forecasting and has certain advantages over another structured forecasting approach, prediction markets.

Delphi can also be used to help reach expert consensus and develop professional guidelines. It is used for such purposes in many health-related fields, including clinical medicine, public health, and research. Delphi is based on the principle that forecasts (or decisions) from a structured group of individuals are more accurate than those from unstructured groups. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. After each round, a facilitator or change agent provides an anonymised summary of the experts' forecasts from the previous round as well as the reasons they provided for their judgments. Thus, experts are encouraged to revise their earlier answers in light of the replies of other members of their panel. It is believed that during this process the range of the answers will decrease and the group will converge towards the "correct" answer. Finally, the process is stopped after a predefined stopping criterion (e.g., number of rounds, achievement of consensus, stability of results), and the mean or median scores of the final rounds determine the results. Special attention has to be paid to the formulation of the Delphi theses and the definition and selection of the experts in order to avoid methodological weaknesses that severely threaten the validity and reliability of the results.


  • - the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet some requirements, of customers or corporations. The resources managed in logistics can include physical items, such as food, materials, animals, equipment and liquids, as well as abstract items, such as time, information, particles, and energy. The logistics of physical items usually involves the integration of information flow, material handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, warehousing, and often security. The complexity of logistics can be modeled, analyzed, visualized, and optimized by dedicated simulation software. The minimization of the use of resources is a common motivation in logistics for import and export. "the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.", a branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine systems."

  • - IL, deals with the flow of information between human and / or machine actors within or between any number of organizations that in turn form a value creating network (see, e.g.). IL is closely related to information management, information operations and information technology.

to sort

  • - originally co-operative design, now often co-design, is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable. Participatory design is an approach which is focused on processes and procedures of design and is not a design style. The term is used in a variety of fields e.g. software design, urban design, architecture, landscape architecture, product design, sustainability, graphic design, planning, and health services development as a way of creating environments that are more responsive and appropriate to their inhabitants' and users' cultural, emotional, spiritual and practical needs. It is also one approach to placemaking. Recent research suggests that designers create more innovative concepts and ideas when working within a co-design environment with others than they do when creating ideas on their own. Participatory design has been used in many settings and at various scales. For some, this approach has a political dimension of user empowerment and democratization. For others, it is seen as a way of abrogating design responsibility and innovation by designers

  • - encompasses values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of a business. The organizational culture influences the way people interact, the context within which knowledge is created, the resistance they will have towards certain changes, and ultimately the way they share (or the way they do not share) knowledge. Organizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational members. It may also be influenced by factors such as history, product, market, technology, strategy, type of employees, management style, and national culture. Culture includes the organization's vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, environment, location, beliefs and habits.

  • - also called organization science or organizational studies, is the academic field interested in a collective activity, and how it relates to organization, organizing, and management. It is "the examination of how individuals construct organizational structures, processes, and practices and how these, in turn, shape social relations and create institutions that ultimately influence people".

Organizational studies comprise different areas that deal with the different aspects of the organizations, many of the approaches are functionalist but critical research also provide an alternative frame for understanding in the field. Fundamental to the study of management is organizational change.

Historically, facilitating organizational change has proven to be a difficult subject, which is why different theoretical frameworks have evolved in an attempt to strategically streamline this process, such as utilizing external actors, or interim organizations, where it is important to define the expectations of the outcome of change before initiating it, so as to provide measurability.

  • - in psychology are a family of holistic psychological theories which tend to stress the organization, unity, and integration of human beings expressed through each individual's inherent growth or developmental tendency. The idea of an explicitly "organismic theory" dates at least back to the publication of Kurt Goldstein's The organism: A holistic approach to biology derived from pathological data in man in 1934. Organismic theories and the "organic" metaphor were inspired by organicist approaches in biology. The most direct influence from inside psychology comes from gestalt psychology. This approach is often contrasted with mechanistic and reductionist perspectives in psychology.

  • - a theory in the field of organizational communication illustrating how communication makes up an organization. In the theory's simplest explanation, an organization is created and defined by communication. Communication "is" the organization and the organization exists because communication takes place. The theory is built on the notion, an organization is not seen as a physical unit holding communication. Text and conversation theory puts communication processes at the heart of organizational communication and postulates, an organization doesn't contain communication as a "causal influence", but is formed by the communication within. This theory is not intended for direct application, but rather to explain how communication exists. The theory provides a framework for better understanding organizational communication.

Since the foundation of organizations are in communication, an organization cannot exist without communication, and the organization is defined as the result of communications happening within its context. Communications begin with individuals within the organization discussing beliefs, goals, structures, plans and relationships. These communicators achieve this through constant development, delivery, and translation of "text and conversation". The theory proposes mechanisms of communications are "text and "conversation".

  • Turbulance: Network organisation for the 21st century - Harry Halpin and Kay Summer - "future movements must consciously try to avoid two distinct fates: either the dissolution into a decentralised network of loose clusters of relatively isolated groups, movements and individuals – the fate of the summit-hopping phase of the movement of movements – or a decline towards a centralised network of cadres, which severely damaged the movement in the Sixties. Our lines of flight from these dead-ends consist in wilfully pushing ourselves to learn from successful networks and evolve towards a mature distributed network with abundant hubs and a powerful long tail: a movement with both mass participation and dynamic hubs of people and events, capable of evolving and responding rapidly to a fast-changing world."

  • - the principle expressed in the preamble to the International Labour Organization's founding documents. It expresses the view that people should not be treated like inanimate commodities, capital, another mere factor of production, or resources. Instead, people who work for a living should be treated as human beings, and accorded dignity and respect.

  • Peeragogy - a collection of techniques for collaborative learning and collaborative work. By learning how to “work smart” together, we hope to leave the world in a better state than it was when we arrived. Indeed, humans have always learned from each other. But for a long time — until the advent of the Web and widespread access to digital media — schools have had an effective monopoly on the business of learning. Now, with access to open educational resources and free or inexpensive communication platforms, groups of people can learn together outside as well as inside formal institutions. All of this prompted us to reconsider the meaning of “peer learning.”

  • - We’ve had enough of digital monopolies and surveillance capitalism. We want a world that works for everyone, just like the original intention of the web and net.We seek a world of open platforms and protocols with real choices of applications and services for people. We care about privacy, transparency and autonomy. Our organisations and tools should fundamentally be accountable and resilient.

  • Citizen's Handbook - The first print edition of the Citizens Handbook (cover above) was produced in 1995 as part of a project led by a remarkable woman, Chris Warren, who was then working in the Social Planning Department of the City of Vancouver. She gathered a group of citizens together to talk about the effects of aging under the heading of Ready or Not. As a result of these discussions, she shifted the whole project towards what participants were really interested in: How to organize their own neighbourhoods. Chris Warren received a lot of flak from city administrators and politicians, even though the first addition of the Citizens Handbook recommended many ways that citizens could work cooperatively with city government. A year later, The Vancouver CommunityNet put up the first web edition of the Citizens Handbook, making it the first complete grassroots organizing guide on the web. Soon, everyone began using The Handbook for everything. Google, in a cheeky move, ranked the new site higher than the huge US Citizens Handbook site which listed all the services provided by the US government. Ralph Nader's site, Public Citizen, then adopted the Handbook as its grassroots organizing guide. The Handbook helped Germans address a serious pollution issue, educators in New York a serious funding issue; and oceanographers in the US trying to change public policy to protect sea life. More recently it has been used extensively by citizens in the Ukraine.

  • - the process of managing several related projects, often with the intention of improving an organization's performance. It is distinct from project management. In practice and in its aims, program management is often closely related to systems engineering, industrial engineering, change management, and business transformation. In the defense sector, it is the dominant approach to managing large projects. Because major defense programs entail working with contractors, it is also called acquisition management, indicating that the government buyer acquires goods and services by means of contractors.

The program manager has oversight of the purpose and status of the projects in a program and can use this oversight to support project-level activity to ensure the program goals are met by providing a decision-making capacity that cannot be achieved at project level or by providing the project manager with a program perspective when required, or as a sounding board for ideas and approaches to solving project issues that have program impacts. The program manager may be well-placed to provide this insight by actively seeking out such information from the project managers, although in large and/or complex projects, a specific role may be required. However this insight arises, the program manager needs this in order to be comfortable that the overall program goals are achievable.

  • Wikum: Bridging Discussion Systems and Wikis with Collective Summarization | MIT CSAIL - We build tools to allow a community of people to collectively summarize large discussions online and manage knowledge embedded within these discussions. Large-scale discussions between many participants abound on the internet today. But as these discussions grow to tens of thousands of posts, they become ever more difficult for a reader to digest. We've developed a workflow called recursive summarization and a prototype system called Wikum that enables a large population of readers or editors to work in small doses to refine out the main points of the discussion. More than just a single summary, our workflow produces a summary tree that enables a reader to explore distinct subtopics at multiple levels of detail based on their interests.


  • National Occupational Standards (NOS) are statements of the standards of performance individuals must achieve when carrying out functions in the workplace, together with specifications of the underpinning knowledge and understanding.

"The Governance Hub’s experience and research suggest that many trustees and management committee members would like greater reassurance and access to practical information about legal structures and their implications. We have frequently been asked to suggest resources that will help in this area. This is why we asked Co-operatives UK to revise and update their Governance and Participation toolkit, and make it more easily available by producing a shorter single document version of the legal and governance proles contained in the toolkit. This text is the result. It presents the most widely used legal forms and governance models that organisations can use, together with other relevant information. It has been updated to include the newer forms now available: community interest companies (CIC) and charitable incorporated organisations (CIO)."

  • - a method of consensus decision-making, based on the Dutch version of consensus-based economic and social policymaking in the 1980s and 1990s. It gets its name from the Dutch word (polder) for tracts of land enclosed by dikes.The polder model has been described as "a pragmatic recognition of pluriformity" and "cooperation despite differences". It is thought that the Dutch politician Ina Brouwer was the first to use the term poldermodel, in her 1990 article Het socialisme als poldermodel? ("Socialism as Polder Model?"), although it is uncertain whether she coined the term or simply seems to have been the first to write it down.Socioeconomic polder model


See Being#Discourse, Being#Nonviolent communication #Structured debate


  • - a non-fiction book by the science-fiction author David Brin in which he forecasts social transparency and some degree of erosion of privacy, as it is overtaken by low-cost surveillance, communication and database technology, and proposes new institutions and practices that he believes would provide benefits that would more than compensate for lost privacy. The work first appeared as a magazine article by Brin in Wired in late 1996. In 2008, security expert Bruce Schneier called the transparent society concept a "myth" (a characterization Brin later rejected), claiming it ignores wide differences in the relative power of those who access information.

  • - a phrase used across fields of governance, politics, software design and business to describe actions and approaches that radically increase the openness of organizational process and data. Its usage was originally understood as an approach or act that uses abundant networked information to access previously confidential organizational process or outcome data.

  • - an approach to enterprise that draws on ideas from openness movements like free software, open source, open content and open tools and standards. The approach places value on transparency, stakeholder inclusion, and accountability.

Open business structures make contributors and non-contributors visible so that business benefits are distributed accordingly. They seek to increase personal engagement and positive outcomes by rewarding contributors in an open way.


See Living#Cooperative, Politics#Cooperative

  • - unites co-ops as a movement. We collaborate to reach our training, political and commercial goals, and spread the word about cooperation among new generations and groups of workers. By taking part in this growing network of cooperators from different places and industries, you will be able to: Act together with workers from our four home countries, Europe and the global movement Identify new trading and development opportunities Co-create learning, development and support programmes Share resources and insights Connect with new audiences and sectors through youth and worker awareness activities

  • Worker co-op code - - The purpose of this code is to help people set up, maintain and renew strong worker cooperative enterprises. It sets out what workers should expect, and work together to achieve, as members of a co-op.

  • - contains practical and conceptual materials to help us think about how to respond to power relations within organisations and in wider social and political spaces. This resource is a collective effort, please contact us if you have something to contribute and share with others interested in power analysis.
    • Expressions of Power - Power is often defined only in negative terms, and as a form of domination, Power Over but it can also be a positive force, Power With, Power To, Power Within, for individual and collective capacity to act for change. Lisa VeneKlasen and Valeries Miller describee these four ‘expressions of power’ in A New Weave of Power (2002, page 55).

  • CoTech « Cooperative Technologists - Creative technology companies, fully owned and controlled by the people who do the work. Cooperative ownership means tech that’s better for its workers and customers. Watch video Our manifesto Co-ops 41 Staff 213+ Revenue £10.3m Clients 431+ CoTech is a network of ethical co-operatives providing technology, digital and creative services. Working with co-operatives has major benefits: you’ll work directly with the people who own the business, who have a stake in making sure your project succeeds. With no private shareholders drawing out dividends, you’ll get genuine value for money. And on top of that, you’ll get the benefit of working with small and responsive businesses which draw on the skills, specialisms and security of a large network.


  • - a group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Professor Leigh Thompson of the Kellogg School of Management, "[a] team is a group of people who are interdependent with respect to information, resources, knowledge and skills and who seek to combine their efforts to achieve a common goal". A group does not necessarily constitute a team. Teams normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to maximize their strengths and minimize their weaknesses.

  • - or organizational socialization is the American term for the mechanism through which new employees acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors to become effective organizational members and insiders. In standard English, this is referred to as "induction". In the United States, up to 25% of workers are organizational newcomers engaged in onboarding process. The term "onboarding" is management jargon coined in the 1970s.

Tactics used in this process include formal meetings, lectures, videos, printed materials, or computer-based orientations that outline the operations and culture of the organization that the employee is entering into. This process is known in other parts of the world as an 'induction' or training. Studies have documented that socialization techniques such as onboarding lead to positive outcomes for new employees. These include higher job satisfaction, better job performance, greater organizational commitment, and reduction in occupational stress and intent to quit.

  • Kate Heddleston: Onboarding and the Cost of Team Debt - Onboarding is critical for the productivity and growth of engineering teams. While onboarding is important for all individuals, a lack of onboarding disproportionately hurts those who are different from the existing team. Onboarding doesn't have to be a cumbersome process filled with boring seminars and paperwork; onboarding can be creative, fun, and flexible. Putting in the effort to create structured onboarding will pay off hugely, and is way more efficient than flying by the seat of your pants with each new employee. Onboarding will help integrate new employees, making them as successful as possible, which will improve employee retention, satisfaction, and diversity.

