Net media

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Hypermedia, network effects, etc.

See also Chat, Platforms, Organisation, Digital literacy

  • YouTube: McLuhan's Tetrad - how it can be used to examine media as they progress through history

  • - The terms "online" and "offline" have specific meanings in regard to computer technology and telecommunications in which "online" indicates a state of connectivity, while "offline" indicates a disconnected state. Common vernacular extended from their computing and telecommunication meanings and refers specifically to an Internet connection. Lastly, in the area of human interaction and conversation, discussions taking place during a business meeting are "online", while issues that do not concern all participants of the meeting should be "taken offline"—continued outside of the meeting.

  • - a computer-based system that is intended to help support (usually geographical) communities by supporting, augmenting, and extending already existing social networks, by using networking technologies by, and for, a community.Free-nets and civic networks indicate roughly the same range of online projects and services, usually focused on bulletin board systems and online information, but sometimes also providing a means of network access directly to the Internet or other networks; whereas community technology centers (CTCs) and telecentres generally indicate a physical facility to compensate for lack of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs).
  • - was originally a computer system or network that provided public access to digital resources and community information, including personal communications, through modem dialup via the public switched telephone network. The concept originated in the health sciences to provide online help for medical patients. With the development of the Internet free-net systems became the first to offer limited Internet access to the general public to support the non-profit community work. The Cleveland Free-Net (, founded in 1986, was the pioneering community network of this kind in the world. Any person with a personal computer, or through access from public terminal in libraries, could register for accounts on a free-net, and was assigned an email address. Other services often included Usenet newsgroups, chat rooms, IRC, telnet, and archives of community information, delivered either with text-based Gopher software or later the World-Wide Web.

  • - a form of interaction in email and other modes of online communication consisting of cut and pasted passages of text followed by commentary focussed specifically on the excerpted passage. The term was introduced by cognitive scientist Stevan Harnad, who sees it as a significant development in communication because it restores "the real-time interactivity of the oral tradition" to written text. For Harnad, the most important features of quote/commentary are: its ability to iterate and embed to any depth, which provides a new dimension to hyperlinking, its publicly visible and accessible nature; interaction in electronic discussions such as those found in electronic mailing lists, online forums, and usenet puts the author in potential dialogue with anyone who reads the text.
  • - derived from the idea that texts can be written in the "sky" (via multiple email and a web archive) for all to see ("skyreading") and all to add their own comments to ("skywriting"). After the property of being online and read/writable by all, the most important property of Scholarly Skywriting is "quote/commentary"
  • - is scholarly skywriting done in a teaching/learning context. The idea is to deepen students' interaction with texts by not only having them read them and do essays on them, but also to do interactive quote/commentary on them. "Skyreadings" are posted on the course website and the students' assignment is to quote/comment them, and then also to quote/comment one another's comments. The instructor participates as well.

  • - the practice of using networked computers to maintain a real-time online conversation alongside the primary group activity or live spoken remarks. The term was coined in the field of linguistics to describe listeners' behaviours during verbal communication. The term "backchannel" generally refers to online conversation about the conference topic or speaker. Occasionally backchannel provides audience members a chance to fact-check the presentation.
  • - involves the use of a computing device (commonly a mobile device, such as a tablet or smartphone) to provide an enhanced viewing experience for content on another device, such as a television. In particular, the term commonly refers to the use of such devices to provide interactive features during broadcast content, such as a television program, especially social media postings on social networking platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter. The use of a second screen supports social television and generates an online conversation around the specific content.

  • - Cybertext is based on the idea that getting to the message is just as important as the message itself. In order to obtain the message work on the part of the user is required. This may also be referred to as nontrivial work on the part of the user. In Aarseth’s work, cybertext denotes the general set of text machines which, operated by readers, yield different texts for reading.

(Mark Deuze, 2011)

    • "The settings of the films in cyberpunk, literalizes the chaotic nature of thenarrative world. The scenery establishes a discordant whole through the juxtaposition of contradicting fragments that are bound together with anaesthetic of decay which is a result of the over-saturation of spaces throughtechnological infrastructures. As opposed to the postmodern sceneries of cyberpunk, the settings in postcyberpunk have a modern style whichvisualizes a clean sense of geometry that implicates the welfare and sanity. Within this purified spaces, technology becomes invisible."


  • Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable, Clay Shirky - “When a 14 year old kid can blow up your business in his spare time, not because he hates you but because he loves you, then you got a problem.”