  • - also known as a geographically dispersed team, distributed team, or remote team) usually refers to a group of individuals who work together from different geographic locations and rely on communication technology such as email, instant messaging, and video or voice conferencing services in order to collaborate. The term can also refer to groups or teams that work together asynchronously or across organizational levels.

  • - a group of individuals who perform an analysis of information systems to ensure security, identify security flaws, verify the effectiveness of each security measure, and to make certain all security measures will continue to be effective after implementation.

  • - a group that pretends to be an enemy, attempts a physical or digital intrusion against an organization at the direction of that organization, then reports back so that the organization can improve their defenses. Red teams work for the organization or are hired by the organization. Their work is legal, but can surprise some employees who may not know that red teaming is occurring, or who may be deceived by the red team. Some definitions of red team are broader, and include any group within an organization that is directed to think outside the box and look at alternative scenarios that are considered less plausible. This can be an important defense against false assumptions and groupthink. The term red teaming originated in the 1960s in the United States.

Technical red teaming focuses on compromising networks and computers digitally. There may also be a blue team, a term for cybersecurity employees who are responsible for defending an organization's networks and computers against attack. In technical red teaming, attack vectors are used to gain access, and then reconnaissance is performed to discover more devices to potentially compromise. Credential hunting involves scouring a computer for credentials such as passwords and session cookies, and once these are found, can be used to compromise additional computers. During intrusions from third parties, a red team may team up with the blue team to assist in defending the organization. Rules of engagement and standard operating procedures are often utilized to ensure that the red team does not cause damage during their exercises.

  • OpenTeams - an open source suite for visualizing team data. You can try a demo version of openteams at was developed by Jingxian Zhang as part of her Master thesis at the Collective Learning group at the MIT Media Lab, under the supervision of Professor Cesar Hidalgo. OpenTeams builds on Immersion, a project to visualize individual email metadata created at the MIT Media Lab by Daniel Smilkov and Deepak Jagdish, also under the supervision of Professor Cesar Hidalgo. In addition to the work of Jingxian Zhang, OpenTeamsincludes the work of Xiaojiao Chen and Diana Orghian, who contributed to OpenTeams by helping, respectively, with graphic design and social psychology expertise. [80]

  • - a procedure in which two individuals, the "buddies", operate together as a single unit so that they are able to monitor and help each other.As per Merriam-Webster, the first known use of the phrase "buddy system" goes as far back as 1942. Webster goes on to define the buddy system as "an arrangement in which two individuals are paired (as for mutual safety in a hazardous situation). ”The buddy system is basically working together in pairs in a large group or alone. Both the individuals have to do the job. The job could be to ensure that the work is finished safely or the skill/learning is transferred effectively from one individual to the other.

  • PDF: Buddy System Guidelines - "The selection decision is just the beginning of rewarding working relationships. Providing employees with the tools to successfully acclimate to an institutional culture ensures immediate benefits for both managers/supervisors as well as employees. Buddy systems engage employees at a pace that is productive and effective for individual and team success. This tool is designed to give guidelines for using the Buddy system to meet the specific orientation needs of you and your team.What is a Buddy? A Buddy is someone who partners with an employee during their employment transition. The Buddy’s role is to offer guidance and share experiences that support their new role and responsibilities at FIU."

  • - the use of the buddy system by scuba divers. It is a set of safety procedures intended to improve the chances of avoiding or surviving accidents in or under water by having divers dive in a group of two or sometimes three. When using the buddy system, members of the group dive together and co-operate with each other, so that they can help or rescue each other in the event of an emergency. This is most effective if both divers are competent in all relevant skills and sufficiently aware of the situation that they can respond in time, which is a matter of both attitude and competence

  • - a form of trust occurring in temporary organizational structures, which can include quick starting groups or teams. It was first explored by Debra Meyerson and colleagues in 1996. In swift trust theory, a group or team assumes trust initially, and later verifies and adjusts trust beliefs accordingly.


See also Living#Patterns, Computing#Patterns

to resort

  • Beautiful Software - Beautiful Software is Christopher Alexander's research initiative on computing and the environment

  • Wiki as Pattern Language - We describe the origin of wiki technology, which has become widely influential, and its relationship to the development of pattern languages in software. We show here how the relationship is deeper than previously understood, opening up the possibility of expanded capability for wikis, including a new generation of “federated” wiki.

  • Patterns of Software - Tales from the Software Community, Richard P. Gabriel with foreward by Christopher Alexander

  • Group Works - deck of 100 full-colour cards (91 patterns + 9 category cards) names what skilled facilitators and other participants do to make things work. The content is more specific than values and less specific than tips and techniques, cutting across existing methodologies with a designer's eye to capture the patterns that repeat. The deck can be used to plan sesssions, reflect on and debrief them, provide guidance, and share responsibility for making the process go well. It has the potential to provide a common reference point for practitioners, and serve as a framework and learning tool for those studying the field.The cards were created by more than fifty volunteers (the Group Pattern Language Project) from diverse organizational backgrounds who collaborated over three years to express the core wisdom at the heart of successful group sessions. The cards are accompanied by a 5-panel explanatory legend card and a booklet describing the deck's purpose, story, and ideas for suggested activities.

  • Worse Is Better - Richard P. Gabriel. The concept known as "worse is better" holds that in software making (and perhaps in other arenas as well) it is better to start with a minimal creation and grow it as needed. Christopher Alexander might call this "piecemeal growth." This is the story of the evolution of that concept.

  • Community
  • Cooperation
  • Gifting
  • Immediacy
  • Inclusion
  • Leave No Trace
  • No Commerce
  • Participation
  • Self Expression
  • Self Reliance
  • What Is Social Loafing? (And How To Rid It From Your Team) - Be honest: there have been times when you noticed the printer was broken, audibly sighed, pressed a few buttons, then slowly walked away—effectively washing your hands of that pesky problem. It’s okay, we’ve all done it. No one likes making the effort to fix the printer. But what if, in reality, you're the only team member who has noticed this problem and you didn’t do anything about it? What if you never report it, the task never gets done, and the poor sap that’s about to do an important demo can’t print their notes just minutes before their meeting? - 'don't do nothing', delegated and radical authority/ownership [81]

  • Liberating Voices Pattern Language - "Our mission is to help understand, motivate and inform the worldwide movement to establish full access to information and communication — including the design, development, and management of information and communication systems. We're working together to develop one or more "pattern languages" which can help people think about, design, develop, manage and use information and communication systems that more fully meet human needs now — and in the future."

  • PURPLSOC - Pursuit of Pattern Languages for Societal Change

  • Tree Bressen Group Facilitation - Organizational design centered in fulfilling your purpose. Holding space for accessing group wisdom through meetings and trainings that are lively, effective, and connecting. Balancing structure with flexibility, Tree creates high-quality process with clear results.

  • - uses tools from applied behaviour analysis and values of normalisation and social role valorisation theory to improve quality of life, usually in schools. PBS uses functional analysis to understand what maintains an individual's challenging behavior and how to support the individual to get these needs met in more appropriate way, instead of using 'challenging behaviours'. People's inappropriate behaviors are difficult to change because they are functional; they serve a purpose for them. These behaviors may be supported by reinforcement in the environment. People may inadvertently reinforce undesired behaviors by providing objects and/or attention because of the behavior.

  • - a management principle which states that individuals are allowed to disagree while a decision is being made, but that once a decision has been made, everybody must commit to it. The principle can also be understood as a statement about when it is useful to have conflict and disagreement, with the principle saying disagreement is useful in early states of decision-making while harmful after a decision has been made. Disagree and commit is a method of avoiding the consensus trap, in which the lack of consensus leads to inaction


  • - the expression of negative emotions directed towards a particular person or negative evaluations of the person as a way to prevent the person from achieving their goals. This behavior can often be attributed to certain feelings, such as dislike or anger. The negative evaluation of the person may involve criticizing their actions, efforts or characteristics. Social undermining is seen in relationships between family members, friends, personal relationships and co-workers. Social undermining can affect a person's mental health, including an increase in depressive symptoms. This behavior is only considered social undermining if the person's perceived action is intended to hinder their target. When social undermining is seen in the work environment the behavior is used to hinder the co-worker's ability to establish and maintain a positive interpersonal relationship, success and a good reputation. Examples of how an employee can use social undermining in the work environment are behaviors that are used to delay the work of co-workers, to make them look bad or slow them down, competing with co-workers to gain status and recognition and giving co-workers incorrect or even misleading information about a particular job.

  • - or social marginalisation is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. It is a term that has been used widely in Europe and was first used in France in the late 20th century. It is used across disciplines including education, sociology, psychology, politics and economics.

Social exclusion is the process in which individuals are blocked from (or denied full access to) various rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of a different group, and which are fundamental to social integration and observance of human rights within that particular group (e.g. due process).

Project / task management

See also Development, Documents, Language#Software and services, Web systems, SaaS

  • - A task list (also called a to-do list or "things-to-do") is a list of tasks to be completed, such as chores or steps toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative or supplement to memory. Task lists are used in self-management, business management, project management, and software development. It may involve more than one list. When one of the items on a task list is accomplished, the task is checked or crossed off. The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil, usually on a note pad or clip-board. Task lists can also have the form of paper or software checklists.


  • DRAKON Editor - a visual language for specifications from the Russian space program. DRAKON is used for capturing requirements and building software that controls spacecraft. The rules of DRAKON are optimized to ensure easy understanding by human beings. DRAKON is gaining popularity in other areas beyond software, such as medical textbooks. The purpose of DRAKON is to represent any knowledge that explains how to accomplish a goal.


  • - also spelled decision making and decisionmaking, is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several possible alternative options. It could be either rational or irrational. The decision-making process is a reasoning process based on assumptions of values, preferences and beliefs of the decision-maker. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action. Research about decision-making is also published under the label problem solving, particularly in European psychological research.

Decision-making can be regarded as a problem-solving activity yielding a solution deemed to be optimal, or at least satisfactory. It is therefore a process which can be more or less rational or irrational and can be based on explicit or tacit knowledge and beliefs. Tacit knowledge is often used to fill the gaps in complex decision-making processes. Usually, both of these types of knowledge, tacit and explicit, are used together in the decision-making process.

  • - a group of techniques used to model or to map the nature or structure of a situation or state of affairs that some people want to change. PSMs are usually used by a group of people in collaboration (rather than by a solitary individual) to create a consensus about, or at least to facilitate negotiations about, what needs to change. Some widely adopted PSMs include soft systems methodology, the strategic choice approach, and strategic options development and analysis (SODA). Unlike some problem solving methods that assume that all the relevant issues and constraints and goals that constitute the problem are defined in advance or are uncontroversial, PSMs assume that there is no single uncontested representation of what constitutes the problem. PSMs are mostly used with groups of people, but PSMs have also influenced the coaching and counseling of individuals.

  • - Write down the problem. Think real hard. Write down the solution. The Feynman algorithm was facetiously suggested by Murray Gell-Mann, a colleague of Feynman, in a New York Times interview.

  • - also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making, is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them. The decision is then no longer attributable to any single individual who is a member of the group. This is because all the individuals and social group processes such as social influence contribute to the outcome.

  • - "the process of studying a procedure or business to identify its goal and purposes and create systems and procedures that will efficiently achieve them". Another view sees system analysis as a problem-solving technique that breaks down a system into its component pieces, and how well those parts work and interact to accomplish their purpose.

The field of system analysis relates closely to requirements analysis or to operations research. It is also "an explicit formal inquiry carried out to help a decision maker identify a better course of action and make a better decision than they might otherwise have made." The terms analysis and synthesis stems from Greek, meaning "to take apart" and "to put together", respectively. These terms are used in many scientific disciplines, from mathematics and logic to economics and psychology, to denote similar investigative procedures. The analysis is defined as "the procedure by which we break down an intellectual or substantial whole into parts," while synthesis means "the procedure by which we combine separate elements or components to form a coherent whole." System analysis researchers apply methodology to the systems involved, forming an overall picture. System analysis is used in every field where something is developed. Analysis can also be a series of components that perform organic functions together, such as systems engineering. Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed.

  • - the discipline comprising the philosophy, methodology, and professional practice necessary to address important decisions in a formal manner. Decision analysis includes many procedures, methods, and tools for identifying, clearly representing, and formally assessing important aspects of a decision; for prescribing a recommended course of action by applying the maximum expected-utility axiom to a well-formed representation of the decision; and for translating the formal representation of a decision and its corresponding recommendation into insight for the decision maker, and other corporate and non-corporate stakeholders.

  • - MCDM or multiple-criteria decision analysis, MCDA, is a sub-discipline of operations research that explicitly evaluates multiple conflicting criteria in decision making (both in daily life and in settings such as business, government and medicine). Conflicting criteria are typical in evaluating options: cost or price is usually one of the main criteria, and some measure of quality is typically another criterion, easily in conflict with the cost.

  • - MIS, is an information system used for decision-making, and for the coordination, control, analysis, and visualization of information in an organization. The study of the management information systems involves people, processes and technology in an organizational context.

In a corporate setting, the ultimate goal of using management information system is to increase the value and profits of the business.

  • - an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations and planning levels of an organization (usually mid and higher management) and help people make decisions about problems that may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance—i.e. unstructured and semi-structured decision problems. Decision support systems can be either fully computerized or human-powered, or a combination of both.

While academics have perceived DSS as a tool to support decision making processes, DSS users see DSS as a tool to facilitate organizational processes. Some authors have extended the definition of DSS to include any system that might support decision making and some DSS include a decision-making software component

  • - is software for computer applications that help individuals and organisations make choices and take decisions, typically by ranking, prioritizing or choosing from a number of options. An early example of DM software was described in 1973. Before the advent of the World Wide Web, most DM software was spreadsheet-based, with the first web-based DM software appearing in the mid-1990s. Nowadays, many DM software products (mostly web-based) are available – e.g. see the comparison table below.

Most DM software focuses on ranking, prioritizing or choosing from among alternatives characterized on multiple criteria or attributes. Thus most DM software is based on decision analysis, usually multi-criteria decision-making, and so is often referred to as "decision analysis" or "multi-criteria decision-making" software – commonly shortened to "decision-making software". Some decision support systems include a DM software component.

  • - a software system that generates conclusions from available knowledge using logical techniques such as deduction and induction. Reasoning systems play an important role in the implementation of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based systems. Reasoning systems have a wide field of application that includes scheduling, business rule processing, problem solving, complex event processing, intrusion detection, predictive analytics, robotics, computer vision, and natural language processing.

  • - a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledge base to solve complex problems. The term is broad and refers to many different kinds of systems. The one common theme that unites all knowledge based systems is an attempt to represent knowledge explicitly and a reasoning system that allows it to derive new knowledge. Thus, a knowledge-based system has two distinguishing features: a knowledge base and an inference engine.

The first part, the knowledge base, represents facts about the world, often in some form of subsumption ontology (rather than implicitly embedded in procedural code, in the way a conventional computer program does). Other common approaches in addition to a subsumption ontology include frames, conceptual graphs, and logical assertions.

The second part, the inference engine, allows new knowledge to be inferred. Most commonly, it can take the form of IF-THEN rules coupled with forward chaining or backward chaining approaches. Other approaches include the use of automated theorem provers, logic programming, blackboard systems, and term rewriting systems such as CHR (Constraint Handling Rules). These more formal approaches are covered in detail in the Wikipedia article on knowledge representation and reasoning.


  • - from Greek αὐτo- (auto-, 'self', and ποίησις (poiesis) 'creation, production') refers to a system capable of producing and maintaining itself by creating its own parts. The term was introduced in the 1972 publication Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living by Chilean biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela to define the self-maintaining chemistry of living cells.

The concept has since been applied to the fields of cognition, systems theory, architecture and sociology. Niklas Luhmann briefly introduced the concept of autopoiesis to organizational theory.

  • - In The Tree of Knowledge (1987:47), Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela set out a way of describing the nature of living things: “… [An] organization denotes those relations that must exist among components of a system for it to be a member of a specific class. Structure denotes the components and relations that actually constitute a particular unity [or thing]…” While Maturana and Varela (1987:28, do not pursue a specific discussion about process, they set out to understand the role of cognition as “… the universal nature of doing”. Maturana and Varela are seeking to understand what they term autopoiesis, how living things self–produce. Maturana and Varela (1987:47) claim: “… by realizing what characterizes living beings in their autopoietic organization, we can unify a whole lot of empirical data about their biochemistry and cellular functioning”.

In this description we find that structure refers to the component parts that comprise something and organizations refers to the way these parts are assembled (organized). In this way all real things can be described as having an organized structure. The term system can also be used for an organized structure. This idea forms the basis of Maturana and Varela’s idea of autopoiesis (self-production).

At the level of a real thing, SOP describes:

  • Structure refers to the attributes distinguishing something (trait, value, shape and efficacy).
  • Organization refers to parts that comprise something: the properties (evident by valued traits), and their relationship (evident by their shape and efficacy).
  • Process refers to the constitution of parts (the bundle of related properties) that produces a whole thing.

In the ontological literature, SOP describes:

  • Structure refers closed systems (or the attributes of the universe that are independent).
  • Organization refers to open systems (or the parts of the universe that depend on closed systems).
  • Process refers to social systems (or the wholes that are inter–dependent on closed and open systems that make up eco–systems, e.g., the universe).

In the metaphysics literature, SOP describes:

  • Structure refers to individual things.
  • Organization refers to categories of things (clusters of individuals, where a part is a category).
  • Process refers to universal things (all things, e.g., parts as the set).

  • - business method or business function is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks performed by people or equipment in which a specific sequence produces a service or product (serves a particular business goal, for a particular customer or customers. Business processes occur at all organizational levels and may or may not be visible to the customers. A business process may often be visualized (modeled) as a flowchart of a sequence of activities with interleaving decision points or as a process matrix of a sequence of activities with relevance rules based on data in the process. The benefits of using business processes include improved customer satisfaction and improved agility for reacting to rapid market change. Process-oriented organizations break down the barriers of structural departments and try to avoid functional silos.

  • The Null Process - Kate Heddleston - April 08, 2015. Our fear of "unnecessary process" has created workplaces with something worse than bad process: no process. I call these types of processes "null processes," and they are rampant at startups and technology companies. In this article, I explain the concept of the null process, how it can hurt companies, how it can hurt diversity, and ideas for putting in place good process. ... Improving process at a company doesn't mean you have to add a bunch of cumbersome, unnecessary process. A process doesn't have to be this terrible beast where people fill out 4 forms to complete some small part of their job. Good process is light-weight and includes just enough information to help people understand how to do a task correctly. Processes can be flexible, reasonable for the task and the size of the company, and even kind of fun.

  • - a discipline in operations management in which people use various methods to discover, model, analyze, measure, improve, optimize, and automate business processes. Any combination of methods used to manage a company's business processes is BPM. Processes can be structured and repeatable or unstructured and variable. Though not required, enabling technologies are often used with BPM.

  • Workflows, not wikis! - TaskTrain - Key Take-Away: If you’re looking to put effort into documenting your organization’s standard operating procedures for the error-prevention and efficiency gains that such systematization enables, set your sights higher than a static intranet solution. While wikis are wonderful for hosting reference resources (well done, Wikipedia!), for maximum return on investment, workflows belong in a proper process management platform.

  • - A process may be defined as a set of transformations of input elements into output elements with specific properties, with the transformations characterized by parameters and constraints, such as in manufacturing or biology. A process may also be defined as the workflows and sequence of events inherent in processes such as manufacturing, engineering and business processes.

  • - Process models are processes of the same nature that are classified together into a model. Thus, a process model is a description of a process at the type level. Since the process model is at the type level, a process is an instantiation of it. The same process model is used repeatedly for the development of many applications and thus, has many instantiations. One possible use of a process model is to prescribe how things must/should/could be done in contrast to the process itself which is really what happens. A process model is roughly an anticipation of what the process will look like

  • - in business process management and systems engineering is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current business processes may be analyzed, improved, and automated. BPM is typically performed by business analysts, who provide expertise in the modeling discipline; by subject matter experts, who have specialized knowledge of the processes being modeled; or more commonly by a team comprising both. Alternatively, the process model can be derived directly from events' logs using process mining tools.

The business objective is often to increase process speed or reduce cycle time; to increase quality; or to reduce costs, such as labor, materials, scrap, or capital costs. In practice, a management decision to invest in business process modeling is often motivated by the need to document requirements for an information technology project.

Change management programs are typically involved to put any improved business processes into practice. With advances in software design, the vision of BPM models becoming fully executable (and capable of simulations and round-trip engineering, is coming closer to reality.

  • - BPR, is a business management strategy originally pioneered in the early 1990s, focusing on the analysis and design of workflows and business processes within an organization. BPR aims to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to improve customer service, cut operational costs, and become world-class competitors.

BPR seeks to help companies radically restructure their organizations by focusing on the ground-up design of their business processes. According to early BPR proponent Thomas H. Davenport (1990), a business process is a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome. Re-engineering emphasized a holistic focus on business objectives and how processes related to them, encouraging full-scale recreation of processes, rather than iterative optimization of sub-processes. BPR is influenced by technological innovations as industry players replace old methods of business operations with cost-saving innovative technologies such as automation that can radically transform business operations. Business process re-engineering is also known as business process redesign, business transformation, or business process change management.

  • - a document that instructs workers on executing one or more activities of a business process. It describes the sequence of steps, and specifies for each step what needs to be done, often including when the procedure should be executed and by whom. Organizations typically document procedures in their published Policy and Procedures guide, or their Standard Operating Procedure (S.O.P., guide. A procedures manual or procedural manual typically gathers together a number of procedures used within an organisation, or for a specific set of functions. For example all airlines give their pilots a S.O.P which holds all the information regarding flying. While procedures typically detail high level steps, a Work Instruction would provide more detail, for example the tools to use and how precisely to use the tools to carry out the procedure.

  • - SOP, is a set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization to help workers carry out routine operations. SOPs aim to achieve efficiency, quality output, and uniformity of performance, while reducing miscommunication and failure to comply with industry regulations. Some military services (e.g., in the U.S. and the UK) use the term standing operating procedure, since a military SOP refers to a unit's unique procedures, which are not necessarily standard to another unit. The word "standard" could suggest that only one (standard) procedure is to be used across all units. The term is sometimes used facetiously to refer to practices that are unconstructive, yet the norm. In the Philippines, for instance, "SOP" is the term for pervasive corruption within the government and its institutions.

  • - a method or technique that has been generally accepted as superior to other known alternatives because it often produces results that are superior to those achieved by other means or because it has become a standard way of doing things, e.g., a standard way of complying with legal or ethical requirements. Best practices are used to maintain quality as an alternative to mandatory legislated standards and can be based on self-assessment or benchmarking. Best practice is a feature of accredited management standards such as ISO 9000 and ISO 14001.

Some consulting firms specialize in the area of best practice and offer ready-made templates to standardize business process documentation. Sometimes a best practice is not applicable or is inappropriate for a particular organization's needs. A key strategic talent required when applying best practice to organizations is the ability to balance the unique qualities of an organization with the practices that it has in common with others.

Good operating practice is a strategic management term. More specific uses of the term include good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, good clinical practice, and good distribution practice.

  • - a general abbreviation for the "good practice" quality guidelines and regulations. The "x" stands for the various fields, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, for example good agricultural practice, or GAP. A "c" or "C" is sometimes added to the front of the initialism. The preceding "c" stands for "current." For example, cGMP is an abbreviation for "current good manufacturing practice". The term GxP is frequently used to refer in a general way to a collection of quality guidelines.[

  • - or best available techniques, BAT, is the technology approved by legislators or regulators for meeting output standards for a particular process, such as pollution abatement. Similar terms are best practicable means or best practicable environmental option. BAT is a moving target on practices, since developing societal values and advancing techniques may change what is currently regarded as "reasonably achievable", "best practicable" and "best available". A literal understanding will connect it with a "spare no expense" doctrine which prescribes the acquisition of the best state of the art technology available, without regard for traditional cost-benefit analysis. In practical use, the cost aspect is also taken into account. See also discussions on the topic of the precautionary principle which, along with considerations of best available technologies and cost-benefit analyses, is also involved in discussions leading to formulation of environmental policies and regulations (or opposition to same).

  • - an interdisciplinary engineering domain focusing on the study, prevention, and management of large-scale fires, explosions and chemical accidents (such as toxic gas clouds, in process plants or other facilities dealing with hazardous materials, such as refineries and oil and gas (onshore and offshore) production installations. Thus, process safety is generally concerned with the prevention of, control of, mitigation of and recovery from unintentional hazardous materials releases that can have a serious effect to people (onsite and offsite), plant and/or the environment.

  • - a practice to manage business operations critical to process safety. It can be implemented using the established OSHA scheme or others made available by the EPA, AIChE's Center for Chemical Process Safety, or the Energy Institute.

PSM schemes are organized in 'elements'. Different schemes are based on different lists of elements.

  • - also called complexity strategy or complex adaptive organizations, is the use of the study of complexity systems in the field of strategic management and organizational studies. It draws from research in the natural sciences that examines uncertainty and non-linearity. Complexity theory emphasizes interactions and the accompanying feedback loops that constantly change systems. While it proposes that systems are unpredictable, they are also constrained by order-generating rules.

Complexity theory has been used in the fields of strategic management and organizational studies. Application areas include understanding how organizations or firms adapt to their environments and how they cope with conditions of uncertainty. Organizations have complex structures in that they are dynamic networks of interactions, and their relationships are not aggregations of the individual static entities. They are adaptive; in that, the individual and collective behavior mutate and self-organize corresponding to a change-initiating micro-event or collection of events.

  • - also often called a continuous improvement process (abbreviated as CIP or CI), is an ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes. These efforts can seek "incremental" improvement over time or "breakthrough" improvement all at once. Delivery (customer valued, processes are constantly evaluated and improved in the light of their efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility.

Some see continual improvement processes as a meta-process for most management systems (such as business process management, quality management, project management, and program management). W. Edwards Deming, a pioneer of the field, saw it as part of the 'system' whereby feedback from the process and customer were evaluated against organisational goals. The fact that it can be called a management process does not mean that it needs to be executed by 'management'; but rather merely that it makes decisions about the implementation of the delivery process and the design of the delivery process itself. A broader definition is that of the Institute of Quality Assurance who defined "continuous improvement as a gradual never-ending change which is: '... focused on increasing the effectiveness and/or efficiency of an organisation to fulfil its policy and objectives. It is not limited to quality initiatives. Improvement in business strategy, business results, customer, employee and supplier relationships can be subject to continual improvement. Put simply, it means 'getting better all the time'.' "

The key features of continual improvement processs in general are: Feedback: The core principle of continual process improvement is the (self) reflection of processes Efficiency: The purpose of continual improvement process is the identification, reduction, and elimination of suboptimal processes Evolution: The emphasis of continual improvement process is on incremental, continual steps rather than giant leaps

  • - states that for many outcomes, roughly 80% of consequences come from 20% of causes (the "vital few"). Other names for this principle are the 80/20 rule, the law of the vital few, or the principle of factor sparsity.

  • The AZ Problem - a generalization of the XY Problem. To wit, if we agree that the XY Problem is a problem, than the AZ Problem is a metaproblem. And while the XY Problem is often technical, the AZ Problem is procedural. The AZ Problem is when business requirements are misunderstood or decontextualized. These requirements end up being the root cause of brittle, ill-suited, or frivolous features. An AZ Problem will often give rise to several XY Problems. Some telltale signs of an AZ Problem waiting to happen: A culture where product, engineering, and sales rarely interact. "Resume-driven" development. Using "big data" to solve "small data" business needs.

  • - defines or constrains some aspect of a business. It may be expressed to specify an action to be taken when certain conditions are true or may be phrased so it can only resolve to either true or false. Business rules are intended to assert business structure or to control or influence the behavior of the business. Business rules describe the operations, definitions and constraints that apply to an organization. Business rules can apply to people, processes, corporate behavior and computing systems in an organization, and are put in place to help the organization achieve its goals. For example, a business rule might state that no credit check is to be performed on return customers. Other examples of business rules include requiring a rental agent to disallow a rental tenant if their credit rating is too low, or requiring company agents to use a list of preferred suppliers and supply schedules. While a business rule may be informal or even unwritten, documenting the rules clearly and making sure that they don't conflict is a valuable activity. When carefully managed, rules can be used to help the organization to better achieve goals, remove obstacles to market growth, reduce costly mistakes, improve communication, comply with legal requirements, and increase customer loyalty.

  • - a software system that executes one or more business rules in a runtime production environment. The rules might come from legal regulation ("An employee can be fired for any reason or no reason but not for an illegal reason"), company policy ("All customers that spend more than $100 at one time will receive a 10% discount"), or other sources. A business rule system enables these company policies and other operational decisions to be defined, tested, executed and maintained separately from application code. Rule engines typically support rules, facts, priority (score), mutual exclusion, preconditions, and other functions.