  • - a mixed discipline between design and information-development which is concerned with how media intermission such as printed, crafted, electronic media or presentations communicate with people. A communication design approach is not only concerned with developing the message aside from the aesthetics in media, but also with creating new media channels to ensure the message reaches the target audience. Some designers use graphic design and communication design interchangeably due to overlapping skills. Communication design can also refer to a systems-based approach, in which the totality of media and messages within a culture or organization are designed as a single integrated process rather than a series of discrete efforts. This is done through communication channels that aim to inform and attract the attention of the people you are focusing your skills on.

  • Institute of Network Cultures - analyzes and shapes the terrain of network cultures through events, publications, and online dialogue. Our projects evolve around urgent publishing, alternative revenue models, critical design and making, digital counter culture and much more.





axial hypertexts are the most simple in structure. They are situated along an axis in a linear style. These hypertexts have a straight path from beginning to end and are fairly easy for the reader to follow. An example of an axial hypertext is The Virtual Disappearance of Miriam.

arborescent hypertexts are more complex than the axial form. They have a branching structure which resembles a tree. These hypertexts have one beginning but many possible endings. The ending that the reader finishes on depends on their decisions whilst reading the text. This is much like the Goosebumps novels that allow readers to choose their own ending.

networked hypertexts are more complex still than the two previous forms of hypertext. They consist of an interconnected system of nodes with no dominant axis of orientation. Unlike the aborescent form, nextworked hypertexts do not have any designated beginning or any designated endings. An example of a networked hypertext is Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl.


  • - a hypertext document file format designed for the Amiga, files are stored in ASCII so it is possible to read and edit a file without the need for special software. Since Workbench 2.1 an Amiga Guide system for O.S. inline help files and reading manuals with hypertext formatting elements was launched in AmigaOS and based on a viewer called simply "AmigaGuide" and it has been included as standard feature on the Amiga system. Users with earlier versions of Workbench could view the files by downloading the program and library AmigaGuide 34 distributed with public domain collections of floppy disks (for example on Fred Fish collection) or it could be downloaded directly from Aminet software repository. Starting from AmigaOS 3.0 the AmigaGuide tool was replaced with more the complete and flexible MultiView.




to sort

  • Bombadillo: Home - Seamless browsing between multiple protocols, including Gopher, Gemini, Finger, and your local file system


  • Gemini - a new, collaboratively designed internet protocol, which explores the space inbetween gopher and the web, striving to address (perceived) limitations of one while avoiding the (undeniable) pitfalls of the other. This server hosts the official specification and other documentation for Gemini, as well as offering free personal Geminispace (managed via sftp) for those wanting to play with the protocol. The vast majority of this content is served via Gemini itself, so you'll need a suitable client to access it.


See Network, etc.


See also HTTP, HTML/CSS, WebDev

  • Open Web Platform is the collection of open (royalty-free) technologies which enables the Web. Using the Open Web Platform, everyone has the right to implement a software component of the Web without requiring any approvals or waiving license fees.
  • What is the Open Web?

  • The Internet map - a scheme displaying objects’ relative position; but unlike real maps (e.g. the map of the Earth) or virtual maps (e.g. the map of Mordor), the objects shown on it are not aligned on a surface. Mathematically speaking, The Internet map is a bi-dimensional presentation of links between websites on the Internet. Every site is a circle on the map, and its size is determined by website traffic, the larger the amount of traffic, the bigger the circle. Users’ switching between websites forms links, and the stronger the link, the closer the websites tend to arrange themselves to each other.

Digital divide




See also Data, Open data, Semantic web

  • ACOTA (Automatic Collaborative Tagging). It is a Java-based library for suggesting tags in a collaborative and automatic way. It is based on the use of folksonomies to manage the tags and provide advanced services of automatic learning, reasoning, etc.

  • Open Archives Initiative - The Open Archives Initiative develops and promotes interoperability standards that aim to facilitate the efficient dissemination of content. OAI has its roots in the open access and institutional repository movements. Continued support of this work remains a cornerstone of the Open Archives program. Over time, however, the work of OAI has expanded to promote broad access to digital resources for eScholarship, eLearning, and eScience.

Data ownership


See Open web#Identity


  • trustnet |
  • - a complete trust system that can be incorporated as a ready-made software component for e.g. distributed ledger technologies, or in a traditional client-server model, and which provides real value for impacted users by way of automating decision-making and actions as a result of assigned trust scores.



See also Encrypted, Security







"All the top comments are just what people wrote about this on their google+ account. It's just like reading the "about" section over and over again."


Fake news


See also E-mail#Anti-spam



wget -e robots=off \
   --user-agent="Mozilla" \
   -pEHkKr 1 \
   --warc-file=/path/to/your/warc/file/without/warc/extension \





Archive Team

  • Archive Team is a loose collective of rogue archivists, programmers, writers and loudmouths dedicated to saving our digital heritage. Since 2009 this variant force of nature has caught wind of shutdowns, shutoffs, mergers, and plain old deletions - and done our best to save the history before it's lost forever. Along the way, we've gotten attention, resistance, press and discussion, but most importantly, we've gotten the message out: IT DOESN'T HAVE TO BE THIS WAY. This website is intended to be an offloading point and information depot for a number of archiving projects, all related to saving websites or data that is in danger of being lost. Besides serving as a hub for team-based pulling down and mirroring of data, this site will provide advice on managing your own data and rescuing it from the brink of destruction.

  • Archive Team Warrior - a virtual archiving appliance. You can run it to help with the ArchiveTeam archiving efforts. It will download sites and upload them to our archive — and it’s really easy to do! The warrior is a virtual machine, so there is no risk to your computer. The warrior will only use your bandwidth and some of your disk space. It will get tasks from and report progress to the Tracker.

WARC format

  • WARCreate - a Google Chrome extension that allows a user to create a Web ARChive (WARC) file from any browseable webpage. The resulting files can then be used with other tools like the Internet Archive's open source Wayback Machine. The tool is an evolving product with the end result pushing toward being a personal web archiving solution for those that wish to securely archive their metadata in a standardize way.

to sort

Plectrums, cut up store cards and plastic packaging work well as replacement spudgers.




See WordPress, Platforms




  • Syte is a really simple but powerful packaged personal site that has social integrations like Twitter, GitHub, Dribbble, Instagram, Foursquare, Tumblr, Wordpress,, SoundCloud, Bitbucket, StackOverflow, Flickr and Steam. svtle clone




See also Twitter

Social news

From group blogs to democratic aggregation.



later became mixed with the 'short-form' of social bookmarking





Hacker News



wget -O - | less



Hosted aggregation

See also Open social#Feeds / Activity

  • Managing News - a Drupal based robust news and data aggregation engine with pluggable visualization and workflow tools.

  • Telescope is an open-source social news app (think Hacker News or Reddit) built with Meteor, a real-time Javascript framework.

  • POSSE is an acronym/abbreviation for Publish (on your) Own Site, Syndicate Elsewhere. It's a Syndication Model where the flow involves posting your content on your own domain first, then syndicating out copies to 3rd party services with perma(short)links back to the original version.

POSSE lets your friends keep using whatever silo aggregator (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) they've been using to read your stuff.

  • Gregarius is a Web-based RSS/RDF/ATOM news aggregator featuring OPML import/export, XHTML/CSS output and an AJAX-based item tagging system

  • Postmill - a link aggregator that you can install on your own server. Tired of letting companies mine your data and make profit from your posts? This is a ready-to-use solution to bootstrap your community, including all the features that you've come to expect.

Social bookmarking

See also Organisation#Knowledge

And related information management. From just links, to snippets and citations with a multiformat tumblog/microblog format etc. Flows into newer social news.


See Comms#Metadata




  • - open source suite of software applications for social bookmarking and collecting online news content for use on the web. Multiple web front-ends exist based on Django (through Google AppEngine), Rails, and J2EE. Users and remote agents are allowed to submit interesting articles. There are additional remote agent libraries for back-end text mining operations. The system is broken up by the back-end specification and front-end specification.
  • Zotero - a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources.
  • - takes a list of website URLs you want to archive, and creates a local, static, browsable HTML clone of the content from those websites (it saves HTML, JS, media files, PDFs, images and more).You can use it to preserve access to websites you care about by storing them locally offline. ArchiveBox imports lists of URLs, renders the pages in a headless, autheticated, user-scriptable browser, and then archives the content in multiple redundant common formats (HTML, PDF, PNG, WARC) that will last long after the originals disappear off the internet. It automatically extracts assets and media from pages and saves them in easily-accessible folders, with out-of-the-box support for extracting git repositories, audio, video, subtitles, images, PDFs, and more.

  • - a simple bookmark service that you can host yourself. It supports managing bookmarks, categorizing them with tags and has a search function. It provides a bookmarklet for quickly adding new bookmarks while browsing the web. It also supports import / export of bookmarks in the Netscape HTML format. [50]



Second Life


Social services

See also Twitter, Facebook, Chat, Platforms

  • Topsy - Search and Analyze the Social Web.
  • hootsuite - social media dashboard to manage and measure your social networks
  • buffer - Be awesome on social media. Easily add great articles, pictures and videos to your Buffer and we automagically share them for you through the day!