  • - the structural design of general process systems. It applies to fields such as computers (software, hardware, networks, etc.), business processes (enterprise architecture, policy and procedures, logistics, project management, etc.), and any other process system of varying degrees of complexity. Processes are defined as having inputs, outputs and the energy required to transform inputs to outputs. Use of energy during transformation also implies a passage of time: a process takes real time to perform its associated action. A process also requires space for input/output objects and transforming objects to exist: a process uses real space.

  • - "political, economic, socio-cultural and technological", describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management. It is part of an external environment analysis when conducting a strategic analysis or doing market research, and gives an overview of the different macro-environmental factors to be taken into consideration. It is a strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline, business position, potential and direction for operations.

PEST analysis was developed in 1967 by Aguilar as an environmental scanning framework. Aguilar argued that firms must scan the economic, technical, political and social categories (ETPS) that may affect strategy, defining environmental scanning as follows, “scanning for information about events and relationships in a company’s outside environment, the knowledge of which would assist top management in its task of charting the company’s future course of action.”

Political factors relate to how the government intervenes in the economy. Specifically, political factors have areas including tax policy, labour law, environmental law, trade restrictions, tariffs, and political stability. Political factors may also include goods and services which the government aims to provide or be provided (merit goods) and those that the government does not want to be provided (demerit goods or merit bads). Furthermore, governments have a high impact on the health, education, and infrastructure of a nation.

Economic factors include economic growth, exchange rates, inflation rate, and interest rates. These factors can drastically affect how a business operates. For example, interest rates affect a firm's cost of capital and therefore to what extent a business grows and expands.

Social factors include the cultural aspects and health consciousness, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes and emphasis on safety. High trends in social factors affect the demand for a company's products and how that company operates. For example, the ageing population may imply a smaller and less-willing workforce (thus increasing the cost of labour). Furthermore, companies may change various management strategies to adapt to social trends caused from this (such as recruiting older workers).

Technological factors include technological aspects like R&D activity, automation, technology incentives and the rate of technological change. These can determine barriers to entry, minimum efficient production level and influence the outsourcing decisions. Furthermore, technological shifts would affect costs, quality, and lead to innovation

PESTEL or PESTLE, which adds legal and environmental factors. Legal factors include discrimination law, consumer law, antitrust law, employment law, and health and safety law, which can affect how a company operates, its costs, and the demand for its products. Environmental factors include ecological and environmental aspects such as weather, climate, and climate change, which may especially affect industries such as tourism, farming, and insurance. For instance, growing awareness of the potential impacts of climate change is affecting how companies operate and the products they offer, both creating new markets and diminishing or destroying existing ones. Further, the PESTLE analysis is one of the most frequently applied models in the evaluation of the highly dynamic external business environment. It is employed as a method in research due to its usefulness. For example, a growing number of studies applied this analytical tool in different sustainable projects, including the evaluation of external factors affecting management decisions for coastal zone and freshwater resources, development of sustainable buildings, sustainable energy solutions, and transportation.

ETPS economic, technical, political and social. SLEPT, adding legal factors. STEPE, adding ecological factors. STEEP, including environmental factors. STEEPLE and STEEPLED, adding ethics and demographic factors (occasionally rendered as PESTLEE). Demographic factors include gender, age, ethnicity, knowledge of languages, disabilities, mobility, home ownership, employment status, religious belief or practice, culture and tradition, living standards and income level. DESTEP, adding demographic and ecological factors. SPELIT, adding legal and intercultural factors. Intercultural factors considers collaboration in a global setting. Other factors discussed in chapter 10 of the SPELIT Power Matrix include the Ethical, Educational, Physical, Religious, and Security environments. PMESII-PT, a form of environmental analysis which looks at the aspects of political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment and time aspects in a military context. STEER considers sociocultural, technological, economic, ecological, and regulatory factors, but does not specifically include political factors. TELOS framework explores Technical, Economic, Legal, Operational, and Scheduling factors.

  • - or SWOT matrix, is a strategic planning and strategic management technique used to help a person or organization identify Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats related to business competition or project planning. It is sometimes called situational assessment or situational analysis. Additional acronyms using the same components include TOWS and WOTS-UP.

  • - a business analysis framework that forms part of a firm's larger strategic scheme, proposed by Jay Barney in 1991. The basic strategic process of any firm begins with a vision statement, and continues on through objectives, internal & external analysis, strategic choices (both business-level and corporate-level), and strategic implementation. VRIO falls into the internal analysis step of these procedures, but is used as a framework in evaluating just about all resources and capabilities of a firm, regardless of what phase of the strategic model it falls under. VRIO is an initialism for the four question framework asked about a resource or capability to determine its competitive potential: the question of Value, the question of Rarity, the question of Imitability (Ease/Difficulty to Imitate), and the question of Organization (ability to exploit the resource or capability).
    • The question of value: "Is the firm able to exploit an opportunity or neutralize an external threat with the resource/capability?"
    • The question of rarity: "Is control of the resource/capability in the hands of a relative few?"
    • The question of imitability: "Is it difficult to imitate, and will there be significant cost disadvantage to a firm trying to obtain, develop, or duplicate the resource/capability?"
    • The question of organization: "Is the firm organized, ready, and able to exploit the resource/capability?" "Is the firm organized to capture value?"

  • - total number of key developers who would need to be incapacitated (for example, by getting hit by a bus/truck) to send the project into such disarray that it would not be able to proceed [89]

  • - an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations and planning levels of an organization (usually mid and higher management) and help people make decisions about problems that may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance—i.e. unstructured and semi-structured decision problems. Decision support systems can be either fully computerized or human-powered, or a combination of both.

  • - the accepted rules, ethics, and customs governing meetings of an assembly or organization. Its object is to allow orderly deliberation upon questions of interest to the organization and thus to arrive at the sense or the will of the majority of the assembly upon these questions. Self-governing organizations follow parliamentary procedure to debate and reach group decisions, usually by vote, with the least possible friction.



  • DIY Committee Guide - Whether you are a member of a management committee/board or working to support management committees, you will find this site full of useful resources.
  • - a device in which a legislative body or other deliberative assembly is considered one large committee. All members of the legislative body are members of such a committee. This is usually done for the purposes of discussion and debate of the details of bills and other main motions.


  • - the accepted rules, ethics, and customs governing meetings of an assembly or organization. Its object is to allow orderly deliberation upon questions of interest to the organization and thus to arrive at the sense or the will of the majority of the assembly upon these questions. Self-governing organizations follow parliamentary procedure to debate and reach group decisions, usually by vote, with the least possible friction.

  • - a formal proposal by a member of a deliberative assembly that the assembly take certain action. Such motions, and the form they take are specified by the deliberate assembly and/or a pre-agreed volume detailing parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order; The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure; or Lord Citrine's The ABC of Chairmanship. Motions are used in conducting business in almost all legislative bodies worldwide, and are used in meetings of many church vestries, corporate boards, and fraternal organizations. Motions can bring new business before the assembly or consist of numerous other proposals to take procedural steps or carry out other actions relating to a pending proposal (such as postponing it to another time, or to the assembly itself (such as taking a recess). In a parliament, it may also be called a parliamentary motion and may include legislative motions, budgetary motions, supplementary budgetary motions, and petitionary motions. A motion which has been approved by the assembly is called a resolution.

  •'s_Rules_of_Order - often simply referred to as Robert's Rules, is a manual of parliamentary procedure by U.S. Army officer Henry Martyn Robert. "The object of Rules of Order is to assist an assembly to accomplish the work for which it was designed [...] Where there is no law [...] there is the least of real liberty". The term "Robert's Rules of Order" is also used more generically to refer to any of the more recent editions, by various editors and authors, based on any of Robert's original editions, and the term is used more generically in the United States to refer to parliamentary procedure.

Robert's manual was first published in 1876 as an adaptation of the rules and practice of the United States Congress to the needs of non-legislative societies. Robert's Rules is the most widely used manual of parliamentary procedure in the United States. It governs the meetings of a diverse range of organizations—including church groups, county commissions, homeowners associations, nonprofit associations, professional societies, school boards, and trade unions—that have adopted it as their parliamentary authority. Robert published four editions of the manual before his death in 1923, the last being the thoroughly revised and expanded Fourth Edition published as Robert's Rules of Order Revised in May 1915.



  • Sociocracy For All - a non-profit bringing sociocracy to the world. – Sociocracy community, training support, advocacy. We are approachable and peer-oriented. We are convinced that real-life skills are important for governing ourselves as equals. We are committed to affordability and integrity.

  • Sociocracy 3.0 - Effective Collaboration At Any Scale. Driver for Creating Sociocracy 3.0: "In 2014 we came together to co-create a body of Creative Commons licensed learning resources, synthesizing ideas from Sociocracy, Agile and Lean. We discovered that organizations of all sizes need a flexible menu of practices and structures – appropriate for their specific context – that enable the evolution of a sociocratic and agile mindset to achieve greater effectiveness, alignment, fulfillment and wellbeing."


  • GlassFrog - the official software to supportand advance your Holacracy practice.


  • Organic Organization (O2) - Target Teal - a social technology that helps organizations to become more adaptive, self-organized and purpose-centered. It is composed of a set of essential rules (its “Meta-Agreements”) plus a library of constantly evolving organizational patterns.

  • - or just 'Kernel', is a document that defines how MOD Devices is governed. It's derived from Organic Organization - O2 and Holacracy.The Kernel is supported by a pattern library from O2. They're documented as the Facilitator Cheat Sheet.The Kernel is presented in one single file, very specific to MOD Devices, with the exact words signed by our CEO, when ratified. It doesn't make any sense to use it anywhere else then at MOD Devices without modifying it, and if modified, it must be renamed. It's designed to be that way: maintaining your own Kernel is part of the Organizational Kernel.

Initiative circle

"We have a board in Trello with the simple Backlog, In Progress, and Complete workflow. When someone comes up with anything tactical or strategic they can add it as an initiative to the backlog. The only perquisite is that the initiative must have a focused and achievable objective. The initiative can be moved into “In Progress” when 3 or more individuals volunteer to be full-time members of that initiative. The members have full authority, responsibility and accountability to fulfil the objective of that initiative. They assign an aspirational completion date for the initiative before moving it into “In Progress”. The date may change as the initiative progresses. The initiative will be blocked if the members drop below 3. We ask people to try and avoid taking on initiatives that they cannot dedicate time towards, so that blocked initiatives are kept to a minimum.

"A regular update regarding the progress of the initiative is provided to the rest of the company. Any decisions made by an Initiative Circle is communicated to the rest of the company via our usual communication channels. If anyone has strong objections, they will voice those directly with the members of the Initiative Circle. The circle is not expected to satisfy everyone in the company with regards to their decisions. However, all members within the circle must agree to the decisions made by that circle. No decision within the company is written in stone and may be modified by subsequent decisions. So in case people strongly disagree with the outcomes of an initiative, they are welcome to create a new initiative to replace existing policies and practices.

"We have integrated Initiative Circles Trello board with the Slack channel so that all updates are posted there automatically. Everyone is subscribed to this channel and can keep abreast of the progress of current Initiative Circles and proposal for new initiatives. If the objective of an initiative or it's completion date is changed then the rest of the company is notified via this channel."


  • - is "a problem-solving, analysis and forecasting tool derived from the study of patterns of invention in the global patent literature". It was developed by the Soviet inventor and science fiction author Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues, beginning in 1946. In English the name is typically rendered as "the theory of inventive problem solving", and occasionally goes by the English acronym TIPS.


to sort

  • - the process of leading the work of a team to achieve all project goals within the given constraints. This information is usually described in project documentation, created at the beginning of the development process. The primary constraints are scope, time, and budget. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and apply them to meet pre-defined objectives.

The objective of project management is to produce a complete project which complies with the client's objectives. In many cases, the objective of project management is also to shape or reform the client's brief to feasibly address the client's objectives. Once the client's objectives are clearly established, they should influence all decisions made by other people involved in the project – for example, project managers, designers, contractors, and subcontractors. Ill-defined or too tightly prescribed project management objectives are detrimental to decision-making.

  • - a system used by an agency or owner for organizing and financing design, construction, operations, and maintenance services for a structure or facility by entering into legal agreements with one or more entities or parties.

  • - are all the systems, applications, controls, calculating solutions, methodologies, etc. used by organizations to be able to cope with changing markets, ensure a competitive position in them and improve business performance.

  • - a pattern of practices by public managers that facilitate the inclusion of public employees, experts, the public, and politicians in collaboratively addressing public problems or concerns of public interest. In the inclusive management model, managers focus on building the capacity of the public to participate in the policy process. One way this capacity is built is through the structuring and maintenance of relationships by managers. Managers operate in a myriad of relationship structures that are used for making decisions, implementing policy, and identifying public priorities. These relationships give shape, pose constraints, or present opportunities for the way public policy is pursued.

  • - refers to the researchers of organizational development who study the behaviour of people in groups, particularly in workplace groups and other related concepts in fields such as industrial and organizational psychology. It originated in the 1930s' Hawthorne studies, which examined the effects of social relations, motivation and employee satisfaction on factory productivity. The movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts, and it resulted in the creation of the discipline of human relations management.

  • - HRM or HR, is the strategic and coherent approach to the effective and efficient management of people in a company or organization such that they help their business gain a competitive advantage. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives.[need quotation to verify] Human resource management is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and systems. HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee-benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and reward management, such as managing pay and employee benefits systems. HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, or the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and governmental laws.[need quotation to verify] The overall purpose of human resources (HR) is to ensure that the organization is able to achieve success through people. HR professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can specialize in finding, recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees, as well as maintaining employee relations or benefits. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations, and reward programs. Employee relations deals with the concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as cases involving harassment or discrimination. Managing employee benefits includes developing compensation structures, parental leave programs, discounts, and other benefits for employees. On the other side of the field are HR generalists or business partners. These HR professionals could work in all areas or be labour relations representatives working with unionized employees.

One of the frequent challenges of HRM is dealing with the notion of unitarism (seeing a company as a cohesive whole, in which both employers and employees should work together for a common good) and securing a long-term partnership of employees and employers with common interests.

  • Urban managerialism - Oxford Reference - A Weberian-influenced theory of urban processes proposed by R. E. Pahl and others. Urban managers (local government officials and finance officers, for example), controlling access to scarce resources such as housing and education, largely determine the socio-spatial distribution of the population. The theory placed issues of power, conflict, and the role of market and state institutions at the centre of urban sociology.
  • Urban Managerialism/Entrepreneurialism - Lauermann - Major Reference Works - Wiley Online Library - Urban managerialism/entrepreneurialism explores urban politics from the perspective of city managers (bureaucrats and political leaders). Urban managerialism refers to bureaucratic forms of urban management and planning, in which municipalities often derive their funding from an external government source. Urban entrepreneurialism refers to urban management practices which use public resources to pursue profit-earning ventures: the strategies which city managers adopted in the fiscal and regulatory vacuum left in the wake of post-Fordist deindustrialization and the neoliberalization of urban governance.

  • Unitarism - Oxford Reference - Is a perspective on employment that emphasizes the shared interests of all members of an organization. It assumes there are compatible goals, a common purpose, and a single (unitary) interest which means that, if managed effectively, the organization will function harmoniously. This viewpoint assumes that conflict is abnormal and is caused by troublemakers, bad communication, and poor management. Consequently, a unitarist will seek to eliminate conflict. The term unitarism is derived from the groundbreaking work of industrial sociologist, Alan Fox, who identified the unitary frame of reference within the employment relationship.
  • What is Unitarist approach? – Angola Transparency - The unitarist approach consists of all members sharing the same interest and being homogenous. Third parties are viewed as irrelevant as employees and employers have a mutual cooperation. Unitarism consist of management and staff members sharing a common goal, through their loyalty towards the organisation (Fox, 1966).

  • - NPM, is an approach to running public service organizations that is used in government and public service institutions and agencies, at both sub-national and national levels. The term was first introduced by academics in the UK and Australia to describe approaches that were developed during the 1980s as part of an effort to make the public service more "businesslike" and to improve its efficiency by using private sector management models. As with the private sector, which focuses on customer service, NPM reforms often focused on the "centrality of citizens who were the recipient of the services or customers to the public sector". NPM reformers experimented with using decentralized service delivery models, to give local agencies more freedom in how they delivered programs or services. In some cases, NPM reforms that used e-government consolidated a program or service to a central location to reduce costs. Some governments tried using quasi-market structures, so that the public sector would have to compete against the private sector (notably in the UK, in health care). Key themes in NPM were "financial control, value for money, increasing efficiency ..., identifying and setting targets and continuance monitoring of performance, handing over ... power to the senior management" executives. Performance was assessed with audits, benchmarks and performance evaluations. Some NPM reforms used private sector companies to deliver what were formerly public services. NPM advocates in some countries worked to remove "collective agreements [in favour of] ... individual rewards packages at senior levels combined with short term contracts" and introduce private sector-style corporate governance, including using a Board of Directors approach to strategic guidance for public organizations. While NPM approaches have been used in many countries around the world, NPM is particularly associated with the most industrialized OECD nations such as the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States of America. NPM advocates focus on using approaches from the private sector – the corporate or business world–which can be successfully applied in the public sector and in a public administration context. NPM approaches have been used to reform the public sector, its policies and its programs. NPM advocates claim that it is a more efficient and effective means of attaining the same outcome.

  • Unitarism, Pluralism, Interests and Values - Provis - 1996 - British Journal of Industrial Relations - Wiley Online Library - The paper notes that in both management theory and pluralist political theory there has recently been increased emphasis on culture and values. The implication is that the ideas of unitarism and pluralism in industrial relations need to be reconsidered. Traditionally, they have been expounded in terms of interests, and values are significantly different from interests. An emphasis on values rather than interests raises some new problems both for unitarists and pluralists. For unitarists, ‘managing values’ can involve paradox and contradiction. For pluralists, emphasis on values requires a new conception of the process by which differences are reconciled, and may require changes to union structures.

  • Management as Ideology: The Case of "New Managerialism" in Higher Education, Oxford Review of Education, 2005-Jun - The paper explores ideological conceptions of management, especially "new managerialism", with particular reference to their role in the reform of higher education. It is suggested that attempts to reform public services in general are political as well as technical, though there is no single unitary ideology of "new managerialism". Whilst some argue that managers have become a class and have particular interests, this may not be so for all public services. The arguments presented are illustrated by data taken from a recent research project on the management of UK higher education. It is suggested that managers in public service organisations such as universities do not constitute a class. However, as in the case of manager-academics, managing a contemporary public service such as higher education may involve taking on the ideologies and values of "new managerialism", and for some, embracing these. So management ideologies do seem to serve the interests of manager-academics and help cement relations of power and dominance, even in contexts like universities which were not traditionally associated with the dominance of management.

  • Ideology in HRM Scholarship: Interrogating the Ideological Performativity of 'New Unitarism' on JSTOR - In this paper we seek to uncover and analyse unitarist ideology within the field of HRM, with particular emphasis on the manner in which what we call 'new unitarism' is ideologically performative in HRM scholarship. Originally conceived of as a way of understanding employer ideology with regard to the employment relationship, unitarist frames of reference conceive a workplace that is characterised by shared interests and a single source of authority. This frame has continuously evolved and persistently formed thinking about HRM; however, this influence has been largely covert and unexamined. Using an epistemic analysis informed by theories of knowledge, we examine new unitarism against three types of validity claims—descriptive, normative, and instrumental—in order to understand how it has been ideologically constitutive of HRM scholarship. We consider the implications of this analysis for HRM research and practice &nd contend that an alternative frame, namely 'new pluralism', has potential to offer a more valid account of the employment relationship, to provide a framework for assessing how power affects the pursuit of employee interests, and to allow space for taking up deeply ethical questions related to employment. 2017.

  • - the reliance on professional managers and organizational strategies to run an organisation. It may be justified in terms of efficiency, or characterized as an ideology. It is a belief system that requires little or no evidence to justify itself.[ambiguous] Thomas Diefenbach associates managerialism with a belief in hierarchy. Other scholars have linked managerialism to control, accountability, measurement, strategic planning and a belief in the importance of tightly-managed organizations. Following Enteman's 1993 classic on Managerialism: The Emergence of a New Ideology, American management experts Robert R. Locke and J. C. Spender see managerialism as an expression of a special group – management – that entrenches itself ruthlessly and systemically in an organization. It deprives owners of decision-making power and workers of their ability to resist managerialism. In fact, the rise of managerialism may in itself be a response to people's resistance in society and more specifically to workers' opposition against managerial regimes.

  • Organizing for Individuation: Alternative Organizing, Politics and New Identities - Patrick Reedy, Daniel King, Christine Coupland, 2016 - Organization theorists have predominantly studied identity and organizing within the managed work organization. This frames organization as a structure within which identity work occurs, often as a means of managerial control. In our paper our contribution is to develop the concept of individuation pursued through prefigurative practices within alternative organizing to reframe this relation. We combine recent scholarship on alternative organizations and new social movements to provide a theoretical grounding for an ethnographic study of the prefigurative organizing practices and related identity work of an alternative group in a UK city. We argue that in such groups, identity, organizing and politics become a purposeful set of integrated processes aimed at the creation of new forms of life in the here and now, thus organizing is politics is identity. Our study presents a number of challenges and possibilities to scholars of organization, enabling them to extend their understanding of organization and identity in the contemporary world.

  • Peopleware - This book was written by Tom DeMarco & Timothy Lister.
  • Do you want to be an engineer? Entropy Crushers - A project manager is responsible for shipping a product, whereas a product manager is responsible for making sure the right product is shipped. A program manager is an uber-mutated combination of both that usually shows up to handle multiple interrelated projects. Communication, Decisions, Error Correction

  • - or ERP , is the integrated management of main business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology. ERP is usually referred to as a category of business management software—typically a suite of integrated applications—that an organization can use to collect, store, manage and interpret data from many business activities. ERP systems can be local-based or cloud-based. Cloud-based applications have grown in recent years due to the increased efficiencies arising from information being readily available from any location with Internet access.

ERP provides an integrated and continuously updated view of core business processes using common databases maintained by a database management system. ERP systems track business resources—cash, raw materials, production capacity—and the status of business commitments: orders, purchase orders, and payroll. The applications that make up the system share data across various departments (manufacturing, purchasing, sales, accounting, etc.) that provide the data. ERP facilitates information flow between all business functions and manages connections to outside stakeholders.

The ERP system integrates varied organizational systems and facilitates error-free transactions and production, thereby enhancing the organization's efficiency. However, developing an ERP system differs from traditional system development. ERP systems run on a variety of computer hardware and network configurations, typically using a database as an information repository. According to Gartner, the global ERP market size is estimated at $35 billion in 2021. Though early ERP systems focused on large enterprises, smaller enterprises increasingly use ERP systems.

Customer relationship manamgent / CRM

  • - a term applied to processes implemented by a company to handle its contact with its customers. CRM software is used to support these processes, storing information on current and prospective customers. Information in the system can be accessed and entered by employees in different departments, such as sales, marketing, customer service, training, professional development, performance management, human resource development, and compensation. Details on any customer contacts can also be stored in the system. The rationale behind this approach is to improve services provided directly to customers and to use the information in the system for targeted marketing and sales purposes.

While the term is generally used to refer to a software-based approach to handling customer relationships, most CRM software vendors stress that a successful CRM strategy requires a holistic approach. CRM initiatives often fail because implementation was limited to software installation without providing the appropriate motivations for employees to learn, provide input, and take full advantage of the information systems

  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM) - CIO Wiki - a term that refers to practices, strategies and technologies that companies use to manage and analyze customer interactions and data throughout the customer lifecycle, with the goal of improving business relationships with customers, assisting in customer retention and driving sales growth. CRM systems are designed to compile information on customers across different channels - or points of contact between the customer and the company - which could include the company's website, telephone, live chat, direct mail, marketing materials and social media. CRM systems can also give customer-facing staff detailed information on customers' personal information, purchase history, buying preferences and concerns.

CRM systems compile data from a range of different communication channels, including a company's website, telephone (which many softwares come with a softphone), email, live chat, marketing materials and more recently, social media. They allow businesses to learn more about their target audiences and how to best cater to their needs, thus retaining customers and driving sales growth. CRM may be used with past, present or potential customers. The concepts, procedures, and rules that a corporation follows when communicating with its consumers are referred to as CRM. This complete connection covers direct contact with customers, such as sales and service-related operations, forecasting, and the analysis of consumer patterns and behaviors, from the perspective of the company. According to Gartner, the global CRM market size is estimated at $69 billion in 2020.

  • CRM System - Ryte Wiki - The Digital Marketing Wiki - A CRM system should offer a basic set of functions needed by every company: an integrative informative system. It should include for example the following functions: Information about customers and suppliers in one database Possibility of data analysis and evaluation Linking with other software systems and various company divisions (e.g. data from sales are also available to customer service). Derivation of new strategies for sales and production from the acquired data and findings Establishment of additional communication channels Cross- and upselling.

  • Customer Relationship Management - CRM - Support Wiki - provides best-in-class functionality for marketing, sales and service. It supports customer-facing business processes across multiple interaction channels. SAP CRM enables organizations to focus on strategies for customer-driven growth and to differentiate themselves in the market by providing a superior customer experience $
  • CiviCRM - an open source project that produces software for nonprofit and civic sector organizations. CiviCRM, the software, is a web-based, highly customizable CRM released under the GNU Affero General Public License version 3 (GNU AGPL v3). CiviCRM is used by a diverse range of organizations around the world and translated into dozens of languages. Founded in 2005 as a California-based Limited Liability Company, CiviCRM was conceived as an alternative to proprietary CRMs serving the nonprofit sector. As open source software, CiviCRM was made freely available for use and improvement, allowing it to attract a passionate community of software developers and nonprofit professionals to drive its roadmap and feature set.
  • - a web-based suite of internationalized open-source software for constituency relationship management that falls under the broad rubric of customer relationship management. It is specifically designed for the needs of non-profit, non-governmental, and advocacy groups, and serves as an association-management system. CiviCRM is designed to manage information about an organization's donors, members, event registrants, subscribers, grant-application seekers and funders, and case contacts. Volunteers, activists, and voters - as well as more general sorts of business contacts such as employees, clients, or vendors - can be managed using CiviCRM.
  • SuiteCRM - Open Source CRM Software Application for Businesses - Our feature-rich enterprise-ready alternative to Salesforce provides all the benefits of CRM at substantially lower costs with the freedoms and flexibility of Open Source.
    • - the award-winning open-source, enterprise-ready Customer Relationship Management (CRM, software application. Our vision is to be the most adopted open source enterprise CRM in the world, giving users full control of their data and freedom to own and customise their business solution.
  • - an open-source Customer Relationship Management application for servers written in PHP. It is a software fork of the popular customer relationship management (CRM, system from SugarCRM and its base is built on the last open-source SugarCRM release. The SuiteCRM project began when SugarCRM decided to stop the development of its open-source version. (Open-source CRM is often used as an alternative to proprietary CRM software from major corporations such as HubSpot, Salesforce, and Microsoft
  • Group-Office - Open source groupware and CRM. Check in at the office, anytime and anywhere. Flexible and customizable, always private and secure.
  • - a PHP based dual license commercial/open source groupware and CRM and DMS product developed by the Dutch company Intermesh. The open source version, Group-Office Community, is licensed under the AGPL, and is available via SourceForge. GroupOffice Professional is a commercial product and offers additionally mobile synchronisation, project management and time tracking.

The online suite puts independent office applications onto a central server, making them accessible through a web browser. The suite includes file management, address book, calendar, email notes and website content management modules. The email client has IMAP and S/MIME support, the calendar supports iCalendar import, and it can be synchronised with personal digital assistants, mobile phones, and Microsoft Outlook. In the Professional version, it is possible to create templates to export to Open Document Format or Microsoft Word. Files can be managed in an inbuilt file manager, and accessed through WebDAV. Users may be managed within the application or in an LDAP system.

  • ADempiere - is an Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP software package released under a free software license. The verb adempiere in Italian means "to fulfill a duty" or "to accomplish". ADempiere Business Suite ERP/CRM/MFG/SCM/POS done the Bazaar way in an open and unabated fashion. Focus is on the Community that includes Subject Matter Specialists, Implementors and End-Users.
  • - a web based, cloud-native CRM/ERP application to store, organize, access and share business records. Manage your data precisely, flexibly and easily, simplifying internal communication and making work-flow more efficient. Epesi has been designed as a Kickstarter project and provides "no code" and "low code" environment for developers. Epesi is an open-source, PHP/Ajax framework for rapid development of web-based, database-driven single page applications. The framework includes the Epesi CRM (customer relationship management, multi-user application. It requires PHP 7.x and MySQL or PostgreSQL database server on the server-side and can be accessed using any modern browser. Epesi framework and Epesi CRM application are released under MIT license.
  • - a three-tier high-level general purpose computer application platform on top of which is built an enterprise resource planning (ERP, business solution through a set of Tryton modules. The three-tier architecture consists of the Tryton client, the Tryton server and the database management system (mainly PostgreSQL).
  • Dolibarr - ERP CRM is a modern software package to manage your company or foundation's activity (contacts, suppliers, invoices, orders, stocks, agenda, accounting, etc.). It's an open source Web application (written in PHP) designed for businesses of any sizes, foundations and freelancers.
  • - an open source, free software package for companies of any size, foundations or freelancers. It includes different features for enterprise resource planning (ERP, and customer relationship management (CRM) but also other features for different activities.

Quality assurance

See also Development#Quality

  • - The ISO 9000 family is a set of five quality management systems (QMS), standards by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that help organizations ensure they meet customer and other stakeholder needs within statutory and regulatory requirements related to a product or service. ISO 9000 deals with the fundamentals of QMS, including the seven quality management principles that underlie the family of standards. ISO 9001 deals with the requirements that organizations wishing to meet the standard must fulfill. ISO 9002 is a model for quality assurance in production and installation. ISO 9003 for quality assurance in final inspection and test. ISO 9004 gives guidance on achieving sustained organizational success.


  • - the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. It is not, as the phrase might suggest, the management of the environment itself. Environmental resources management aims to ensure that ecosystem services are protected and maintained for future human generations, and also maintain ecosystem integrity through considering ethical, economic, and scientific (ecological, variables. Environmental resource management tries to identify factors affected by conflicts that rise between meeting needs and protecting resources. It is thus linked to environmental protection, sustainability, integrated landscape management, natural resource management, fisheries management, forest management, and wildlife management, and others.

  • - a family of standards by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes, etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements; and (c) continually improve in the above.[1]

ISO 14000 is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the process of how a service/product is rendered, rather than to the service/product itself. As with ISO 9001, certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO directly. The ISO 19011 and ISO 17021 audit standards apply when audits are being performed.

  • - EMAS, is a voluntary environmental management instrument, which was developed in 1993 by the European Commission. It enables organizations to assess, manage and continuously improve their environmental performance. The scheme is globally applicable and open to all types of private and public organizations. In order to register with EMAS, organisations must meet the requirements of the EU EMAS-Regulation. Currently, more than 4,600 organisations and more than 7,900 sites are EMAS registered.[


  • - and business environment are marketing terms that refer to factors and forces that affect a firm's ability to build and maintain successful customer relationships. The business environment has been defined as "the totality of physical and social factors that are taken directly into consideration in the decision-making behaviour of individuals in the organisation."

The three levels of the environment are as follows:

  • Internal environment – the internal elements of the organisation used to create, communicate and deliver market offerings.
  • External micro environment – Local forces that affect its ability to serve its customers.
  • External macro environment – larger societal forces that affect the survival of the organisation, including the demographic environment, the political environment, the cultural environment, the natural environment, the technological environment and the economic environment. The analysis of the macro marketing environment is to better understand the environment, adapt to the social environment and change, so as to achieve the purpose of enterprise marketing.


  • - two or more individuals, usually in the form of a family, clan, organization, or company. A major distinction between different political cultures is whether they believe the individual is the basic unit of their society, in which case they are individualistic, or whether corporate groups are the basic unit of their society, in which case they are corporatist.

In social psychology and biology, research shows that penguins reside in densely populated corporate breeding colonies. In humans, different cultures have different beliefs about what the basic unit of the culture is. These assumptions affect their beliefs about what the proper concern of the government should be.

In social political theory, corporatism refers to organisation of society by designating the individual into corporate groups, whether by force or voluntarily, to represent common interests (usually economic policy, in the larger societal framework. For example, social corporatism and corporate statism divides society by capitalist, proletariat and government, and sometimes even further. The degree to which these interest groups are autonomous parties in collective bargaining is crucial in the placement on the spectrum between syndicalism and fascism.

  • - are mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and operated ("governed"). "Corporate governance" may be defined, described or delineated in diverse ways, depending on the writer's purpose. Writers focused on a disciplinary interest or context (such as accounting, finance, law, or management) often adopt narrow definitions that appear purpose-specific. Writers concerned with regulatory policy in relation to corporate governance practices often use broader structural descriptions. A broad (meta) definition that encompasses many adopted definitions is "Corporate governance describes the processes, structures, and mechanisms that influence the control and direction of corporations."[1]

    • PDF: Managing Without Managers by Ricardo Semler
    • Ricardo Semler - Leading by Omission - If successful business depends on innovation, wonders Ricardo Semler, why are automobiles made essentially the same way today as they were in Ford's first assembly line 100 years ago? Parallel parking is one of " the stupidest things we do," says Semler, "If we had a day, could we not by tomorrow afternoon figure out a way to make a car" that handles better in this common situation -- or, on a grander scale, escape from the "silly concept" of oil dependent transportation altogether? The problem, Semler figures, is that there's "something fundamental about organizations and ' leadership that makes it almost impossible for people inside a business to change their own industry." Industries are based on "formats that are basically legacies of military hierarchies," says Semler, which neglect or deny the power of human intuition and democratic participation. In Semler's own firm, there are no five-year business plans (which he views as wishful thinking), but rather "a rolling rationale about numbers." A project takes off only if a critical mass of employees decides to get involved. Staff determine when they need a leader, and then choose their own bosses in a process akin to courtship, says Semler, resulting in a corporate turnover rate of 2% over 25 years. "We'll send our sons anywhere in the world to die for democracy," says Semler, but don't seem to apply the concept to the workplace. This is a tragic error, because "people on their own developing their own solutions will develop something different.




  • - both a leadership philosophy and set of leadership practices. Traditional leadership generally involves the accumulation and exercise of power by one at the “top of the pyramid.” By comparison, the servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible.

  • - a modern (2011) leadership model. Designed as a practical tool for developing a person’s leadership presence, knowhow and skill, it aims to summarize what leaders have to do, not only to bring leadership to their group or organization, but also to develop themselves technically and psychologically as leaders.

The first two levels – public and private leadership – are “outer” or “behavioral” levels. Scouller distinguished between the behaviors involved in influencing two or more people simultaneously (what he called “public leadership”) from the behavior needed to select and influence individuals one to one (which he called private leadership). He listed 34 distinct “public leadership” behaviors and a further 14 “private leadership” behaviors. The third level – personal leadership – is an “inner” level and concerns a person’s leadership presence, knowhow, skills, beliefs, emotions and unconscious habits. "At its heart is the leader’s self-awareness, his progress toward self-mastery and technical competence, and his sense of connection with those around him. It's the inner core, the source, of a leader’s outer leadership effectiveness.” (Scouller, 2011).

  • PDF: The Grit in the Oyster: Professionalism, Managerialism and Leaderism as Discourses of UK Public Services Modernization - "The representation of organizational agency in UK policy discourse on public service modernization is analysed in order to disclose the legitimation of elite organizational centres and the structuring of organizational peripheries and their potential for resistance. Three discourses are identified and explored: the residual, but still potent, discourse of professionalism; the dominant discourse of managerialism; and the emergent discourse of leaderism. The emergent discourse of leaderism is shown to be linked to an imaginary of neo-bureaucratic organizing, which represents an evolution of New Public Management. As such, the analysis of leaderism, a new form of privileged agency, contributes an insight into the dynamics of public service modernization. This is developed through exploring leaderism’s tension between its strong affinity with unitarist managerialism and its weaker linkages to quasi-pluralist stakeholder networks which create potentialities for new forms of active resistance."

  • - a title given to a small number of open-source software development leaders, typically project founders who retain the final say in disputes or arguments within the community. The phrase originated in 1995 with reference to Guido van Rossum, creator of the Python programming language. Shortly after Van Rossum joined the Corporation for National Research Initiatives, the term appeared in a follow-up mail by Ken Manheimer to a meeting trying to create a semi-formal group that would oversee Python development and workshops; this initial use included an additional joke of naming Van Rossum the "First Interim BDFL". Van Rossum announced in July 2018 that he would be stepping down as BDFL of Python without appointing a successor, effectively eliminating the title within the Python community structure.

BDFL should not be confused with the more common term for open-source leaders, "benevolent dictator", which was popularized by Eric S. Raymond's essay "Homesteading the Noosphere" ,1999). Among other topics related to hacker culture, Raymond elaborates on how the nature of open source forces the "dictatorship" to keep itself benevolent, since a strong disagreement can lead to the forking of the project under the rule of new leaders.


  • Lean Canvas - Business Model Canvas Optimized for Lean Startup

  • What is Lean Coffee? – Agile Coffee - The Lean Coffee format is both easy to follow and effective at facilitating learning and collaboration through group discussions. Although the name combines ‘Lean’ (eg. Lean Thinking, Lean Startup, etc.) and ‘Coffee’ (implying casual morning sessions), neither the topics nor the meeting times need be so rigid. For instance, I’ve attended Lean Coffee meetups held in mornings, afternoons and evenings. You can gather at a local coffee house, a pub or at your office. Most successful Lean Coffee groups maintain a reliable cadence, meeting at the same time and place each week or two.

Action method

  • Action steps
  • References
  • Backburner items



Six Sigma

  • - a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was developed by Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made it central to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995. Today, it is used in many industrial sectors.

Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Champions", "Black Belts", "Green Belts", "Yellow Belts", etc.) who are experts in these methods. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified value targets, for example: reduce process cycle time, reduce pollution, reduce costs, increase customer satisfaction, and increase profits.

The term Six Sigma originated from terminology associated with manufacturing, specifically terms associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield or the percentage of defect-free products it creates. A six sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of the products manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects (3.4 defective parts/million), although, as discussed below, this defect level corresponds to only a 4.5 sigma level. Motorola set a goal of "six sigma" for all of its manufacturing operations, and this goal became a by-word for the management and engineering practices used to achieve it.




The Cluetrain Manifesto

The dotCommunist Manifesto

"A specter is haunting multinational capitalism — the specter of free information. All the powers of "globalism" have entered into an unholy alliance to exorcize this specter: Microsoft and Disney, the World Trade Organization, the United States Congress and the European Commission. Where are the advocates of freedom in the new digital society who have not been decried as pirates, anarchists, communists? Have we not seen that many of those hurling the epithets were merely thieves in power, whose talk of "intellectual property" was nothing more than an attempt to retain unjustifiable privileges in a society irrevocably changing? But it is acknowledged by all the Powers of Globalism that the movement for freedom is itself a Power, and it is high time that we should publish our views in the face of the whole world, to meet this nursery tale of the Specter of Free Information with a Manifesto of our own."


  • - goal is to ensure that information technology resources are sufficient to meet upcoming business requirements cost-effectively. One common interpretation of capacity management is described in the ITIL framework. ITIL version 3 views capacity management as comprising three sub-processes: business capacity management, service capacity management, and component capacity management.

  • - is a collection of technologies and methods used to define how products are to be manufactured. MPM differs from ERP/MRP which is used to plan the ordering of materials and other resources, set manufacturing schedules, and compile cost data. A cornerstone of MPM is the central repository for the integration of all these tools and activities aids in the exploration of alternative production line scenarios; making assembly lines more efficient with the aim of reduced lead time to product launch, shorter product times and reduced work in progress (WIP, inventories as well as allowing rapid response to product or product changes.

  • - a method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning, and has a simulation capability to answer "what-if" questions and is an extension of closed-loop MRP (Material Requirements Planning). This is not exclusively a software function, but the management of people skills, requiring a dedication to database accuracy, and sufficient computer resources. It is a total company management concept for using human and company resources more productively.

  • - are those conforming to the guidelines recommended by relevant agencies. Those agencies control the authorization and licensing of the manufacture and sale of food and beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, dietary supplements, and medical devices. These guidelines provide minimum requirements that a manufacturer must meet to assure that their products are consistently high in quality, from batch to batch, for their intended use. The rules that govern each industry may differ significantly; however, the main purpose of GMP is always to prevent harm from occurring to the end user. Additional tenets include ensuring the end product is free from contamination, that it is consistent in its manufacture, that its manufacture has been well documented, that personnel are well trained, and that the product has been checked for quality more than just at the end phase. GMP is typically ensured through the effective use of a quality management system (QMS).: "The Basis for GMP",  

Good manufacturing practices, along with good agricultural practices, good laboratory practices and good clinical practices, are overseen by regulatory agencies in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Europe, China, India and other countries.

  • - the process of arranging, controlling and optimizing work and workloads in a production process or manufacturing process. Scheduling is used to allocate plant and machinery resources, plan human resources, plan production processes and purchase materials.

  • - an iterative and incremental development framework, inspired by Scrum and Kanban (かんばん(看板)?) that features principles of Modular Design, BDD and TDD. The name was coined in 2012 after Extreme Programming (XP) software development by Joe Justice, founder of Wikispeed, and Marcin Jakubowski, founder of Open Source Ecology. This framework, popularized by Joe Justice and J.J. Sutherland, has a rich history with origins that predate the early implementations of Agile software development and exemplify the Japanese Kaizen (改善?) culture.

  • - direction management (Japanese: 方針管理 Hepburn: hōshin kanri?)) is a method devised to capture and cement strategic goals as well as flashes of insight about the future and develop the means to bring these into reality. policy deployment, hoshin planning, or simply hoshin (as in "FY12 Hoshin"), it is a strategic planning/strategic management methodology based on a concept popularized in Japan in the late 1950s by Professor Yoji Akao. "Each person is the expert in his or her own job, and Japanese TQC [Total Quality Control] is designed to use the collective thinking power of all employees to make their organization the best in its field."

Innovation / futures

  • - futures research, futurism or futurology* - has been conceptualised by strategic foresight practitioners and academics working and/or studying corporations as a set of practices, a set of capabilities and an ability of a firm. It enables firms to detect discontinuous change early, interpret its consequences for the firm, and inform future courses of action to ensure the long-term survival and success of the company is the systematic, interdisciplinary and holistic study of social/technological advancement, and other environmental trends; often for the purpose of exploring how people will live and work in the future. Predictive techniques, such as forecasting, can be applied, but contemporary futures studies scholars emphasize the importance of systematically exploring alternatives. In general, it can be considered as a branch of the social sciences and an extension to the field of history. Futures studies (colloquially called "futures" by many of the field's practitioners) seeks to understand what is likely to continue and what could plausibly change. Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based understanding of past and present, and to explore the possibility of future events and trends.

Unlike the physical sciences where a narrower, more specified system is studied, futurology concerns a much bigger and more complex world system. The methodology and knowledge are much less proven than in natural science and social sciences like sociology and economics. There is a debate as to whether this discipline is an art or science, and it is sometimes described as pseudoscience; nevertheless, the Association of Professional Futurists was formed in 2002, developing a Foresight Competency Model in 2017, and it is now possible to study it academically, for example at the FU Berlin in their master's course. In order to encourage inclusive and cross-disciplinary discussions about the futures studies, UNESCO declared December 2 as World Futures Day.

Moore's law is an example of futurology; it is a statistical collection of past and present trends with the goal of accurately extrapolating future trends.

Futurology is an interdisciplinary field that aggregates and analyzes trends, with both lay and professional methods, to compose possible futures. It includes analyzing the sources, patterns, and causes of change and stability in an attempt to develop foresight. Around the world the field is variously referred to as futures studies, futures research, strategic foresight, futuristics, futures thinking, futuring, and futurology. Futures studies and strategic foresight are the academic field's most commonly used terms in the English-speaking world.

Foresight was the original term and was first used in this sense by H.G. Wells in 1932. "Futurology" is a term common in encyclopedias, though it is used almost exclusively by nonpractitioners today, at least in the English-speaking world. "Futurology" is defined as the "study of the future". The term was coined by German professor Ossip K. Flechtheim in the mid-1940s, who proposed it as a new branch of knowledge that would include a new science of probability. This term has fallen from favor in recent decades because modern practitioners stress the importance of alternative, plausible, preferable and plural futures, rather than one monolithic future, and the limitations of prediction and probability, versus the creation of possible and preferable futures.

Three factors usually distinguish futures studies from the research conducted by other disciplines (although all of these disciplines overlap, to differing degrees). First, futures studies often examines trends to compose possible, probable, and preferable futures along with the role "wild cards" can play on future scenarios. Second, futures studies typically attempts to gain a holistic or systemic view based on insights from a range of different disciplines, generally focusing on the STEEP categories of Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental and Political. Third, futures studies challenges and unpacks the assumptions behind dominant and contending views of the future. The future thus is not empty but fraught with hidden assumptions. For example, many people expect the collapse of the Earth's ecosystem in the near future, while others believe the current ecosystem will survive indefinitely. A foresight approach would seek to analyze and highlight the assumptions underpinning such views.

As a field, futures studies expands on the research component, by emphasizing the communication of a strategy and the actionable steps needed to implement the plan or plans leading to the preferable future. It is in this regard, that futures studies evolves from an academic exercise to a more traditional business-like practice, looking to better prepare organizations for the future.

  • - used in the multi-disciplinary field of futurology by futurists in Americas and Australasia, and futurology by futurologists in EU, include a diverse range of forecasting methods, including anticipatory thinking, backcasting, simulation, and visioning. Some of the anticipatory methods include, the delphi method, causal layered analysis, environmental scanning, morphological analysis, and scenario planning.

  • - the term foresight has become widely used to describe activities such as:
    • critical thinking concerning long-term developments,
    • debate and for some futurists who are normative and focus on action driven by their values who may be concerned with effort to create wider participatory democracy. Foresight is a set of competencies and not a value system, however.
    • shaping the future, especially by influencing public policy.

  • - a planning-oriented discipline related to futures studies. Strategy is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. Strategic foresight happens when any planner uses scanned inputs, forecasts, alternative futures exploration, analysis and feedback to produce or alter plans and actions of the organization. Scenario planning plays a prominent role in strategic foresight. The flowchart to the right provides a process for classifying a phenomenon as a scenario in the intuitive logics tradition and differentiates it from many other techniques and approaches to planning. Process for classifying a phenomenon as a scenario in the Intuitive Logics tradition.

Strategic planning always includes analysis, but it may or may not involve serious foresight on the way to developing a plan, or taking an action. A consideration of possible futures (alternative futures) and of probable futures (forecasts, predictions) is important to developing a preferred future (plan), even the simple mental plans made prior to taking an action. It is the job of the strategic foresight professional to make sure appropriately diverse and relevant inputs, forecasts, and alternatives are considered in the analysis, decision making and planning processes, that plans are appropriately communicated and that when actions are taken, appropriate feedback occurs and after action reviews take place to improve the foresight process

  • - has been conceptualised by strategic foresight practitioners and academics working and/or studying corporations as a set of practices, a set of capabilities and an ability of a firm. It enables firms to detect discontinuous change early, interpret its consequences for the firm, and inform future courses of action to ensure the long-term survival and success of the company

  • - a technique for improving process and execution by analyzing the intended outcome and actual outcome of an action and identifying practices to sustain, and practices to improve or initiate, and then practicing those changes at the next iteration of the action AARs in the formal sense were originally developed by the U.S. Army. Formal AARs are used by all US military services and by many other non-US organizations. Their use has extended to business as a knowledge management tool.

An AAR occurs within a cycle of establishing the leader's intent, planning, preparation, action and review. An AAR is distinct from a de-brief in that it begins with a clear comparison of intended versus actual results achieved. An AAR is forward-looking, with the goal of informing future planning, preparation, and execution of similar actions. Assigning blame or issuing reprimands is antithetical to the purpose of an AAR. An AAR is distinct from a post-mortem in its tight focus on participants' own actions; learning from the review is taken forward by the participants. Recommendations for others are not produced. AARs in larger operations can be cascaded in order to keep each level of the organization focused on its own performance within a particular event or project.

  • - or 'AAR, is any form of retrospective analysis on a given sequence of goal-oriented actions previously undertaken, generally by the author themselves. The two principal forms of AARs are the literary AAR, intended for recreational use, and the analytical AAR, exercised as part of a process of performance evaluation and improvement. In most cases, AARs are a combination of both. Most analytical AARs are conducted over a contemporary problem or situation that has occurred in the past, is happening right now, or what could happen in the future. Literary AARs can be formal or informal documents that seek syntax and linguistic improvement. Many research papers published under an academic journal can be considered a literary AAR. There might not be much of a difference between literary AARs and analytical AARs in terms of research papers, but the key difference is analytical seeks to improve performance while literary seeks to improve style. Analytical AARs are formal documents intended to serve as aids to performance evaluation and improvement, by registering situation–response interactions, analyzing critical procedures, determining their effectiveness and efficiency, and proposing adjustments and recommendations.

  • - a method for graphical visualisation of direct and indirect future consequences of a particular change or development. It was invented by Jerome C. Glenn in 1971, when he was a student at the Antioch Graduate School of Education (now Antioch University New England).

The Futures Wheel is a way of organizing thinking and questioning about the future – a kind of structured brainstorming. (Jerome C. Glenn (1994) The Futures Wheel)

  • - conceptual framework used to help multidisciplinary groups envision future scenarios. It is also a process that enables systematic planning against threats ten years in the future. Utilizing the threatcasting process, groups explore possible future threats and how to transform the future they desire into reality while avoiding undesired futures. Threatcasting is a continuous, multiple-step process with inputs from social science, technical research, cultural history, economics, trends, expert interviews, and science fiction storytelling. These inputs inform the exploration of potential visions of the future.

  • - or comparison class forecasting is a method of predicting the future by looking at similar past situations and their outcomes. The theories behind reference class forecasting were developed by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. The theoretical work helped Kahneman win the Nobel Prize in Economics.

Reference class forecasting is so named as it predicts the outcome of a planned action based on actual outcomes in a reference class of similar actions to that being forecast. Discussion of which reference class to use when forecasting a given situation is known as the reference class problem.

  • - or horizon scan is a method from futures studies, sometimes regarded as a part of foresight. It is the early detection and assessment of emerging technologies or threats for mainly policy makers in a domain of choice. Such domains include agriculture, environmental studies, health care, biosecurity, and food safety.

Time banking / crowdtiming

  • Timebanking in New Zealand as a prefigurative strategy within a wider degrowth movement - A movement is gaining traction in New Zealand around timebanks, networks of support in which members exchange favors such as gardening, lifts to the supermarket, pet care, language lessons, career advice, or smartphone tutorials. An online currency is used to track these exchanges, with one hour of work earning one time credit. While each transaction may seem commonplace, when timebanks flourish they work to reshape motivations and opportunities for engaging in labor, and relocalize networks of solidarity, friendship, and resources. Participants reported examples of developing unexpected friendships and renewed enthusiasm for a larger collective project of building alternatives to the currently dominant growth-addicted economic model. These processes contribute to the establishment of foundational, mostly small-scale networks that are enjoyable to use in the here and now, while also creating the potential for these systems to be scaled up or linked together in response to greater economic, ecological, and social changes. Timebank developers in New Zealand are negotiating several structural challenges in their attempts to bring these networks to fruition. This article shares results of ethnographic research amongst seven North Island timebanks, and offers suggestions for future research in this area.

  • PDF: towards a co-produced solution for power and money issues in inclusive research - This paper explores the potential of an online TimeBank for inclusive research to address some of the challenges related to the unequal distribution of power and money for researchers within and outside the academy working in collaboration. The problem, the concept of TimeBanking, and the relationship of TimeBanking to inclusive research principles are explained. The case is made for developing an online TimeBank for inclusive research, and an account is given of initial co-production of a prototype by an English interdisciplinary academic team and a Welsh workers cooperative set up and run by people with and without learning disabilities aiming to make public life more inclusive. The paper concludes that, while the concept is some way from becoming a reality, a hybrid digital-physical TimeBank, if accessible and flexible enough to attract usage, has potential for supporting democratised, inclusive research in practice.

  • hOurworld - International Directory of Community TimeBanks - Members share their talents and services, record their hours, then 'spend' them later on services others provide. Everyone's hours are equal. This is not barter. Members provide friendly neighborly favors. Together we are strengthening the fabric of local communities. Time banking replaces money. Provide an hour of service to your neighbor and earn one time dollar. A TimeBank is a network of members that have agreed they will provide and receive services from each other, albeit not directly. (This is not Barter.) Nothing is given 'in consideration of' and there are no binding contracts. Members have a moral obligation of reciprocity to the community.

  • Leith Time Bank - Pilmeny Development Project - an exciting new idea that gives people, like you, the opportunity to share time and skills to develop your community. We know everyone has skills, knowledge and experience to offer, which could be beneficial to someone, such as gardening, sewing, listening, simple repairs and running errands. Time Banking is a way for people to exchange their skills and time. For every hour members “deposit” in a Time Bank, perhaps by giving practical help and support to others, they are able to “withdraw” equivalent support in time when they themselves are in need. Everyone's time is valued equally whatever is being offered.

  • Jamaafunding - a crowdtiming platform (time and money based project funding) dedicated to projects focused on solidarity, innovation, economic development all over the world. We aim at creating synergies et promote exchange of skills


  • - the collection of the beliefs, perceptions and values that employees share in relation to risks within an organization, such as a workplace or community. Safety culture is a part of organizational culture, and has been described in a variety of ways; notably the National Academies of Science and the Association of Land Grant and Public Universities have published summaries on this topic in 2014 and 2016 .

Studies have found that workplace related disasters are a result of a breakdown in an organization's policies and procedures that were established to deal with safety, and that the breakdown flows from inadequate attention being paid to safety issues.

  • Intrafocus: What is RIDDOR - A short Introduction - a summary of The United Kingdom Statute Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations or RIDDOR. It is not a definitive guide and should not be used as such. For full information see article references at the bottom of this page.

Conflict resolution

  • - conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs) and by engaging in collective negotiation. Dimensions of resolution typically parallel the dimensions of conflict in the way the conflict is processed. Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs, perspectives, understandings and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about a conflict, the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is reflective of how the disputants act, their behavior. Ultimately a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including negotiation, mediation, mediation-arbitration, diplomacy, and creative peacebuilding. The term conflict resolution may also be used interchangeably with dispute resolution, where arbitration and litigation processes are critically involved. The concept of conflict resolution can be thought to encompass the use of nonviolent resistance measures by conflicted parties in an attempt to promote effective resolution.

  • - the process of resolving disputes between parties. The term dispute resolution is sometimes used interchangeably with conflict resolution, although conflicts are generally more deep-rooted and lengthy than disputes. Dispute resolution techniques assist the resolution of antagonisms between parties that can include citizens, corporations, and governments.

  • - a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques. All participants in mediation are encouraged to actively participate in the process. Mediation is a "party-centered" process in that it is focused primarily upon the needs, rights, and interests of the parties. The mediator uses a wide variety of techniques to guide the process in a constructive direction and to help the parties find their optimal solution. A mediator is facilitative in that she/he manages the interaction between parties and facilitates open communication. Mediation is also evaluative in that the mediator analyzes issues and relevant norms ("reality-testing"), while refraining from providing prescriptive advice to the parties (e.g., "You should do... .").Mediation, as used in law, is a form of alternative dispute resolution resolving disputes between two or more parties with concrete effects. Typically, a third party, the mediator, assists the parties to negotiate a settlement. Disputants may mediate disputes in a variety of domains, such as commercial, legal, diplomatic, workplace, community and family matters.

Risk management

Safer spaces / Code of Conduct

  • Contributor Covenant: A Code of Conduct for Open Source and Other Digital Commons Communities - Participating in open source is often a highly collaborative experience. We’re encouraged to create in public view, and we’re incentivized to welcome contributions of all kinds from people around the world. This makes the practice of open source as much social as it is technical. Some open source projects attract enough contributors that a community forms. A healthy open source community centers the shared values and norms of its members. While not all of these values are exactly the same from community to community, there is a set of core values and norms that are essential in a just and equitable software commons. Contributor Covenant is a code of conduct that you can adapt to express both these fundamental shared values, and the special norms and values that distinguish your own community. Adopting Contributor Covenant helps makes your community’s values explicit, and signals your commitment to creating a welcoming and safe environment for everyone.
  • - a code of conduct for contributors to free/open source software projects, created by Coraline Ada Ehmke. Its stated purpose is to reduce harassment of minority, LGBT and otherwise underrepresented open source software developers. The Contributor Covenant is used in prominent projects including Linux, Ruby on Rails, Swift, Go, and JRuby. Relevant signers include Google, Apple, Microsoft, Intel, Eclipse and GitLab. Since its initial release as an open source document in 2014, its creator has claimed it has been adopted by over 100,000 open source projects. In 2016 GitHub added a feature to streamline the addition of the Contributor Covenant to an open source project and the Ruby library manager Bundler also has an option to add the Contributor Covenant to software programs that its users create.

  • Code of Conduct — CodeBase - The UK's largest Technology Incubator, based in Edinburgh

  • Positive Work Environment at W3C: Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct - W3C's Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct defines accepted and acceptable behaviors and promotes high standards of professional practice. The goals of this code are to: Define acceptable and expected standards of behavior. Provide a benchmark. Ensure transparency in community and group management. Ensure an environment where people can participate without fear of harassment. Contribute to the identity of the organization.

Time management

  • Taskfreak! Time Tracking - Taskfreak version is all about (and only about) planning tasks and keep track of time spent on them.

Task routine

Time tracking

  • - a simple command line time tracker written in ruby. It provides an easy to use command line interface for tracking what you spend your time on.

Task Timer (tt)


  • Kimai - the boring process of feeding Excel spreadsheets with your working hours is not only simplified, it also offers dozens of other exciting features that you don't even know you're missing so far!

Break management

can't start minimized?




Calendar / CalDAV / CardDAV

See also WebDAV

  • CalConnect - a non-profit partnership between vendors and users of collaboration systems and tools, in particular calendaring and scheduling. Our purpose is to improve all aspects of collaboration services, in particular calendaring and scheduling. We do this by improving existing standards, developing new standards, offering interoperability testing, collaborating with other organizations with similar goals, and conducting periodic conferences where engineers and customers meet and interact in a collegial atmosphere. We liaise with other major international standards organizations such as ISO and OASIS. Virtually every important calendaring or calendaring-related standard since the late 2000s has been authored, edited and/or coedited by members of a CalConnect Technical Committee. We invite you to learn more about CalConnect, and we hope you will become a participating member. If you have any questions, please use the contact form, or e-mail us directly at Overview CalConnect is focused on the interoperable exchange of calendaring and scheduling information between dissimilar programs, platforms, and technologies. Our mission is to promote general understanding of and provide mechanisms to allow interoperable calendaring and scheduling methodologies, tools and applications to enter the mainstream of computing. An early overview presentation is available at this link: CalConnect, Calendaring Interoperability and Calendaring Standards and a ten-year review at An Anecdotal History of CalConnect. A list of Calendaring standards, specifications, and standards-related activities to date may be found here: Calendaring Standards.

  • CalDAV - a calendaring and scheduling client/server protocol designed to allow users to access calendar data on a server, and to schedule meetings with other users on that server or other servers. The CalDAV Access protocol has been standardized by the IETF and published as RFC 4791. The CalDAV Scheduling protocol has been standardized by the IETF and published as RFC 6638.


  • Radicale - a small but powerful CalDAV (calendars, to-do lists) and CardDAV (contacts) server, that: Shares calendars and contact lists through CalDAV, CardDAV and HTTP. Supports events, todos, journal entries and business cards. Works out-of-the-box, no complicated setup or configuration required. Can limit access by authentication. Can secure connections with TLS. Works with many CalDAV and CardDAV clients. Stores all data on the file system in a simple folder structure. Can be extended with plugins. Is GPLv3-licensed free software.


  • DAViCal - a server for calendar sharing. It is an implementation of the CalDAV protocol which is designed for storing calendaring resources (in iCalendar format) on a remote shared server. An increasing number of calendar clients support the maintenance of shared remote calendars through CalDAV, including Mozilla Calendar (Sunbird/Lightning), Evolution, Mulberry, Chandler, and various other closed-source products such as Apple's iCal and iOS.


  • Baïkal - offers ubiquitous and synchronized access to your calendars and address books over CalDAV and CardDAV. Baïkal implements the current IETF recommendation drafts of these industry standards for centralized calendar and address book collections.


  • sabre/dav - The open source CardDAV, CalDAV and WebDAV server.



  • vdirsyncer - a command-line tool for synchronizing calendars and addressbooks between a variety of servers and the local filesystem. The most popular usecase is to synchronize a server with a local folder and use a set of other programs to change the local events and contacts. Vdirsyncer can then synchronize those changes back to the server.However, vdirsyncer is not limited to synchronizing between clients and servers. It can also be used to synchronize calendars and/or addressbooks between two servers directly.It aims to be for calendars and contacts what OfflineIMAP is for emails.



  • Todoman - a simple, standards-based, cli todo (aka: task) manager. Todos are stored into icalendar files, which means you can sync them via CalDAV using, for example, vdirsyncer.Todoman is now part of the pimutils project, and is hosted at GitHub.


  • WebCalendar - a PHP-based calendar application that can be configured as a single-user calendar, a multi-user calendar for groups of users, or as an event calendar viewable by visitors. MySQL/MariaDB, SQLite3, PostgreSQL, Oracle, DB2, Interbase, MS SQL Server, or ODBC is required. While still being maintained, there is not currently any active development of new features.



  • calcurse - a calendar and scheduling application for the command line. It helps keep track of events, appointments and everyday tasks. A configurable notification system reminds user of upcoming deadlines, the curses based interface can be customized to suit user needs and a very powerful set of command line options can be used to filter and format appointments, making it suitable for use in scripts.






  • Remind - a sophisticated calendar and alarm program. It includes the following features: A sophisticated scripting language and intelligent handling of exceptions and holidays. Plain-text, PostScript and HTML output. Timed reminders and pop-up alarms. A friendly graphical front-end for people who don't want to learn the scripting language. Facilities for both the Gregorian and Hebrew calendars. Support for 12 different languages.


  • - Open Source Show Management System, a tool to help musicians, artists and bookers with the organization of shows and everything around. BookerDB is based on a csv database, classified by dates. It is possible to add/delete entries and do a lot more of manipulations. It has a monitor to show all kind of filters around the database, like coming dates, played dates, statistics, contacts, etc... It can also export database entries into PDF (as info sheet with all important information) to take them as reminder on tour.

  • - Our ridiculously efficient AI software solves the hassle of scheduling meetings and appointments.



  • Doodle - The simple way to decide on dates, places & more. Compare availability to find the best time for everyone to meet.


  • Dudle - an online scheduling application, like

Event management


  • - a participant-driven meeting. The term "unconference" has been applied, or self-applied, to a wide range of gatherings that try to avoid hierarchical aspects of a conventional conference, such as sponsored presentations and top-down organization.

According to Tim O'Reilly, a predecessor of an unconference was a gathering organized by Alexander von Humboldt in 1828, which had a reduced emphasis on formal speeches and instead emphasized informal connections. The term "unconference" first appeared in an announcement for the annual XML developers conference in 1998. Unconferences often use variations on Open Space Technology, the format/method developed by Harrison Owen in 1985. Owen's 1993 book Open Space Technology: a User's Guide discussed many of the techniques now associated with unconferences, although his book does not use that term. The term was used by Lenn Pryor when discussing BloggerCon (a series of conferences organized by Dave Winer and first held October 4–5, 2003 at Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet & Society.) Sarah Winge, the organizer (with Tim O'Reilly) of Foo Camp, an early unconference, drew on her experience of open space and conversations with Harrison Owen to develop the format. The first Foo Camp happened October 10–12, 2003, in Sebastopol, California. In 2005 some of the attendees from previous years decided to produce their own "Bar" Camp. These three events, BloggerCon, Foo Camp and BarCamp helped to popularize the term "unconference".

  • frab - free and open conference management system - is a web-based conference planning and management system. It helps to collect submissions, to manage talks and speakers and to create a schedule.


  • - a user-focused conference for the blogger community that ran between 2003 and 2006. BloggerCon I (October 2003) and II (April 2004), were organized by Dave Winer and friends at Harvard Law School's Berkman Center for the Internet and Society in Cambridge, Massachusetts BloggerCon III took place in San Francisco in June 2006. According to the Online Journalism Review, "BloggerCon has lots of cooks, but the chief chef is technologist Dave Winer, co-founder of RSS and the patient zero of blogging. BloggerCon exists because Winer wants it to happen."

BloggerCon I was initially planned to be financed without corporate sponsors by charging $500 to attend. This plan sparked controversy. A second, free day was later added to the program. For BloggerCon II and III, there was no registration cost; the conference was funded by voluntary contributions from attendees. On the first, paid day of BloggerCon I, four panels discussed the interaction of blogging with journalism, education, marketing, and presidential politics. The second day's panels included various technical and infrastructure issues such as RSS, news aggregators, and what was then called "audioblogging". The first BloggerCon brought together audioblogging pioneers with developers, whose collective efforts led to the phenomenon that spread six months later under the name podcasting.

For BloggerCon II, the format was changed to create an unconference, with audience participation sessions, loosely moderated by a discussion leader, rather than formal panels or keynotes. One invited participant, Iranian blogger Hossein Derakhshan, was unable to get a visa. He and others were still able to participate in the discussion via an IRC channel projected on a screen.

  • - an annual hacker event hosted by publisher O'Reilly Media. O'Reilly describes it as "the wiki of conferences", where the program is developed by the attendees at the event, using big whiteboard schedule templates that can be rewritten or overwritten by attendees to optimize the schedule; this type of event is sometimes called an unconference.

  • - an international network of user-generated conferences primarily focused on technology and the web. They are open, participatory workshop-events, the content of which is provided by participants. The first BarCamps focused on early stage web applications, and were related to open source technologies, social software, and open data formats.

Unlike traditional conference formats, both BarCamps and FooCamps have a self-organizing character, relying on the passion and the responsibility of the participants. Attendees schedule sessions by writing on a whiteboard or putting a Post-It note on a 'grid' of sessions. Those giving sessions are discouraged from using the sessions for promotion. BarCamps are often organized largely through the web; anyone can initiate a BarCamp using the BarCamp wiki. Students taking part in a BarCamp at Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore, in February 2009

Although the format is loosely structured, there are rules at BarCamp. All attendees are encouraged to present or facilitate a session or otherwise contribute to the event. Everyone is also asked to share information and experiences of the event via public web channels, including blogs, photo sharing, social bookmarking, Twitter, wikis, and IRC. This encouragement to share is a deliberate change from the "off-the-record by default" and "no recordings" rules at many invite-only participant driven conferences. It also turns a physical, face-to-face event into a 'hybrid event' which enables remote online engagement with BarCamp participants.

Historically, Bar Camp was based on the structure of Foo Camp, but with the requirement that participation should be open to all. (Foo Camp, an early unconference, was organized by Tim O'Reilly and Sara Winge; Winge had been a student of Harrison Owen. This form of self-organized user generated conferences is also related to hackers' meetings in Europe, especially those nearer to anarchism and autonomism, happening since the '90s in Temporary Autonomous Zones or other occupied places. However, BarCamps lack the political motivations and are actually quite integrated with the mainstream ICT industry, often getting substantial sponsorships from major corporations.

  • - a participant-driven conference – commonly referred to as an "unconference". EdCamps are designed to provide participant-driven professional development for K-12 educators. EdCamps are modeled after BarCamps, free participant-driven conferences with a primary focus on technology and computers. Educational technology is a common topic area for EdCamps, as are pedagogy, practical examples in instructional use of modern tools, and solving the problems technology can introduce into the classroom environment.

EdCamps are generally free or very low-cost, built around ad hoc community participation. Sessions are not planned until the day of the event, when participants can volunteer to facilitate a conversation on a topic of their choice or simply choose an idea they are interested in learning more about. Edcamps operate "without keynote speakers or vendor booths, encourage participants to find or lead a conversation that meet their needs and interests."

  • - a technology BarCamp that was founded in Portland, Oregon and has since been held all over the world, including at the offices of the New York Times and in Brighton, England. It describes itself as a 2-day creator camp focused on growing the independent web, and spawned the IndieWeb movement.

See Open social#IndieWeb

Open Space


  • p2panda/design-document - a way to get together in self-organized festivals.A festival can be anything you want to plan with your friends, your circle, your collective, your commune – or people you have never met before: Give p2panda to your devices and create workshops, gatherings, initiatives, concerts or conferences using the computers and phones you already have – independent of any commercial infrastructure.
  • - p2panda - Festivals and events are organized by a small group of deciders. But what would Eris do? (chaos!) We will look at some of our experiences with decentralised festivals where every participant can truly participate, reflect on how they influence our way of discussing and producing art and technology and discuss p2panda, an idea of a p2p protocol for (self-)organising resources, places and events, which is based on the SSB protocol.This is a technical, artistic, theoretical reflection on how we use technology to run and experiment with decentralised festivals. VERANTWORTUNG 3000 (2016), HOFFNUNG 3000 (2017) and now p2panda are platforms and protocols to setup groups, festivals, gatherings, events or spaces in a decentralised, self-organised manner which allow us to raise questions on how we organise ourselves in our social, artistic & theoretical communities.


Room booking

Workshop / skillshare






  • Bedework Enterprise Calendar System - an open-source enterprise calendar system that supports public, personal, and group calendaring. It is designed to conform to current calendaring standards with a goal of attaining strong interoperability between other calendaring systems and clients. Bedework is built with an emphasis on higher education, though it is used by many commercial enterprises. You may choose to deploy Bedework for public events calendaring, personal calendaring and scheduling, or both. Bedework is suitable for embedding in other applications or in portals and has been deployed across a wide range of environments.
  • Documentation

Product management


HN comment;

  • Don't be afraid to do a big purge. Your stuff is just that, stuff.
  • Do the big purge all at once. "Ongoing" tidiness should simply be putting your stuff away, not constantly revisiting different parts of your home looking for stuff you can throw away.
  • Look up "konmari folding" on YouTube for a new idea about how to fold and store your clothes. For those who are already fairly tidy, this is the only real "new" idea in the book that may interest you.
  • Be affluent enough to have these problems in the first place. None of the advice is for people who are simply slobs, it's for people who have accumulated too much stuff and who feel it dragging down their life.

Constraint planning

  • - In artificial intelligence and operations research, constraint satisfaction is the process of finding a solution through a set of constraints that impose conditions that the variables must satisfy. A solution is therefore a set of values for the variables that satisfies all constraints—that is, a point in the feasible region.


See also Security

  • - sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of protecting information by mitigating information risks. It is part of information risk management. It typically involves preventing or reducing the probability of unauthorized or inappropriate access to data or the unlawful use, disclosure, disruption, deletion, corruption, modification, inspection, recording, or devaluation of information. It also involves actions intended to reduce the adverse impacts of such incidents. Protected information may take any form, e.g., electronic or physical, tangible (e.g., paperwork,, or intangible (e.g., knowledge). Information security's primary focus is the balanced protection of data confidentiality, integrity, and availability (also known as the CIA triad) while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity. This is largely achieved through a structured risk management process


"explaining and convincing through reasoning and rhetoric, instead of the newer tools of evidence and explorable(?) models. we want a medium that supports that."